Passive smoking, also known as environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) or second-hand smoke (SHS) represents the involuntary inhaling of tobacco released by others in the ambient air. Passive smoking exposure occurs in homes, workplaces, and in other public places such as bars, restaurants, and recreation venues. It consists of a complex mixture of mainstream smoke exhaled by smokers and the smoke given off by the combustion of tobacco products. Non-smokers, being exposed to the same toxic substances as identified in mainstream tobacco smoke are, therefore, at an increased risk for serious adverse health effects. Although attention has centered mainly on the harmful effects of SHS exposure in the pediatric population, epidemiologic data from the last 20 years showed increased risks on various respiratory pathologies of the adult. Inhaling SHS causes injury to the respiratory tract, resulting in a high prevalence of respiratory symptoms, asthma, impairment of lung function and increased bronchial responsiveness. In adults, passive smoking is also associated with an increased risk of lung cancer, especially in those with high exposure. On the basis of recent publications, we propose a review of history, biologic basis and effects on different respiratory pathologies of the exposure to SHS in adults.
Part of the book: Smoking Prevention and Cessation
Since chronic obstructive pulmonary disease COPD and obesity became global public health challenges, the nutritional status evaluation is more important. How malnutrition and obesity will impact COPD prognosis and treatment is relevant and we considered need a separate approach. The new adiposity based chronic disease concept explains the role played by adiposity, and important studies, like European Community Health Survey ECRHS are highlighting the correlation between adiposity and lung function decline. On the other side, malnutrition decreases effort capacity and impairs the strength of respiratory muscles. Foods, nutrients and dietary patterns are influencing COPD prognosis and Mediterranean Diet, integrated in a healthy lifestyle should be part of COPD management. The important benefic role played by fibers, whole grains, combined with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of fruits and vegetables, together with poly-unsaturated fatty acids PUFA, fish, vitamins and minerals, is detailed below, in contrast with the detrimental role of Western Diet. A multidisciplinary approach in COPD should be considered, integrating lifestyle interventions as important tools in COPD management.
Part of the book: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease