Part of the book: Viral Hepatitis
Part of the book: Liver Biopsy
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains a major health problem worldwide and a major risk factor for end-stage liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma. Notable differences of chronic hepatitis B prevalence were observed in geographic area. In highly endemic areas, at least 50 % of HBV infections are most commonly acquired either perinatally or in early childhood, during the first 5 years of life. The prevalence of chronic HBV infection in pregnant women is expected to mirror those in the general populations of each geographic area. Chronic hepatitis B during pregnancy is associated with high risk of maternal complications and an increased risk of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT). Thus, chronic hepatitis B during pregnancy can now be considered an important contributor to new HBV infections and to the global burden of disease. As a result, HBV infection during pregnancy requires management strategies for both the mother and the fetus/neonate, including prevention/elimination of MTCT and lessening the HBV effects on maternal and fetal health. This chapter will review current management strategies for hepatitis B in the pregnancy and the postpartum period, including special considerations on the effects of pregnancy on the course of HBV infection, MTCT, and antiviral therapy during the pregnancy.
Part of the book: Advances in Treatment of Hepatitis C and B