Pulmonary complications, in the form of hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS), portopulmonary hypertension (PPH), and hepatic hydrothorax (HH), are rare occurrences in patients with portal hypertension and liver cirrhosis. These complications are associated with high morbidity and mortality. The only effective therapy is liver transplantation in patients who are suitable. In this chapter, each condition will be outlined in detail from clinical presentations to diagnosis and treatment as well as the challenges that clinicians may have encountered in managing patients with these complications.
Part of the book: Liver Cirrhosis