Part of the book: Novel Approaches and Their Applications in Risk Assessment
This study describes the development of life cycle inventory (LCI) to rare earth elements (REEs) based on the secondary sources, conducted according to ISO 14040 (2006) guidelines. Monte Carlo (MC) simulation with the Crystal Ball (CB) spreadsheet-based software was employed to stochastic modeling of life cycle inventory. The number of simulations was set at 10,000. The study scope considered LCI associated with REE concentrate production from New Kankberg (Sweden) gold mine tailings production (input gate) to the final delivery of rare earth elements (end gate) to reprocessing/beneficiation for rare earth element recovery. For the presented case, lognormal distribution has been assigned to scandium (Sc), dysprosium (Dy), yttrium (Y), lanthanum (La), cerium (Ce), praseodymium (Pr), neodymium (Nd), samarium (Sm), europium (Eu), gadolinium (Gd), holmium (Ho), erbium (Er), terbium (Tb), thulium (Tm), ytterbium (Yb), and lutetium (Lu). The MC simulation (10,000 trials) for the sum of analyzed REEs used for CB is presented in the form of statistics. Sensitivity analysis (SA) presented in the form of tornado charts and spider charts was performed. The results from this study suggest that uncertainty analysis is a powerful tool that should support and aid decision-making and is more trusted than the deterministic approach.
Part of the book: Lanthanides
The purpose of this study is to perform the life cycle assessment (LCA) limited to life cycle inventory (LCI) related to municipal solid waste operating in Kosodrza, community of Ostrów, in Poland. The current LCI is a representative for year 2015 by application of PN-EN ISO 14040. The system boundary was labeled as gate-to-gate. The data used in this study, involving consumption of energy and fuels, water, materials, and waste, is obtained from (i) site-specific measured or calculated data and (ii) secondary data taken from integrated permit issued by Marshal of the Podkarpackie region in Rzeszów for the establishment of municipal services in Ostrów by entering the records concerning the waste landfill in Kosodrza. This study is based on the deterministic approach to LCI. Hence, uncertainty analysis is not carried out. The LCI model can be used in full LCA study.
Part of the book: Municipal Solid Waste Management
The thermal waste treatment plant (TWTP) in Kraków (eco-incinerator) was created as a response to the energy and ecological needs of Kraków as part of the project “Municipal Waste Management Program in Krakow.” The TWTP is able to process 220,000 tons of municipal waste during the year. Estimated values of the 65,000 MWh of electricity and 280,000 MWh of heat are produced as a result of the waste combustion. The energy obtained by way of the thermal transformation process is largely organic and renewable. The TWTP is equipped with a state-of-the-art exhaust purification system that meets strict emission standards for air. The emission standards will meet the requirements the Ordinance of the Minister of the Environment of November 4, 2014 on emission standards for certain types of installations, sources of fuel combustion and devices for incineration or co-incineration of waste (Journal of Laws of 2014, item 1546, including further amendments). The cleaning process takes place in the exhaust aftertreatment process and is based on the following steps: (i) denitrification of exhaust gases, (ii) flue gas cleaning by means of a semi-dry method and (iii) dust extraction. As the project’s general contractor was POSCO E&C from South Korea.
Part of the book: Innovation in Global Green Technologies 2020