The most significant feature of nonwoven fabric is made directly from fibers in a continuous production line. While manufacturing nonwovens, some conventional textile operations, such as carding, drawing, roving, spinning, weaving or knitting, are partially or completely eliminated. For this reason the choice of fiber is very important for nonwoven manufacturers. The commonly used fibers include natural fibers (cotton, jute, flax, wool), synthetic fibers (polyester (PES), polypropylene (PP), polyamide, rayon), special fibers (glass, carbon, nanofiber, bi-component, superabsorbent fibers). Raw materials have not only delivered significant product improvements but also benefited people using these products by providing hygiene and comfort.
Part of the book: Non-woven Fabrics
Textile-reinforced concrete (TRC) is a new innovative construction material that leads to light-weight and cost-effective construction. TRC consists of a finely grained cement-based matrix and high-performance, continuous multifilament yarns made of alkali-resistant glass, carbon, or polymer. Using these fibers provides superior mechanical properties and corrosion resistance in comparison with ferroconcrete. The application of epoxy resin coating to the textile materials improves the utilization of mechanical performance and handling properties as well. In recent years, researchers have studied alternative methods because coating process is very detailed and epoxy resin is of high cost. The experimental part of this chapter focuses on the experimental investigation carried out on high-strength concrete reinforced with hybrid yarns. Braiding technology was used to manufacture hybrid yarn from alkali-resistant glass fiber (ARG) and polypropylene (PP) filament. Next step, thermoplastic part of braided yarn was melted on press heating. Finally, TRC was produced from ARG, coated ARG, carbon fiber, coated carbon fiber, and heated hybrid yarns. Although the contribution of the heated hybrid yarn is limited, it is expected that the desired results will be obtained by changes in braiding yarn production and yarn composition ratios.
Part of the book: Textiles for Advanced Applications
Elastic core-spun yarns which is used as weft yarn for textile fabrics gained great importance in the last decade its due to the fact that stretch and recovery, comfort fits and flexibility properties. The technological progress made the dual core-spun yarn production possible. The dual core-spun yarns are composed of filament that contributes durability and polyurethane based elastane that provides stretchability to the fabrics. Hereby, both filament and elastane characteristics have great influence on denim performance at the same time. The main purpose of this study is to achieve the effect of filament fineness and elastane draft on denim fabric performance such as breaking force, breaking elongation, tear force, vertical elastic recovery, moisture management that is wicking rate and water absorption properties. Meanwhile, filament core-spun yarns with different filament fineness and 100% cotton yarn were also used as weft of the denims in order to investigate the differences statistically. It was found that that filament fineness and elastane draft had statistically significant effect on all inspected performances of denim fabrics except water absorption.
Part of the book: Engineered Fabrics
Multilayer or multicomponent composite nonwoven structures provide great advantages for many technical applications. Spunbond-meltblown-spunbond (SMS) type multilayer nonwovens have significant commercial success in terms of end-use versatility. SMS type composite nonwovens, which can be produced with both continuous and discontinuous production technologies, are evolving day by day. Bulky, fibrous, porous nonwoven structures are widely used as sound absorbers for a variety of applications for instant building and automotive insulations, machine insulations, etc. The fibers interlocking in nonwovens are the frictional elements and provide resistance to acoustic wave motion. As many researchers reported, the most effective factors on sound absorption properties of fibrous materials are fiber diameter, airflow resistance, material thickness, tortuosity, porosity, and fiber surface area. In this research chapter, the sound absorption performance of SMS type composite nonwovens in relation to air permeability and pore sizes has been determined. The results show that SMS type nonwovens perform sound insulation at high frequencies. Spunmelt nonwovens with the advantages of short production line will create various alternatives with varieties of layering and compete with commercially used other sound absorbers.
Part of the book: Engineered Fabrics