Part of the book: Liver Biopsy
Colorectal cancer is among the most frequent malignant tumours. Liver metastases develop in 70–75% of patients affected by colorectal carcinoma. Nowadays, surgical treatment can significantly improve the 5-year survival ranging 40–58% of the patients undergoing liver surgery. The operation extent ranges from nonanatomic minor resection to major hepatectomy. Recently, liver transplantation has been performed for metastatic colorectal cancer. Laparoscopic approach and robotic surgery can be used by experienced specialists. The prerequisites for successful surgical treatment include exact radiologic diagnostics to determine the number and size of metastases and their association with anatomic structures; individual anatomic peculiarities and remnant liver volume, ranging 20–40% in respect to functional liver status. Magnetic resonance imaging is the most sensitive method that has marked advantages in the diagnostics of lesions smaller than 1 cm and metastases on the background of liver steatosis. Computed tomography is an acceptable alternative that benefits from high spatial resolution and optimal reconstructions to evaluate the anatomy. Additional information can be obtained from tumour markers, including traditional, e.g., carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and novel, e.g., microRNAs. To ensure that each colorectal cancer patient receives the best care, the medical society should be well informed about the possibilities in the treatment of liver metastases of colorectal cancer regarding the methods, indications and limits.
Part of the book: Recent Advances in Liver Diseases and Surgery
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma induces systemic inflammatory response (SIR), which can be assessed either by ratios between blood cell counts (neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio, NLR; platelet to lymphocyte ratio, PLR) or concentrations of acute phase proteins, clotting factors and albumins. These tests are biologically justified by multiple events including bone marrow activation, development of immune-suppressing immature myeloid cells, generation of pre-metastatic niches and neutrophil extracellular trap formation from externalised DNA network in bidirectional association with platelet activation. Despite biological complexity, clinical assessment of SIR is widely available, patient-friendly and economically feasible. In this chapter, we present a review on NLR, PLR, Glasgow prognostic score and fibrinogen, recently reported to have a prognostic role regarding overall survival, cancer/progression free and cancer-specific survival in early and advanced pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Practical consequences abound, including preference for surgical or combined, active or sparing treatment, as well as prediction of non-resectability or chemotherapy response. In this chapter, we also scrutinise the main controversies including different cut-off levels, hypothetic correlation with tumour burden and morphology, negative findings and discussions on the best marker. Future developments should include elaboration of complex scores as will be described here.
Part of the book: Advances in Pancreatic Cancer