Part of the book: Hepatocellular Carcinoma
Part of the book: Approaches to Hysterectomy
Part of the book: Recent Advances in Liver Diseases and Surgery
Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) represents a challenge for the breast unit team, beginning from its difficult radiological detection and continuing with its controversial multimodal treatment and management. With the introduction of the mammographic screening, DCIS has become a common diagnosis. In fact, today DCIS is mostly identified by mammography or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The increased prevalence of DCIS diagnosis, in the past, raised the problem of the therapeutic management. In this chapter, the breast and axillary surgery in case of DCIS and the most controversial aspects regarding DCIS management are reviewed based on international guidelines and on the current literature.
Part of the book: Cancer Management and Therapy
Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women and its incidence experienced an important increase, thanks to the introduction of a systematic screening. The increased incidence of early breast cancer has led to debates on its over-treatment, which may cause unnecessary harm to patients with favorable prognosis. Therefore, modern research is in the quest of finding the perfect prognostic marker to avoid overtreatment in patients with a favorable prognosis. In this perspective, many molecular markers have been studied in the last decades in order to provide both a useful prognostic tool, able to determine whether the cancer is likely to be indolent or aggressive, and a possible therapeutic target. In this chapter, we review the current knowledge about the principal biomarkers, which are usually immunohistochemically tested on breast surgical specimens, including ER and PR, Mib1/Ki-67 and HER2/neu expression. Furthermore, we will analyze other possible prognostic markers which may have in the future a key role in breast cancer management, such as several multigene panels (OncotypeDX, Mammaprint, NanoString Prosigma). Finally, we will discuss the role of genetic tests for some know genetic mutations associated with higher breast cancer susceptibility (BRCA1 and 2 genes).
Part of the book: Biomarker