Conflicts of Interest Policy

As an Open Access publisher, IntechOpen is dedicated to maintaining the highest ethical standards and principles in science publishing. IntechOpen promotes the highest standards of integrity and ethical behavior in scientific research and peer-review. To uphold these principles IntechOpen has implemented basic guidelines for avoiding possible conflicts of interest. In each instance of a possible conflict of interest IntechOpen aims to transparently disclose it in order to allow the readers to judge whether a particular conflict of interest had influenced an author's, editor's, or a reviewer's work. IntechOpen takes all possible conflicts of interest into account during the review process and ensures maximum transparency.

A conflict of interest is a situation in which a person's professional judgment may be influenced by different factors such as financial gain, material interest or some other personal or professional interest. For IntechOpen as a publisher, it is important to avoid all possible conflicts of interest. Each contributor — author, editor, or reviewer — who suspects he or she has a conflict of interest is obliged to declare it in order to make the publisher and the readership aware of its possible influence. A conflict of interest can be identified in different phases of the publishing process.

Therefore, IntechOpen requires:

  • authors to declare all relevant conflicts of interest that might have any bearing on research reported in their submitted manuscript.
  • book editors and reviewers to declare all possible conflicts of interest that might warrant their exclusion from further handling of submissions.


All authors are obliged to declare every existing or possible conflict of interest, including financial, personal or any other relationship which could influence their scientific work. Authors must declare conflicts of interest at the time of manuscript submission, although they may exceptionally do so at any point during manuscript review. For jointly prepared manuscripts, the corresponding author is obliged to declare conflicts of interest of other authors who have contributed to the manuscript.


Editors can also have conflicts of interest. Editors are expected to follow highest standards of conduct outlined in our Best Practice Guidelines for books (templates for Best Practice Guidelines) which, among other obligations, include transparent declaration of any possible conflicts of interest that they might have.

Avoidance of academic editor's conflict of interest:

For manuscripts submitted by the academic editor or a scientific advisor, an appropriate person will be appointed to handle and evaluate the manuscript. The appointed handling editor's identity will not be disclosed to the submitter in order to maintain impartiality and anonymity of the review.

If a manuscript is submitted by an author who is an academic editor's family member or is personally or professionally related to the academic editor in any way (friend, colleague, student, mentor) the work will be handled by a different academic editor who is not in any way related to the submitter.


All reviewers are required to declare possible conflicts of interest at the beginning of the evaluation process. If a reviewer notices he or she might have any material, financial or any other conflict of interest with regards to the manuscript being reviewed, he or she is required to declare it and, if necessary, request exclusion from the further evaluation process. Reviewer's potential conflicts of interest are declared in the review report and presented to the academic editor. It is then assessed whether or not the declared conflicts of interest had any significant bearing on the review itself.



  • ownership of stocks or shares;
  • past and present work or consulting work for the research funder;
  • membership in the board;
  • received financial fees;
  • received gifts;
  • other direct or indirect sources of funding or material benefit.


  • professional or personal relationships with institutions and funding bodies including non-governmental organizations, research institutions and charities;
  • membership in company boards or governmental organizations;
  • personal relationships (friendship, marriage, mentor, student, family relationships) with other contributors (authors, reviewers, academic editors)

Authors are required to declare all potentially relevant non-financial, financial and material conflicts of interest that may have had an influence on their scientific work.

Academic editors and reviewers are required to declare any non-financial, financial and material conflicts of interest that could influence their fair and balanced evaluation of manuscripts. If such conflict exists with regards to a submitted manuscript, academic editors and reviewers should exclude themselves from handling it.

All contributors (authors, academic editors, and reviewers) are required to declare all possible financial and material conflicts of interest in last five years, although older relevant conflicts of interest should be declared too.

For example:

Authors should declare if they were or they still are academic editors of the publications in which they want to publish their work.

Authors should declare if they are board members of an organization that could benefit financially or materially from the publication of their work.

Academic editors should declare if they were coauthors or they have worked on the research project with the author who submitted a manuscript.

Academic editors should declare if the author of a submitted manuscript is affiliated with the same department, faculty, institute, or company as they are.

Policy last updated: 2016-06-09