Nanotechnology is an enabling technology that potentially impacts all aspects of the chip-making practice from materials to devices, to circuits, and to system-level architecture. Nanoelectronics is an interdisciplinary division which refers to the use of nanotechnology in electronic components. The materials and devices used in nanoelectronics are so small that the interatomic interactions and quantum mechanical properties of such materials need to be studied extensively. Various electronic devices manufactured at nanoscale have been established: devices having negative differential resistance, switches which can be electrically configured, tunneling junctions, carbon nanotube (CNT) transistor, and unimolecular transistor. Some devices have also been linked together to form circuits proficient of performing functions such as logic functions and basic memory. Some of the widely used materials in nanoelectronics include zero-dimensional materials like quantum dots; one-dimensional materials like nanotubes and nanowires; nanoclusters and nanocomposites; carbon-based materials like carbon nanotubes (CNTs), fullerenes and graphene; etc. Plastic C nanoelectronics is also a prominent research area with collaboration between the materials science, chemistry, physics, nanotechnology, and engineering communities. As one of the most promising contenders, C nanostructures, either 2D graphene or quasi-1D CNTs, have unlocked entirely new standpoints concerning the C-based electronics. This chapter focuses on the approaches of nanotechnology toward nanoelectronics, materials used in nanoelectronics and the applications of nanoelectronics related to carbon-based materials in the field of thin-film transistors, printed electronics (PE), artificial skin and muscle, wearable electronics, flexible gas sensors, multifunctional and responsive elastomers, and plastic solar panels.
Part of the book: Nanoelectronics and Materials Development