Several studies have examined sex differences in different anxiety disorders. Females are repeatedly found to be more likely than males to suffer from anxiety in general and to be diagnosed with most anxiety disorders, including agoraphobia (AG), panic disorder (PD), separation anxiety (SA), specific phobia (SP), social anxiety disorder (SAD), generalised anxiety disorder (GAD), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and acute and posttraumatic stress disorder (ASD and PTSD), although the latter three are technically no longer categorised as anxiety disorders according to DSM-5. This chapter provides an overview of research on sex and gender differences in anxiety disorders ranging from the well-established female preponderance in prevalence and severity to possible sex differences in the risk and protective factors associated with anxiety, sex differences in the clinical presentation of anxiety disorders, and potential sex differences in the effectiveness of different treatments. The chapter contains suggestions for future research, including important questions that remain to be answered.
Part of the book: A Fresh Look at Anxiety Disorders