Part of the book: CO2 Sequestration and Valorization
The natural capacity of the terrestrial landscape to capture and store carbon from the atmosphere can be used in cultivated systems to maximize the climate change mitigation potential of agricultural regions. A combination of inherent soil carbon storage potential, conservation management, and rhizosphere inputs should be considered when making landscape‐level decisions about agriculture if climate change mitigation is an important goal. However, the ability to accurately predict soil organic carbon accumulation following management change in the tropics is currently limited by the commonly available tools developed in more temperate systems, a gap that must be addressed locally in order to facilitate these types of landscape‐level decisions. Here, we use a case study in Hawaii to demonstrate multiple approaches to measuring and simulating soil carbon changes after the implementation of zero‐tillage cultivation of perennial grasses following more than a century of intensive sugarcane cultivation. We identify advancements needed to overcome the barriers to potential monitoring and projection protocols for soil carbon storage at our site and other similar sites.
Part of the book: Recent Advances in Carbon Capture and Storage
A process-based simulation model of natural grasslands and improved pastures can be used to compare mean productivity and stability of forage productivity across years, agroecological regions, and management approaches. Model simulations can help farmers develop management practices to optimize livestock stocking rates and nutrient management for native and improved grasses on different soils with varying rainfall amounts. Likewise, forages are adapted to a wide variety of soils, rainfall zones, and latitudes. The objective of this chapter is to describe the Agricultural Land Management Alternative with Numerical Assessment Criteria (ALMANAC) model that simulates a wide variety of environmental and management impacts on forage production, soil health, and conservation concerns, including nutrient and sediment losses. We describe the various processes simulated in the model and input data requirements. We also describe how to derive plant parameters for various forage plant species. The model has been applied to simulate forage yields across years and diverse environments in the U.S. and tested using published forage yield data from Natural Resources Conservation Service, United States Dept. of Agric. Many common native and introduced grasses or grass mixtures in the U.S. have been successfully simulated. We also describe and discuss knowledge gaps for the model that future research should address to improve this and similar simulation models.
Part of the book: Forage Groups