Open access peer-reviewed chapter - ONLINE FIRST

The Light-Up of Dark Bali Tourism: A Qualitative Study

By I. Putu Astawa, Tjokorda Gde Raka Sukawati and I. Nyoman Gede Sugiartha

Submitted: June 3rd 2020Reviewed: July 15th 2020Published: October 12th 2020

DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.93389

Downloaded: 17

Abstract

Tourism world currently stumbles due to Corona virus case that limits all human activities including those related to traveling. Various efforts in every country have been conducted to rebuild tourism to the normal condition; however, each country has its own obstacles. This study aims to create a strategic model in developing tourism based on cultural values or local wisdom to rebuild tourism passion to support economy. This study is a qualitative study using cultural approaches with ethnomethodology tools. Data are collected through in-depth interview with tourism actors: government and communities represented by traditional village leaders. The qualitative results indicate that cultural values summarized in a harmonization concept—harmony with God, harmony with fellow human being, and harmony with environment—become a model core that influences human behavior in developing tourism, namely: natural tourism, cultural tourism, spiritual tourism, culinary tourism, conference tourism, and so on. Traditional villages become the second pillar in developing tourism and it supports by local government. Another finding is that Bali will conduct a shift in tourism from cultural-based tourism to those that give more emphasis on natural tourism based on cultural and religious values as a promoter. The strategy will support health protocol related to physical distancing between tourists.

Keywords

  • Bali tourism
  • local wisdom
  • strategy
  • light up

1. Introduction

The world has recognized the impact of tourism on global economic. It is proven by a report by World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) explains that foreign tourism development that has been submitted to UNWTO World Tourism Barometer data in January 2019 indicates that international tourists have grown by 6% in 2018 and the UNWTO estimates 1.4 billion will be achieved in 2020 considering stronger economic growth, affordable flight, technology development, new business models and broader visa facilitation in the whole world that accelerates tourism growth for the last few years [1].

This expectation, however, crushes due to corona virus (Covid-19) pandemic that creates disturbance in global tourism. The newest report from the UNWTO explains that travel restrictions cause deterioration in tourism activities [2, 3].

Based on the report, almost all global destinations enact a travel restriction since January 2020. A full restriction of traveling also applies as an effort to surmount the pandemic. According to a research in April 6, 96 percent destinations in the whole world apply travel restrictions. There are 90 destinations that completely or partially close the border for tourists, whereas other 44 destinations are closed for specific tourists depending on their country of origin.

The increasingly threatened tourism sector causes the UNWTO to urge the governments to review the travel restrictions. If it is considered as safe, then the travel restrictions are immediately lifted.

The UNWTO global review suggests that global areas are mostly consistent in encountering the Covid-19 pandemic. Africa, Asia Pacific and Middle East, based on accumulation, have set restriction in almost 100% destinations regarding the Covid-19 since January 2020. In America, 92 percent destinations have taken the same measure as well as Europe of 93 percent per April 6 data.

Results of an observation indicate that there are four things regarding the restriction measure. First, full or partial border closure for tourists. Second, specific-purpose travel restrictions, such as transit passengers or passengers who are already in a certain location but are not permitted to enter. Third, full or partial flight delay. Fourth, various different measures including requirement for quarantine or self-isolation, medical certificates, visa issuance cancelation or delay. The tourism delay threats the sector since millions of jobs could vanish. Progress made in sustainable economic equality and growth could be canceled.

Indonesia is one of countries that has an income source from tourism foreign exchange. Bali tourism destinations contribute 55.6% of the foreign exchange source. Bali Island relies on income source from tourism to support the regional development. Based on National Bureau of Statistics record in 2019, tourism foreign exchange contribution was 9.346 million USD. Countries that provide the biggest contribution to Bali include Australia 23%, China 16%, United Kingdom 6%, USA 5%, and India 5% [4]. Due to Covid-19 Bali experiences a decline in the number of tourist arrival in the first quarter of 2020 of 42.3% and the decline is estimated to be sharper in the second quarter [3].

The tourism sector performance decline during Covid-19 must be ended. The tourism sector should rise to prevent further problems. This will trigger some questions: how Bali to rise from this darkness to become bright again? Would Bali be able to adapt to the new life order (new normal) by considering cleanliness, health, and safety factors and one of them is minimizing physical contact (contactless) in all business processes of the tourism industry.

Based on several studies, a strategy is needed to resurrect the slumped destinations to keep their competitiveness by using their own internal abilities [5]. This resource-based view is a view that applies basic competitive advantages where the main thing lies in a set of tangible and intangible assets owned by a destination. The theory describes the destination abilities to provide sustainable competitive advantages when resources are managed in such a way that the results will be hard to imitate or create by competitors and in the end it will create competition barriers [6].

The resource-based theory that is rooted from Penrose’s [7] economic theory and strategic theory of Ansoff [7] and Selznick [7] states that competitive advantages in a long term depend on: (1) resources and (2) core competences. It is this resource that differentiates a destination to the competitors. It is durable, hard to imitate, and irreplaceable [8, 9]. Each destination has its own uniqueness that comes from its resource characteristics and abilities, knowledge, and expertise in using the resources make its competitive advantages more durable since resources are relatively fixed in nature [4]. Resources are basically could be classified into two categories, namely: (1) tangible resources and (2) intangible resources. The tangible resources are inputs in the destinations that visible, touchable, and countable. These resources consist of eco-tourism, agro-tourism, alternative tourism, rural tourism, and marine tourism. The intangible resources include factors such as cultural tourism, spiritual, and destination reputation [10]. The most important thing in understanding the intangible resource definition as a tool to develop competitive advantages is the creation of harmonious atmosphere that full of peace between human or community, government, and nature that is based on local wisdom values as a guiding philosophy of a tourism area. Peaceful atmosphere is not the same for each competing destination. The atmosphere could only be felt but invisible. Destinations that could provide a safe, tranquility, and peace feeling will be able to continuously arouse motivation and new ideas beneficial for competitiveness improvement. As stated by [11], intangible resources are harder to imitate and understand than tangible resources.

Grant [8] divides resource groups important for competitive advantages into six groups, namely: physical, technology, finance, human, organization, and reputation. The resource-based theory, however, does not consider all resources owned instead it focuses only on important or strategic resources as a base for its competitive advantage model. Some studies [12, 13] have tried to test resources’ strategic level to destination abilities to create sustainable competitive advantages. The test includes: (1) competing superiority test that evaluates whether the destinations’ certain specific resources provide contribution to differences between the destination and competitors. (2) Impersonation test that analyzes difficulty level of potential and actual competitors in impersonating resources due to, for example, its physical uniqueness, natural beauty, employees’ friendliness, harmony of relationship between people and the nature, human and God, convenience, and religious atmosphere that provides peace and tranquility vibrations. (3) Duration test that analyzes whether the current unique resource benefits provide positive contribution to long term competitive advantages. (4) Accuracy test assesses whether companies that have the resources could utilize their competitive advantages in the market. (5) Substitution ability test analyzes how difficult it is for the competitors to replace resources with other alternatives that able to provide the same advantages.

The fundamental principle of competitive advantages of the resource-based theory is ability improvement of a developed area to act, form, and transform its environment; hence, the main goal is no longer to adapt to the environmental strengths, but to select strategies that allow the best utilization of its resource combination and main competences toward external potential [14]. The competitive advantages that are bigger than the resource-based model occur due to the existence of main competences. Main competences, according Hollensen [14], could be explained from its three characteristics, namely: (1) competence due to a set of unique resources, (2) learning, a competence results in from the accumulation of years of experiences in various fields where the destination dominates it, (3) multiplier effect, a competence that spread to all destination elements in its several product lines or strategic business units. Core competence as clearly stated by Prahalad and Hamel [15] has 3 (three) properties, namely: (1) it creates contribution to consumer values felt, (2) it is difficult for competitor to imitate, and (3) it could be elevated to various broader markets.

Johnson, Allison, Stewart, David [16] classify core competences into 2 (two) broader categories, namely: (1) personal competences, and (2) organizational competences. The personal competences owned by each individual include the following characteristics: knowledge, expertise, abilities, experiences, and personalities. The organizational competences are process and structures that are embedded and tend to stay in the organization although a competence individual leaves the organization. The two competence categories are not always independent of each other but they synergize in the organizational environment. Collection of individual competences could form a more effective way to do something in an organization and are capable of establishing a company culture that attached and embedded within the organization. In addition, company competences could determine type of personal competence most suitable to organization. According to [14] another approach model that is also interesting as a business model for competitive advantage strategy is a Market Orientation View (MOV) model or known as a fit model. The MOV strategic model suggests a company to develop competitive advantages by adjusting its assets to constraints in an environment where the company operates to obtain suitability with its environment.

Kohli and Jaworski [17] opine that a market orientation view is basically an adjustment to market environment. This market orientation model is more understandable as a culture instead of a collection of supporting behaviors and values [18]. The market orientation view (MOV) is understood as a culture with all employees are bound to the creation of superior values for consumers continuously [19]. The MOV model main weakness is that different consumers from different countries could be a very expensive business model. It means that a company could obtain satisfied consumers, but it involves high operational costs to create customer values.

Other important factors that become a fundamental principle for sustainable competitive advantages in globalization era include organizational culture and design. According to Schein [20], culture is an abstraction; however, power produced in social and organizational situation that comes from the cultural factor will strongly attach. If we do not understand the power operation, we will be its victim. The cultural power becomes very strong since it operates beyond our consciousness. When many leaders and executive managers of a destination talk about the development of “appropriate type of culture”, “quality culture”, and “customer service culture” it signifies the importance of culture to be applied and conducted with certain values that they want to implement. In other words, culture have an important implication on the effectiveness of organizational performance. The stronger the culture influence in an organization the more effective the organization to achieve its goals; thus, an increase in market competitiveness.

Several empirical studies such as one conducted by Wilderom et al., [21] supports a view that a strong culture has a significant influence on organizational effectiveness. A certain cultural value dimension is closely related to economic performance. Some cross-cultural organizational studies as those conducted by Hofstede [22] indicate that culture has an effect in determining an organizational effectiveness thus it encourages the creation of better organizational design. As a consequence, it makes global companies to be superior in competition. Next, Hofstede explains 5 (five) cultural value dimensions in a global organization that create differences between countries in the world. The dimensions include:

  • Individualism versus Collectivism: The dimension refers to the degree of culture that will encourage people’s tendency to pay attention on their selves and their close relatives or people who are within their groups and considered as defending their members as a form of loyalty.

  • Power Distance: The dimension refers to the degree of culture that encourages less powerful group members to accept that powers are distributed unevenly.

  • Uncertainty Avoidance: The dimension refers to level of people who are threatened by unknown and uncertain situations and have developed a belief, principle or ritual to avoid it.

  • Masculinity versus Femininity: The dimension is illustrated in two milestones, one milestone by success, money, and objects and the other milestone by attention to other person and life quality. The dimension refers to emotional role distribution between man and woman.

  • Long versus Short Term Orientation: The dimension refers to the degree of culture that triggers gratification of material, social, and emotional needs between the members.

Further cultural value study by Hofstede adds cultural value elements developed in Asian people that relate to time orientation, namely: between short term versus long term orientation. The cross-country cultural dimensions influence management methods in designing organization that more suitable to its competitive environment and affect ways of company managers and executives in formulating business models and operating its business. The development of Hofstede’s cultural value study is further conducted by [23] as part of a research project of Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness (GLOBE). The study adds cultural dimension between human orientations versus performance orientation. Further cross-cultural study is conducted by [24] based on a research to managers in 23 countries that adds national cultural dimension, namely: (1) universal versus specific, (2) individualism versus collectivism, (3) introvert versus emotion, (4) public space versus personal space, and (5) achievement versus ascription. Cultural dimensions affect organizational design and effectiveness. Organizational culture forms from the behavior of employees, leaders, and the surrounding communities. Cultural values developed could be used as an organizational cultural power. The most relevant cultural dimensions for an organization or destination to achieve superior effectiveness and performance will depend on local wisdom cultural values. Destination design that includes structures, functions, and strategies will be adjusted to cultural and environmental conditions where the destination operates. Therefore, this study focuses on the creation of a tourism development strategic model based on Balinese cultural values or local wisdom in a new normal condition that includes health protocol of CHS (cleanliness, health, and safety). Approaches used in the study consist of qualitative approach with ethnomethodology [25] to explore culture implemented by traditional villages. There are 1493 traditional villages in Bali that led by a traditional leader known as Bendesa Adat. The traditional leaders are an informant target to explore information through an in-depth interview and the results will be used to create a model of tourism recovery strategy. Replace the entirety of this text with the introduction to your chapter. The introduction section should provide a context for your manuscript and should be numbered as first heading. When preparing the introduction, please bear in mind that some readers will not be experts in your field of research.

2. Theoretical study

2.1 Bali tourism

Bali Island is one of popular islands in the world based on a research result by Travel from Jerman Tourlane in April 8, 2020 [2]. The island carries cultural tourism that attracts tourists. Number of tourist visits in January—April 2019 is 1.819.664. Detail on the number of foreign tourists visiting Bali in 2019 is presented in Table 1.

NoCountryTotal
1Australia222,359
2Hong Kong117,074
3India67,363
4Russia56,563
5Japan48,143
6USA46,275
7England46,509
8South Korea42,487
9Malaysia30,924
10French29,307
11Other343,206

Table 1.

Total foreign tourists in Bali in 2019.

The condition is different in 2020 where foreign tourists directly arrive on Bali Island in April 2020 is 327 visits. The tourist arrival through I Gusti Ngurah Rai airport is 273 visits and through the seaports is 54 visits. The number of foreign tourists declines by −99.79 percent compared to March 2020 (m to m). Compared to April 2019 (y on y), the number declines by −99.93 percent. The big five of tourists visiting Bali in April 2020 consist of domestic tourist (16.21 percent), Philippines (16.21 percent), China (12.23 percent), India (10.40 percent), and Russia (8.56 percent) [4].

Star hotel room occupancy rate in April 2020 is 3.22 percent, a decline of −22.19 percent compared to previous mount (m to m) at 25.41 percent. Compared to April 2019 (y on y) that achieves 60.33 percent, the room occupancy rate in April 2020 declines by −57.11 point. Average length of stay of foreign and domestic guests at the star hotels in Bali in April 2020 is 2.49 days, a decline of −0.31 point compared to those in March 2020 (m to m) of 2.80 days. In comparison with April 2019 (y on y) at 2.77 days, the average length of stay in April 2020 declines by −0.28 point.

2.2 Balinese local wisdom

Based on Porter and Treacy and Wieserma’s competitive advantage concepts, Bali has a strong competitive advantage in terms of differentiate strategies [26], and customer intimacy [27]. Balinese Hindus have various values and local wisdoms that could not be found in other countries. The Balinese Hindus, just like other Asian people, are known for their natural friendliness to others. All these local wisdoms are based and relied on Balinese Hinduism. For the Balinese Hindus, religion and custom are two sides of a coin that are unseparated yet differentiable. Religion surely comes from the truth of God’s teachings and it explicit and implicit in holy books. Customs, on the contrary, are originated from human behavioral habits that are viewed as having truth values although it does not have to be maintained. According to Windia [28], since religion is originated from the truth of God’s teachings thus it is sanatha dharma (an immortal truth).

Changes that occur and influence human civilization could not change the truth of religious teachings. Those that could change and tend to keep up with the change are those that related to material aspects that support the implementation of the religious teachings. For example, such things related to upakara (a traditional religious ceremonial tools) that have been conducted among the Balinese Hindus, such as the use of pis bolong (cash coins). Since pis bolong has increasingly scarce it starts to be replaced with fake cash coins or with official money prevailing in Indonesia. Although it has been replaced, the essence is similar, at least it serves as sesari. Thus, the essence of religious teachings will remain the same anywhere and at any time since it originates from God’s revelation. As regards custom, since it comes from human behavioral habits that are considered as having the truth values, changes, adjustment or even removal of something containing in a custom is not a taboo.

Three basic frameworks of Balinese Hinduism religious teachings consist of Tattwa (philosophy), Ethics (susila), and ceremonies (rituals). The three basic principles are an inseparable part in the Balinese Hindus life. According to Astawa and Sudika [29], if the three frameworks of the Hinduism is analogue with an egg, the ceremonies (rituals) are the outer part or the “skin”, which is the most visible part, whereas ethics (susila) and tattwa (philosophy) are the “egg white” and “egg yolk”, which are the “core” of Balinese Hinduism.

As a unit, parts of the three basic frameworks of the Balinese Hinduism are mutually animating. It means that traditional-religious ceremonies are actually the manifestation of ethics and tattwa.

The three basic frameworks are interrelated and are the foundation of Balinese culture. Balinese culture gains its form in various arts, painting, sculpture, dance, gamelan, and others. All Balinese Hinduism traditional-religious activities thus could not be separated from art activities. On the contrary, every art activity contains religious elements originated from religious teachings.

The Balinese Hinduism is basing its teachings on Panca Sradha or five believes, namely: Believe in the existence of Ida Sang Hyang Widhi Wasa or God the All Mighty; Believe in Atman (spirit), which is a small splash of God and becomes a life-giving spirit in the human body; Believe in the existence of Karmaphala, which means that whatever humans do in this world, good or bad, will have consequences; Believe in the existence of Punarbawa, which is the re-birth into the world or known as reincarnation; Believe in the existence of Moksa, which is freeing of the spirit from worldly bonds and uniting with the Creator. Someone who has achieved Moksa do not born again to the world (reincarnate).

According to Windia [30], human is a territorial being since they will always follow changes occurred in their territory or settlement area. Human culture is also change along with the territory; likewise, agrarian culture that changes current Balinese culture. The agrarian culture gives birth of many local wisdom values, such as sekaa (association) that is specifically related to farming activities, such as sekaa nandur, sekaa manyi, sekaa makajang, sekaa ngabut, and so on. Many values could be emulated in sekaa, such as togetherness, gotong royong (mutual assistance), and volunteerism in conducting something together. The Balinese Hindus culture essentially comes from agriculture. The culture term actually refers to agriculture.

Joesoef [31] states that in the western world, culture term comes from “cultuur” (Dutch), “culture” (England, French), and “kultur” (Germany) that is rooted from Latin word of “colere” (cultivating land). This is the same with the words “cultivate” and “agriculture”. Anthropologists use culture term as a value system that is lived by human (individual and group). Therefore, the word culture, since the beginning, has an implication as something that grows and unspontaneous as a result of human wills. The term refers to beneficial efforts or efforts that generate results (cultivation) and value systems as well as vital ideas (mind and feeling creation).

According to Hofstede, culture is a set of behavioral patterns, values, assumptions, and common general experiences. Culture defines social structures, decision making practices, and communication methods in a social environment as well as dictates behaviors, ethics, and protocols in each of our social interaction with the society. Thus, culture is a set of beliefs that are developed from childhood till the rest of our lives. Several value elements then become relatively fixed, whereas other elements could change according to the society’s social condition and situation. This process is known as socialization. Further [22] suggests that we should uphold and strengthen different working processes in different regions and respect differences in each organization as a uniqueness that could create competitive advantages.

Bali has several local wisdoms sourced from basic principles of Balinese Hinduism teachings and its culture. The local wisdoms consist of Tat Twam Asi (a view that all beings in the world are the same), Ngayah (willingness to work for common interest), Asta Kosala-Kosali (a holy book of Balinese architecture guidance and traditional building layout), Awig-awig (customary rules in banjar level and pakraman village), Yadnya (holy offerings), Tri Hita Karana (three harmonious relationships that cause happiness), Subak (an agricultural irrigation system and organization that has received a recognition from UNESCO as World Culture Heritage in 2012), and many more. Various Balinese local wisdoms become a guide in daily life behaviors. Therefore, the local wisdoms will continue to live and develop as well as sustainable from generations.

2.3 Tourism strategies

A tourism destination could use competitive strategies of differentiation strategy, cost leadership strategy, focus strategy, or a combination of the existing strategies [32, 33]. Differentiation strategy is based on product offering that is different to what the competitor is offering in a certain characteristic or quality. Therefore, the product could be sold in higher prices than the competitor and profit will be higher due to decrease in elasticity demand price. Differentiation could be achieved through several ways including: Create a more superior product than competitor based on design, technology, performance, etc.; Offer superior service level; Have access to superior distribution channels; Create a strong brand name through design, innovation, advertisement, frequent flyer program, and so on; Specific or superior product promotion.

Cost leadership strategy aims at achieving competitive advantages by reducing cost below the competitors. Therefore, by maintaining low cost, the company (goal) could sell its products or services in lower prices and achieve income realization. The cost leadership strategy potential benefits consist of: It is able to obtain higher profit by charging the same price as competitors or reduce the price below the competitors since costs are lower; It allows to increase sales and market share by reducing prices below those charged by the competitors; It allows to enter new markets by charging price in the lower level than the competitors; It is important for a market where demand is elastic; It creates additional obstacles for new competitors to enter the industry.

Focus strategy is used when a tourism destination wants to attract a market segment that will canalize its offering. The market segment could be identified through various demographic categories, such as age, income, life style, geography, and so on or through benefits expected, members of the expected target market, and from the travel as well as suitable tourism product and destination. In the selected market segment, differentiation or cost leadership strategies could be applied. The main benefits of focus strategy are: It requires lower resource investment compared to strategy intended to all markets; it allows more specialization and knowledge on served segments; it facilitates new market entry to be cheaper and simpler. It should be noted that the three strategies (Porter) are existed in every tourism market and tourism destination. Selecting the suitable strategy, however, is a result of an immediate and broader change occurred in the environment as well as efforts to response to the changes according to its abilities and resources.

2.4 Sustainable tourism

There are four aspects to be achieved in sustainable tourism, namely: environmental aspect, economic aspect, social aspect, and cultural aspect. The four aspects have been clearly scheduled from the start for companies in tourism industry that are based on harmonious management that put forward values of honesty, humanity, and respect to environment. The condition is supported by a fact that natural resources could be exploited intensively in a tourism business. Tourism activities will sometimes have a big impact on environment, ecosystem, economy, society, and culture. Therefore, a holistic balance between the four aspects must be considered to guarantee a short-term as well as long term sustainable development for tourism sector to face climate change. Sustainable development principles must be applied for various tourism activities and operations by determining long term as well as short term strategies and programs. Sustainable tourism could be conceptually defined as a tourism activity development with a balance between the dimensions of environmental, economic, and socio-cultural aspects to guarantee long term sustainability. In other words, sustainable tourism development must achieve sustainable environment, sustainable economy, sustainable society, and sustainable culture. Key elements in tourism regarding environmental sustainable management consist of:

Eco-tourism: Eco-tourism term is initially proposed in the end of 1970s. It is considered as a nature-based tourism and has become a way to protect natural landscape of a certain area. It refers to segment in tourism sector with the main focus is on environmental and ecological preservation; thus, it attracts many tourists as an alternative tourism. It could play an essential role in green growth for developing countries with significant natural abilities since this activity usually require less capital and investment. It could also connect to local communities that could lead the tourism activities and ecosystem preservation operations. Through these activities, ecotourism could provide employment for unskillful workers in rural communities and create export opportunities in remote locations to ensure green economy. Therefore, it must be considered as an appropriate industrial effort to promote economic development in developing countries with capital scarcity yet abundance natural resources.

Low-carbon tourism: Society is increasingly concern about the impact of actions on the world and this planet ability to maintain sustainable development. There is a growing awareness in the tourism industry as well as among the tourists on tourism carbon footprint. Tourism is one of the fastest growing industries in the world; thus, its rapid global expansion brings out environmental, behavior and socio-cultural impacts in many regions. At the same time, more and more tourists need information on tourism package carbon footprint. The same prevails for tourism industry, such as tour operators, travel agents, e-business sales operators, and business travel companies. They increasingly realize the importance of reducing greenhouse gas emission and calculating carbon footprint of their products and services in reliable and automatic ways.

Agro-tourism: Agro-tourism is a tourism activity that refers to activities of visiting farmers who work on their agricultural land. In this case, tourists would likely see the nursery process, planting, harvesting and even agricultural product processing in the context of agribusiness activities.

Alternative tourism: A form of tourism that put natural, social, and societal values first and allow local communities as well as tourists to enjoy positive and beneficial interaction and the experience together.

Behavioral economics: It studies the impact of psychological, social, cognitive, and emotional factors on individual and institutions’ economic decisions and its consequences on market prices, profit, and resource allocation.

Political economics: A study on production and trade and its relationship with law, customs, and government as well as income distribution and national wealth.

Circular economics: It utilizes society as a whole through a design of separating consumption from economy based on three principles: design waste and pollution, save products and materials used, and natural system regeneration.

Sustainable society: is a society that is capable of fulfilling their needs without reducing future generation opportunities. There are three measurement used in sustainable society, namely: Environmental prosperity: nature and environment (for example, air quality), climate and energy (for example, reduce in greenhouse gas), and natural resources (for example, biodiversity); Human prosperity: Basic needs (for example, clean water), personal and social development (for example, gender equality), and health (for example, clean water); Economic prosperity: Transition (for example, organic agriculture) and economy (for example, jobs).

Based on the indicators, components should be focused on in tourism development include: population and health: healthy society could offer various healthy foods for guests; accessible tourism: tourism development for disable people; community tourism: a community concept could be applied in tourism. In the community tourism, local communities are responsible for developing initiatives and managing tourism activity schedules. A community-based tourism connects balanced tourism development goals with ecological considerations into the existing business model. Sustainable development concept in community tourism applies to improve people’s life quality by protecting the environment and the built environment, to provide high quality experiences for tourists, and optimize local economic benefits.

Sustainable culture: cultural tourism is increasingly being developed as a way to protect ancestral heritage. Natural and cultural heritage should be considered as a base for sustainable tourism. The natural heritage comprises vegetation, flora and fauna, geological and hydrological phenomenon or natural events, such as climate, astrology incidents, and volcano. Likewise, cultural heritage includes living cultures (such as festivals, rituals, education, religion, costume, legend, behavior, habits, music, dance, and culinary), immobile historic monuments (such as parks, gardens, buildings, facilities, and archeological sites), and mobile historic monuments (such as paintings, statues, art works, handicrafts, agricultural tools, industrial machines, and documents/objects). Efforts to protect tourism-related culture could be divided into four tourism categories.

Rural tourism: It emphasizes on healthy activities and proper life with the joy of clean air, fresh water, landscape, culture, and tradition. Therefore, rural tourism has similarity to ecotourism, but its main attraction lies on traditionally managed landscapes and cultures.

Cultural tourism: One of tourisms that utilizes culture as its object. The implementation of cultural-based tourism in Indonesia is indicated by several provinces, namely: Bali and DI (Special Region) of Yogyakarta, especially Yogyakarta City since 2008.

Spiritual tourism: Spiritual tour is one of emerging cultural tourism heritages since more people are trying to develop their own spirituality. In 2007, the UNWTO rates the spiritual tourism as a segment that has a rapid development, although it is not easily framed. The tourism is based on various motivations, traditional religious tourism to alternative health treatment. Heritage integrity: Cultural heritage values are maintained in cultural tourism development.

3. Methodology

A qualitative approach was used in this study [34]. The 10 largest of each tourism actor as an informant based on recommendations from local governments which consist of travel agencies, accommodation (hotels), restaurants, academics, and tourist villages. Before the interview began to 50 leaders of tourism actors were preceded by a delivery activity through post and email. The letter’s content is to ask for his willingness to respond to questions about; how to apply the application of Harmony culture within the company [36]; what are the factors used as an indicator of sustainable tourism [35, 36] and how to have health protocol [37]. Of the 50 informants, only 35 (70%) Who are willing to be interviewed and the other fifteenth (30%) cannot be contacted. Data collection time starts from January to April 2020 with an average interview length of 45 minutes. The Data is collected compared to cultural theories, sustainable tourism, and the Health Protocol [38] and coding using Miles and Huberman [39]. Qualitative results are used to design the model of Bali’s future tourism development strategy.

4. Results and discussion

The in-depth interview results regarding the implementation of local wisdom-based tourism activities in the form of harmonious culture that emphasizes on a harmonious relationship between human being and the Creator (God), between fellow human being, and human being and natural environment are presented in Table 2. The main goal of the harmony of relationship or harmonization is the creation of the happiness of life. Happiness is a goal mostly searched by all human being. Happiness in the Balinese people concept is the establishment of a harmonious relationship between God, human being, and the nature or a balance between macrocosm and microcosm nature. The concept brings out cultural values that recognize a difference in a unity of goal, which is the happiness of life.

IndicatorMarket orientation viewResource-based view
Basic PrinciplesAdaptation of a company’s resources to the needs of its competitive environment is its main success factor.Active search on business environment that allows the best exploitation of a company’s resources
Strategic analysisAn industrial structure and market properties-centeredGives emphasize on internal diagnosis
Formulation ProcessOutside-inInside-out
Advantage SourcesMarket position regarding local competitive environmentA collection of a company’s special resources and core competences

Table 2.

Main differences between RBV and MOV.

Table 3 indicates that harmonious culture is a local wisdom that uphold the harmonious relationship with God, human being, and the nature as the spirit of Balinese tourism. It produces tourism forms of spiritual tourism, cultural tourism, and heritage tourism. These tourisms are the reflection of cultural activities related to God. The implementation of these tourism models is reflected by many tourists who conduct religious trips and visit sacred sites and watch dances and religious ceremonies.

VariableIndicatorItemDetail item
Harmonious cultureHarmony with God
  • Spiritual tourism

  • Religious trip

  • Cultural tourism

  • Religious ceremonies

  • Heritage tourism

  • Dances and arts

  • Sacred places

Harmony with human being
  • Mice

  • Meetings

  • Tourism

  • Medication

  • Health

  • Foods and beverages

  • Culinary tourism

  • Community groups

  • Community tourism

Harmony with the nature
  • Eco-tourism

  • Natural preservation

  • Agro-tourism

  • Natural result utilization

  • Rural tourism

  • Natural utilization

  • Alternative tourism

  • Marine Biota

  • Marine tourism

Sustainable tourismEconomic benefits
  • Economic behavior

  • Purchasing power

  • Economy-politics

  • Prosperity

  • Economic turnaround

  • Society income improvement

  • Costs of ceremonies

  • Unemployment

  • Costs of cultural and natural protection

  • Health

Social benefits
  • Accessible tourism

  • Transportation

  • Community tourism

  • Public service

  • Population tourism

  • Health service

  • Healthy tourism

  • Birth control

Cultural benefits
  • Cultural tourism

  • Cultural preservation

  • Community tourism

  • Cultural organization or associations

  • Heritage tourism

  • Cultural performance sites

  • Artifacts preservation

Environmental benefits
  • Eco-tourism

  • Natural and its content preservation

  • Agro-tourism

  • Pollutions

  • Low carbon tourism

  • Waste

  • Adventure tourism

  • Natural utilization

Health protocolClean
  • Virus free

  • Garbage bin

  • Free of dirt

  • Cleaning services

  • Free of bacteria

  • Cleaning ceremonies

Health
  • Hygiene

  • Hand washing

  • Improved health

  • Gloves

  • Face masks

  • Sink

Safety
  • Free of risks

  • Insurance

  • Free of threats

  • Physical distancing

  • Protection ceremonies

Table 3.

Qualitative data processing results of cultural-based tourism activities, sustainable tourism, and health protocol.

Other cultural activities are related to harmonization with human being that create Mice tourism, health tourism, culinary tourism, and community tourism. These four tourism models are indicated from tourist activities of meetings, traveling to enjoy unique foods, and having traditional and medical treatments. Moreover, there are tourists who conduct the activities since they join a group, such as bike lover groups, plant lover groups, and many more.

Cultural activities that are related to natural environment bring out tourisms that reside with natural environmental preservation, such as eco-tourism, agro-tourism, rural tourism, alternative tourism, and marine tourism. These tourism models could be seen from activities conducted by the communities to perform environmental conservation of land, marine, and air. In addition, there are activities that utilize the nature as an attraction by promoting the sustainability of the tourism development.

The cultural implementation results are interesting to discuss since through the cultural activities, the Balinese people have supported sustainable tourism as stated by several researchers, such as [34, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43]. There are uniqueness found in the cultural activities related to God. The uniqueness is related to religious ceremonies to conduct natural preservation since the communities believe the existence of God in all of His creations; therefore, respect is done through ceremonies to all lives in this world. The ceremonies are, among others, tumpek kandang, which is a ceremony to respect all animals; tumpek uduh, a ceremony to respect all plants, and otonan, a ceremony to respect human being. This ceremonial model can be explained in Figure 1.

Figure 1.

Ceremonies to humans, animals, and plants.

Table 3 explains that sustainable tourism implemented in Bali focuses on four benefits. First, economic benefit that will influence behavior, politics, and community economic activities. The condition could be observed from purchasing power, prosperity, society income improvement, ceremony costs, unemployment, costs for cultural and natural protection, and health. The remaining benefits include social, cultural, and environmental benefits that give rise to various tourisms. It is in line with a research by Yuan Pan [34] and a direction from UNWTO. The concept of Covid-19 management through health protocol is in accordance with WHO guidance. Another interesting finding of the research is that each activity related to sustainable tourism and health protocol is linked to cultural or religious activities. The unique condition is different to the finding of [34, 39, 43, 44] where communities believe that behind every success in activities there is a beyond reason and influential power; thus a ceremony is used to respect it [35].

The results of in-depth interview have been explained in Table 2 and compared to the existing theories [37, 45]; thus, a model could be designed to create Bali tourism development in the future. The model could be explained in Figure 2. The center of Balinese tourism is in the harmonious culture that provides spirit to maintain harmonization between God, human, and the nature. The cultural activities create a tourism models that are supported by the local government, traditional villages, and global environment that contain technologies to form a new tourism order. The new order concept intended is that Bali tourism is no longer sell the cultures as an icon instead it is shifted to the nature and human. Cultural values are a booster in the natural tourism implementation by considering health protocol set based on local wisdom. The natural tourism that is combined with cultural value-based health protocol will be a unique product and it supports strategies developed by Barney.

Figure 2.

Bali tourism development model.

According to the Balinese cultural concept what is meant by clean, health and safe is linked to both real world according to the WHO and unreal world through religious rituals. Cleanliness, health, and safe that will be legitimated either physically or non-physically are completely different to models implemented by other destinations in the world.

5. Conclusion

Cultural values implemented by Balinese people amid Covid-19 condition will experience a shift in the cultural tourism development. At the beginning, it is offered as equal to natural and human-based tourism, but in the future, it will become a spirit of the two tourisms. The change brings impact on tourism business actors in marketing their products.

The tourism model development concept with a new order is a model that could change stakeholders in maintaining sustainable tourism. The concept will also provide legitimacy that Bali rises with a deep collaboration between modern and traditional to package a natural and human-oriented tourism. The results provide good color in the development of competitive strategy theories for a tourist area.

This research will be more perfect if it involves tourists who have visited Bali as an informant to give their views on the new way of tourism that will be carried out so that Bali remains a favorite destination. This deficiency becomes a gap for future studies to come so that the concepts of demand and bidding can be viewed in a balanced manner in formulating sustainable tourism policies.

Acknowledgments

The author expressed a deep sense of gratitude to the Indonesian government who had funded the project. The tourism village Pinge as a place to apply the results of the research.

Conflict of interest

All data relating to this project have been approved by the parties so that there will be no claims in the presentation.

Notes/Thanks/Other declarations

Thanks to the Bali State Polytechnic that has facilitated the project, the head of the tourism village, the head of the Tabanan District tourism Office, the head of research and community service and students of Tourism Business Management Study program.

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I. Putu Astawa, Tjokorda Gde Raka Sukawati and I. Nyoman Gede Sugiartha (October 12th 2020). The Light-Up of Dark Bali Tourism: A Qualitative Study [Online First], IntechOpen, DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.93389. Available from:

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