Part of the book: Toxicology Studies
The occurrence of pesticides in aquatic environments is registered worldwide, but few or no approaches have been used to summarize and integrate the data. In this work, 30 countries and 95 aquatic systems were taken into consideration, using the data collected in the past 17 years. Data were evaluated by continent, with a special focus on Europe, as the continent with the most information available. However, in terms of analyzed pesticides, the insecticides were the most common category of pesticides being applied in excess in several Asian countries. Moreover, priority pesticides settled for elimination were/are still present in almost all the continents, demonstrating that those compounds continue to be used. This leads to the existence of environmental mixtures containing both legal and illegal pesticides, which are able to affect different trophic levels, including humans. Thus, action plans like international discussions and pacts should exist to regulate the adequate usage of pesticides, and a continuous environmental monitoring should be enforced to understand potential toxicological risks promoted by these compounds. Further considerations, based on the Stockholm Convention list and European Directive 2013/39/EU as references, were used to evaluate the degree of contamination in the studied aquatic systems.
Part of the book: Estuary