Part of the book: Portal Hypertension
The physiological response initiates with activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, the autonomic nervous, and the immune systems. All actions promoted cellular adaptive changes in cells and tissues that protect the body and promote their survival. Diverse protocols of maternal separation (MS) in rodents presented alterations in central nervous system (CNS) such as learning disabilities, voluntary alcohol intake, and neurochemical changes. It is believed that the properties of these early life procedures are mediated by the high plasticity of the developing CNS. During critical development stage, brain regions, mainly those related to aggressive conditions, can have advancement abnormalities occasionally irreversible and thus adjust emotional processing when they grow to be adults. Early postnatal period and relationship between mother and infant are essential of normal stress response and emotional behavior. Probably, it involves the activation of intracellular signaling pathways, genome adaptations, adjusts in gene expression, and neural action. The objective of this article is to provide an overview of the current state of knowledge in the field focused on the maternal separation model, early life experience of postnatal stress, and the involvement of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate transporters.
Part of the book: GABA And Glutamate