Immunotherapy has advantages including few side effects and low probability of abuse by patients. Recently, functional materials with immunomodulatory functions, which act through reduction of free radicals, have been developed for cancer and anti-inflammatory therapy. However, the therapeutic application of natural functional materials involves a complex mechanism along with various organic factors. These substances, including polysaccharides and triterpenoids, have immunomodulatory effects. However, to our knowledge, the mechanism underlying the action of such substances in the physiological immunity of animals remains unclear. Immune cells, particularly macrophages, are crucial in the modulation of immune response. Macrophages polarise into two types, namely, M1 and M2, from the M0 form, based on the physiological microenvironment factors. M1 macrophages have functions in pathogen elimination through phagocytosis, oxidative damage, and complement system activation. M2 macrophages are involved in tissue recovery and tumour tissues containing ample M2 macrophages that release growth factors, which promote angiogenesis. In this study, we focus on the immunomodulation of the macrophage to further understand the effects of the physiological microenvironment factors on macrophage polarisation.
Part of the book: Cells of the Immune System
Aquaculture continues to be the fastest-growing food production field that has a lot of potential to meet the aqua-protein needs. The scientific and business communities are responding to the many challenges and opportunities inherent in the growing aquaculture field. Advancements in production and detection of harmful material systems and technologies are contributing to aquaculture industry’s expansion and sustainability. All of these production system technologies are benefitting from expanding information and communication systems, which are enabling advances in every stage of production. In the future, the new farming operation of friendly environment will focus on the use of nonecology destructive substances, no antibiotics, and the natural probiotics or novel immunomodulatory substances to match the physiological regulation of cultured organisms and the management of aquaculture. The future scientific-based innovation will contribute toward meeting increasing food demands, while improving social, environmental, and financial sustainability of the global aquaculture industry.
β-Glucan and triterpenes are two important derivative compounds from traditional medicinal mushroom, such as Ganoderma lucidum and Antrodia cinnamomea. β-glucan and triterpenes are considered to have immunoregulatory properties in disease treatment for long years. The immunoregulatory effects are usually activated through some transcription of pro-inflammatory genes and possess immunomodulatory activity. Difficulty in healing wound now is a common condition that occurred in diabetic patients, and the physiological hyperglycemic status of diabetic patients resulting in the wounds continue to produce an inflammatory response. Thus, we hope to use β-glucan and triterpenes for difficult wound healing that possess immunomodulatory activity on the wound micro-environment and stimulate the positive effects on healing. In this chapter, these two important derivative compounds from traditional medicinal mushroom were examined by diabetic mammal’s wound healing models. In these models, the skin wounds’ microenvironment is expected close to diabetic foot, suffering in hyperglycemic and inflammatory status. The results are clearly presented, with the immunomodulatory effects from mushroom β-glucan and triterpenes that involved in modulating the cell-mediated immune system to cause cellular proliferation and further to introduce healing performance of the chronic inflammation wounds.
Part of the book: The Eye and Foot in Diabetes