Part of the book: Solar Cells
The minerals with unique properties such as natural clay minerals (NCMs) have promising approach in environmental and industrial sphere. In fact, under some specific conditions the NCMs could be used either as effective adsorbent material or alternative source of minerals. This chapter presents an outline of a general review of factors that affect the application ability of NCMs and a descriptive analysis of NH4+ and REE adsorption behavior and extraction of rare earth elements (REE) by an ion-exchange with NH4+ ions onto NCMs. Clays and NCMs both effectively remove various contaminants from aqueous solution and serve as alternative sources of minerals, as extensively discussed in this chapter. This review compiles thorough literature of current research and highlights the key findings of adsorption (NH4+ and REE) that use different NCMs as adsorbents or alternative sources of minerals (i.e., REE). The review confirmed that NCMs excellently remove different cations pollutants and have significant potential as alternative source of REE. However, modification and further development of NCMs applications for getting the best adsorption and the best extraction of REE onto NCMs, which would enhance pollution control and leaching system is still needed.
Part of the book: Minerals