Electrodeposition is a low-cost and low-temperature method for producing metal matrix composite coatings. The electrodeposition of Ni matrix/Ni-Cr-B particles is considered as the co-deposition of Ni-Cr-B particles in a Ni matrix, resulting in nanocomposite coatings that can offer good wear and corrosion resistance between other applications. For comparison, the electrodeposition of Ni films and their wear and corrosion evaluation were also carried out under the same conditions. Some coatings usually contain oxide or carbide particles in micrometer size and are electrodeposited in a nickel matrix; however, the use of the mechanical alloying process offers the possibility to reduce the particle size in the order of nanometers obtaining solid solutions, amorphous phases, or intermetallic compounds during the development of new alloys to be co-deposited, improving the engineering materials properties. This kind of nanocomposite can be used in industrial components with an irregular geometry exposed in aggressive environments such as the energy generation and oil industry.
Part of the book: New Technologies in Protective Coatings
Soluble extract from Opuntia ficus-indica (Nopal extract) has been proposed in this chapter as a green inhibitor due to its component called mucilage, which has the ability to retain water; for this reason, it has been used as metal corrosion protection in machinery pieces, tools and other metallic components that need to be stored for short periods. In this way, three industrial carbon steels (AISI 1018, 1045 and 4140) have been exposed in sulfuric acid (H2SO4) to evaluate the corrosion behavior with or without Nopal extract (NE). Some electrochemical techniques have been implemented to evaluate the corrosion inhibition efficiency (IE) such as DC linear polarization resistance (LPR) and AC electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Results indicated a considerable superficial modification of steel in terms of dielectric constant and ion charge capacity. When the NE was added, the corrosion mechanism changed from localized to general attack, decreasing the corrosion rate in all cases. More susceptibility to fail by corrosion was observed in the 1045 carbon steel in comparison with the other two studied steels; these results were confirmed by the percentage of inhibitor’s efficiency of about 95%.
Part of the book: Corrosion Inhibitors, Principles and Recent Applications
Combination of good oxidation resistance, thermal stability, hardness and high strength are great interest properties in engineering and, that are possible to obtain with the Ni-Ti-B ternary system. Mechanical alloying (MA) is an alternative method and cheapest for the synthesis of this kind of metal-ceramic materials with respect to the traditional melt and quench process. The transformation sequence of all the mixtures reported the formation of (ɣ Ni) phase with a nodular morphology and identified the additional presence of the TiB2 phase (needle morphology), which was more evident with the increase of titanium content (M2 and M3 mixtures) after 24 h of milling. Thermal activation of the milled powders showed the nucleation and growth of the Ni3B (O boride) and TiB2 (Hex) as the main phases after heat treatment, where the TiB2 phase (thin flakes morphology) was nucleated onto Ni3B matrix. Ternary alloy by MA took place under a metastable equilibrium, offering the possibility to form glassy alloys for compositions, which are not accessible by melting or quenching techniques.
Part of the book: Novel Nanomaterials
AC impedance measurements have been applied for over twenty years in electrochemistry and physics to investigate the electrical properties of conductive materials and their interfaces using an external electrical impulse (VOLTAGE, V or CURRENT, I) as driving force. Furthermore, its application has recently appeared to be destined in the Biotechnology field as an effective tool for rapid microbiologic diagnosis of living organism in situ. However, there is no doubt that the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) is still one of the most useful techniques around the world for metal corrosion control and its monitoring. Corrosion has long been recognized as one of the most expensive stumbling blocks that concern many industries and government agencies, because it is a steel destructive phenomenon that occurs due to the chemical interaction with aqueous environments and takes place at the interface between metal and electrolyte producing an electrical charge transfer or ion diffusion process. Consequently, it is experimentally possible to determine through the EIS technique the mechanism and control that kinectics of corrosion reactions encounter. First, EIS data is collected through a potentiostat/galvanostat apparatus. After, it is fitted to a mathematical model (i.e. an equivalent electrical circuit, EEC) for its interpretation and analysis, fundamentally seeking a meaningful physical interpretation. Finally, this review reports some basic aspects of the corrosion mechanism applied to steels through the experimental EIS response using Nyquist or Bode plots. Examples are given for different applied electrochemical impedance cases in which steel is under study intentionally exposed to a corrosive aqueous solution by applying a sinusoidal potential at various test conditions.
Part of the book: Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy