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The Function of a Coffee Shop as a Social Cultural Entity

Written By

Maksud Hakim and Ali Syahban Amir

Submitted: February 13th, 2022 Reviewed: February 22nd, 2022 Published: May 10th, 2022

DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.103852

IntechOpen
Trends and Innovations in Food Science Edited by Yehia El-Samragy

From the Edited Volume

Trends and Innovations in Food Science [Working Title]

Prof. Yehia El-Samragy

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Abstract

This book chapter aims to determine the process of changing the meaning of a coffee shop from traditional to modern, to find out the change in the meaning of a coffee shop as a space for socio-cultural entities, and to find out the change in the meaning of a coffee shop as an effective political tool. This book chapter uses a naturalistic (qualitative) paradigm approach to analyze and construct the change in the meaning of a coffee shop as a space for socio-cultural entities in the municipality of Makassar, South Sulawesi. The selection of this location is based on the consideration that Makassar Municipality is a large city that has a heterogeneous population. This book chapter shows that the change in the meaning of traditional coffee shops to modern coffee shops is characterized by simple facilities that develop into public spaces equipped with facilities and information such as television, newspapers, and internet networks to meet the needs and satisfaction of visitors. Coffee shops have become a socio-cultural entity. Coffee shops have been used as a means of political discussion and self-image, both formally and informally, socialization of work programs with political figures or authorities, and digging information effectively from visitors.

Keywords

  • coffee shop
  • socio-cultural entity

1. Introduction

In the mind of most people, drinking coffee is just to increase the body's resistance to sleepiness. In fact, coffee can provide so many benefits for human life. Ibn Sina (1000 AD) has investigated the chemistry of coffee. His document is the first known document dissecting coffee from medical and health sciences. The results of subsequent studies found that drinking coffee can prevent uterine cancer, and can improve memory and concentration for workers. Drinking coffee for children once a week is believed to strengthen the heart. Meanwhile, for women, drinking coffee can be used as an alternative choice in dieting, because the efficacy of coffee can delay hunger.

In Makassar city, before 2000, the existing coffee shops were only used to satisfy the desire for coffee. In the next decade, the function of the coffee shop became more diverse. Starting from a place to discuss daily social problems, a place for socialization for the rulers and politicians, a means of business meetings, to a means of self-expression.

The coffee shop has developed into a medium for expressing lifestyle and class identity. Visiting coffee shops has turned into a symbolic code for certain circles to actualize their existence in social groups. This can be seen from the shop's visitors, who are now not only men but also women.

Changes in coffee drinking patterns and behavior are increasingly developing along with globalization, which is emphasized by media imperialism. For Klapper, the mass media is able to manipulate consciousness. By Merton, the media can smooth out coercion so that it looks like persuasion [1]. The globalization of the media has played a role in the spread of the culture of enjoying coffee in coffee shops. Contemporary culture is related to people's tastes. According to Bourdiau, the taste is an opportunity both to experience and to assert one's position in the environment [2].

Visiting a coffee shop is not just enjoying a delicious cup of coffee. Now the attention is no longer on what is drunk in coffee shops, but more than that, namely how coffee is processed, served, and drunk. Changes in people's patterns and behavior in enjoying coffee cannot be separated from the influence of the globalization of the coffee shop business which has increased in recent years. The coffee shop business in the era of globalization does not only work on coffee products, it is further than that, namely consumers by formulating contemporary business jargon which is full of symbolism. Enjoying a cup of coffee in a modern coffee shop for some people has become a symbol of luxury, exclusivity, and prestige, as well as a marker or identity of social class. The change in the meaning of the coffee shop is also inseparable from the social interaction of the community.

In Blumer's perspective of symbolic interaction, the change in meaning can be seen from three premises, first, humans act towards something based on the meaning that something has for them; second, the meaning comes from one's social interactions with other people; and third, the meaning is perfected when the process of social interaction takes place [3].

As a result, it also has an impact on changes in society. Consumerism began to take root in urban society. Consumptive-ism in this case is defined as the use or consumption of goods that are pure because of the demands of social prestige and not out of necessity. This fact shows that cultural space is not only created by the community itself, but it is also a part of the expansion of global culture which intentionally or not has expanded to coffee shop spaces. Cultural globalization is a form of transnational expansion towards cultural grafting (heterogeneity). This process towards homogeneity is often associated with cultural imperialism which is characterized by increasing international influence on certain cultures. So, do not be surprised if coffee shops will one day replace social spaces that have been established before. The coffee shop has become a part that not only has become a consumptive medium for certain classes but has shown the socio-cultural characteristics of the community.

The proliferation of coffee shops in Makassar city has encouraged the growth of public spaces. Coffee shops are no longer just a means of meeting the need for coffee but have changed their shape and face as a social and cultural space, capable of becoming cultural glue. This is possible because coffee shops are able to reduce the barriers to differences in the social, economic, and cultural backgrounds of visitors, by designing an atmosphere and communication that is as loose and fluid as possible. So, that every citizen, from various social classes, can fuse together in a social space full of dynamics. Coffee shops can also trigger the creation of openness and exchange of information because the social space provided by coffee shops is so free and open. Coffee shop visitors are free to talk about problems in social and cultural life without intervention and intimidation from other groups or by the authorities and bureaucracy.

The phenomenon of the rapid development of coffee shops in Makassar city today, not only reinforces existing social changes but also serves as a buffer for socio-economic strength because coffee shops are able to accommodate the diversity of community members. In addition, coffee shops are not only able to increase the economic level of middle and upper-class coffee shop entrepreneurs, but also provide income for informal sector entrepreneurs who are generally lower-class people.

The change in the meaning of coffee shops in Makassar city from traditional coffee shops that focus only on coffee consumption as mere physical fulfillment, to modern coffee shops equipped with various facilities that allow coffee shops to play a role as a means of business, information, socialization, and imaging. These coffee shops with modern management are now more existent in Makassar city, while traditional coffee shops seem to be running in place and some of them have even gone out of business.

The habit of drinking coffee in the urban community of Makassar city is more dynamic with very loose communication patterns. The author's initial observations about the characteristics of coffee shop visitors in Makassar city, that there are several characteristics of coffee shop visitors. The first, are those who are classified as coffee connoisseurs to satisfy their physical needs. Second, are those who visit coffee shops because they enjoy socializing and building relationships. For people like this, with expenses that are not so big, they can hang out as much as they want in the coffee shop while enjoying the atmosphere provided at the coffee shop, including the sensation of serving, good-looking waiters, and free internet facilities. Third, are those who are classified as business people. They use the shop as a space for business transactions or use the coffee shop's social space to build networks and business relationships. Fourth, are those who use coffee shops as a means of obtaining information. Included in this group are students and journalists. Fifth, are political actors who make coffee shops a place to disseminate ideas and political imagery.

1.1 History of coffee and its distribution

The history of coffee has been recorded since the ninth century. Coffee is a plant native to Ethiopia which was originally only grown in highland areas. When the Arabs began to expand their trade, coffee beans have also expanded to North Africa. It was from North Africa that coffee beans began to spread from Asia to the European market.

Since the beginning, the coffee plant was not as popular as it is today. Coffee is just an ordinary plant with no known benefits. The beginning of knowing the benefits of coffee for humans is illustrated in the story of a goat herder in Ethiopia. The benefits of coffee were first discovered by Kaldi, a goat herder in Ethiopia. Kaldi found his goats behaving strangely after eating coffee plants. The goats were jumping around like they were drunk.

Kaldi was surprised and found out what was causing the goats to dance. Kaldi then saw a bunch of shiny red seeds in the bushes. The grain—later known as coffee—was being eaten by the goats. With curiosity, finally felt the difference after trying to eat the seeds.

Meanwhile in Indonesia, coffee was brought to Indonesia by a Dutchman named Zwaardecroon, who brought some seeds of the Arabica Mocca coffee plant from Mecca to Bogor in the seventeenth century. Arabica coffee was first grown in a place east of Jatinegara. The place is now known as Pondok Kopi. Arabica coffee then spread to various areas in West Java, such as Bogor, Sukabumi, Banten, and Priangan. From the island of Java, enter other areas such as the islands of Sumatra, Sulawesi, Bali, and Timor [4].

1.2 Theory of habitus and environment

Bourdieu formulated the concept of habitus as a sociological and philosophical analysis of human behavior. Habitus are values ​​that are lived by humans and are created through a process of values ​​that lasts a long time so that they settle into ways of thinking and patterns of behavior that persist in humans.

Dialectically, habitus is a product of the internalization of the structure of the social world [5]. Habitus is a subjective structure that is formed from the experience of individuals relating to other individuals in a network of objective structures that are in social space. Habitus can be said to be a cultural unconscious, namely history that is unconsciously considered natural, which is formed from the results of learning through parenting, playing activities, and also community education in a broad sense.

Bourdieu argues that the way actors feel is based on their position in the social space and constructs social life as a sociological study. However, perceptions and constructions that occur in social life are driven and controlled by structures. Bourdieu's thinking is reflected in his own definition of his theoretical perspective:

“Objective structure analysis cannot be separated from the analysis of the origin of the mental structure of individual actors which to some extent is the product of a combination of social structures and cannot be separated from the analysis of the origins of the social structure itself” [6].

In the view of Bourdieu [5] habitus are:

Mental or cognitive structures are used by actors to deal with social life. Actors are provided with a series of internalized schemas or patterns that they use to perceive, understand, and be aware of their social world. It is through these patterns that actors produce their actions as well as judge them.

So, the habitus will be different, depending on the form of a person's position in social life. Not everyone has the same habits, people who occupy the same position in social life tend to have the same habits. In this sense, habitus can also be a collective phenomenon.

Habitus allows people to understand the social world, but having multiple habitus means that social life and its structure cannot be imposed uniformly on all actors. Actions mediate habitus and social life. On the one hand, habitus is created through practice (action); on the other hand, habitus is an action created by social life [7].

Habitus merely suggests what people should think and what they should choose to do. According to Bourdieu, habitus functions below the level of consciousness and language, beyond the reach of observation and control by volition [8]. But it manifests itself in our very practical activities such as the way we eat, walk, talk and even blow our noses.

Bourdieu focuses on differences in the "taste" of beauty between various social classes towards various cultural objects that contain the value of beauty. For Bourdieu in Ritzer and Goodman [9]:

Taste turns out to be also a practice which, among other things, helps to give an individual or another an understanding of his or her position in the social order. Taste helps tell other people who have similar preferences helps differentiate them from others who have different tastes.

In Bourdieu's view, "through the application of habitus and taste, people classify objects and at the same time they are in the process of classifying themselves". Bourdieu further explained that:

Taste is an opportunity both to experience and to affirm one's position in the environment. However, the social class environment has a big influence on people's ability to play this game; they are greater in their ability to defend their own tastes and oppose the tastes of people in lower classes [7].

Bourdieu also connects taste with habitus. Tastes are shaped by long-lasting habitus; not shaped by superficial opinion and rhetoric. Furthermore, Bourdieu explained that the environment and habitus mutually determine each other. This can be seen from his explanation of the two things, namely:

A steady habitus is only formed, only functions, and is only valid in an environment, in relation to an environment the habitus itself is “the environment of existing forces”, a dynamic situation in which power is only incarnated in relation to certain tendencies. This is why the same habitus gets opposite meanings and values ​​in different environments, in different configurations, or in opposite sectors of the same environment [2].

Bourdieu views that the driving force of all human behavior is the pursuit of honor. Bourdieu argues that his main goal is “to exist in a social space, occupy the point where he becomes an individual in a social space, is to become a differentiator in order to become prominent in that space [10] . Bourdieu further argues that the environment offers almost endless opportunities to pursue honor.

1.3 Theory of social interaction

According to Kaldun, "humans are basically created as social beings, namely creatures who always need other people to maintain their lives so that their life with society and social organizations is a must" [11]. Because the relationship between one another, both in the form of groups and individuals is a picture of the development of society in realizing its dynamism.

Symbolic interactionism theorist Cooley [12] sees "society is a mental phenomenon, the relationship between people's ideas". Meanwhile, Thomas, Henri, Susan, Bridget, added that "society is in my mind like the relationship and mutual influence in certain ideas which are named "I". Bahtiar [12] sees "society and individuals are not two separate realities, but two sides or aspects of one and the same reality. The two are like two sides of a coin that cannot be separated.”

These human characteristics illustrate how meaningful social interaction is in human life. Young and Raymond stated that "social interaction is the key to all social life because, without social interaction, there will be no life together" [13]. Social interactions that take place are basically based on several factors, including imitation, suggestion, identification, and sympathy. These factors can move individually or in combination. For this reason, according to Soekanto [14], "social interaction is impossible if it does not meet two conditions, namely the existence of social contact (social contact) and communication". Meanwhile, Mead [15] is of the view that "only by adjusting to the expectations of others, interaction will be possible".

In sociology, the unit of analysis is a social event called social interaction between two or more people. Social interaction can be classified into various types of social relationships that are fostered by a number of people, actors from one or two groups/organizations. Various social relations between people from one or two groups called inter-group social relations according to their characteristics can be classified into various social processes, there are social processes that bring people closer and there are social processes that distance people.

Social interaction can be classified into several forms of interaction. Gillin and Gillin [16] divide the form of interaction into two parts, namely: (1) associative processes (accommodation, assimilation, and acculturation), and (2) dissociative processes (competition, opposition). Meanwhile, the form of interaction is divided into three parts, namely: (1) opposition (competition and opposition), (2) cooperation that results in accommodation, and (3) differentiation (each individual has the right and obligations on the basis of differences in age, sex, and work. As for Tomatsu Shibutani, distinguishes the form of interaction into (1) accommodation in routine situations, (2) expression of meetings and suggestions, and (3) strategic interaction in conflict; development of mass behavior.

In discussing social interaction for the Bugis-Makassar community, the tradition that should be put forward is tudang sipulung. The term tudang sipulung literally means “sitting together”, which has the meaning and purpose to solve their needs and problems in their lives and daily lives in a democratic manner. A pallontara (“interpreter of Lontara”), Andi Burhanuddin explains in Bugis language that:

naiya riasenge tudang sipulung, iyanaritu mallari ade-e napogau toriolota’. Tudang maddepung-deppungeng, tudang mallewo-lewoang nasibawai akkatta maelo sipatangngareng nenniya maelo mala ada assimaturuseng.

(What is meant by tudang sipulung is a tradition that is often carried out by the ancients (our elders). Sitting together, gathering with the aim of deliberation to reach consensus” [17].

The presentation indicates that the Tudang sipulung tradition has been carried out by the Bugis-Makassar community as a common space for deliberation and consensus in order to find solutions to problems faced by the community.

Anwar Ibrahim [17], states that "all problems in people's lives can be blamed for being blamed”. The implementation of tudang sipulung can be official or informal. Tudang sipulung, which is informal in nature, is usually carried out in a family environment or between families who discuss family issues such as marriage and proposals. While matters concerning social issues, or important decisions within a village, between villages or kingdoms, are usually carried out officially led by a matoa (who is elder according to custom) as the leader (king) of a village/country (wanua).

This illustrates that the position of tudang sipulung for the Bugis-Makassar community is very important. This can be seen from its goal of being a bridge or mediator for the resolution of various problems, both problems with a small scope, namely family, as well as issues with a wider scope, such as political and state issues. For the people of Makassar city who are more modern, the emergence of coffee shops today is not only a means of satisfying the need for the pleasure of coffee, but more than that, namely as a gathering place while discussing various life problems, both those concerning social, cultural and political issues. So it is not an exaggeration to gather at a coffee shop to be described as a manifestation of the tudang sipulung tradition.

1.4 Theory of symbolic interaction

Communication is a means of driving a social process that allows interaction between humans and makes humans as social beings. Humans communicate with symbols. According to Rivers, Jensen and Peterson [18], "humans are creatures who know how to react to their physical environment, but also to the symbols they make themselves”. Meanwhile, Kenneth Boulding compares humans with animals in terms of communication, according to him “animals do not have the notion of consciousness and a symbolic environment (language, art and myth) like humans do; So, humans are unique not only because of their ability to reason but also because of their symbolic world [18].

Humans always communicate with symbols. This is what underlies Rivers et al see humans as creators of symbols. According to him "the world is a pseudo, a network or a series of symbols of his creation". In line with Rivers et al., Epictetus argues that "what strikes humans are not objects, but their own opinions and images about these objects" [18]. In interacting, for Mead, “mind and self are part of human behavior, namely part of their interaction with other people. This interaction allows him to know the world and himself” [19], thus, “thinking can be understood as a result of internalizing the process of interacting with other people”, continued Mead [15].

Meanwhile, another thinker of the flow of symbolic interactionism, namely Blumer emphasized that symbolic interaction includes "interpretation of action". Blumer rests on three premises, namely: "(1) humans act toward things based on the meanings that things have for them, (2) those meanings come from one's social interactions with other people, and (3) these meanings are perfected when the process of social interaction takes place” [20].

Symbolic interactionist theorists tend to agree on the importance of causality in social interaction, i.e. focusing on human action and interaction, not isolated mental processes. "The main concern is not how the human mind creates the meaning of symbols, but how they learn it during interactions in general and during the socialization process in particular" [21]. One aspect that is put forward in discussing social interaction is socialization. For symbolic interactionists, “socialization is a dynamic process that enables people to develop the ability to think, to grow humanly [22]. This is what Christopher [23] calls the interaction of this dynamic symbol with a “dance” involving a partner. For Ritzer and Goodman [24] interaction is a process when thinking skills are developed and expressed. All kinds of interactions, not just interactions during socialization, polish our thinking abilities. Beyond that, thinking builds the process of interaction.

The use of symbols allows actors to transcend time, space, and even their own person. Through the use of symbols, actors can imagine what it would be like to live in the past or what it would be like to live in the future. In addition, actors can go beyond themselves symbolically and imagine what the world would be like from someone else's point of view. This is the most well-known symbolic interactionist concept, namely taking the role of another [25]. In the process of symbol interaction, it is the person who communicates the meaning symbolically to the other people involved. Others interpret the symbols and direct-action responses based on their interpretation. In other words, in the interaction of symbols, actors are involved in influencing [23]. For symbolic interactionists, actors have at least some autonomy. They are not simply restrained or directed; they are able to make unique and independent choices. In addition, they are able to develop a life that has a unique style (Perinbanayagam, in Ritzer and Goodman, [23]).

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2. The meaning of social change

Social change according to Gillin and Gillin in Soekanto [26] is "a variation of accepted ways of life, either due to changes in geographical conditions, material culture, population composition, ideology or because of diffusion or new discoveries. in society". In line with this understanding, Koening argues that "social change refers to the modifications that occur in the patterns of human life that occur due to internal and external causes".

Sztompka [27] in his book Sociology of Social Change, details the definition of socio-cultural change as follows:

  1. Social change is a transformation in the organization of society, in the mindset, and in behavior at a certain time.

  2. Social change is a modification or transformation in the organization of society.

  3. Social change refers to the variation of relationships between individuals, groups, organizations, cultures, and societies at a particular time.

  4. Social change is a change in behavior patterns, social relations, institutions, and social structures at a certain time.

Soekanto [28] sees the impact of technological and economic conditions as the cause of social change. This can be seen from his statement that "these conditions are considered the basis of social organization and values ​​are the result of the impact of technological and economic situations". Meanwhile, Astrid sees "change in society in a broad sense defined as change or development in a positive or negative sense. The meaning of social change has two dimensions, namely social change as regression and as progress [29].

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3. Coffee shop in Indonesia

The proliferation of coffee shops in big cities in Indonesia cannot be separated from the currents of modernization and globalization of the world. Modernization is characterized by the emergence of new consumption tools, mostly United States innovations that have not only transformed consumption in the United States but are also exported aggressively to most other parts of the world where they have an even greater impact on consumption [30]. Modernization tends to expand its network of reach, especially its space, and this is what is called globalization. For Giddens in Martono, [31] modernity is:

Globalization, means that it tends to cover an increasingly wider geographical area and eventually covers the entire world. Modernity also reaches individual personal aspects (beliefs, religion, behavior, consumption tastes, entertainment patterns, and others).

Dynamic urban communities with all forms of busyness really need the means to relax and release fatigue, emotions, and stress in the world of work. This is what Sztompka alluded to in Martono [32] that:

The hallmark of modern society is the separation of time for work and time for leisure, but more time for leisure. Modern human activities are very dense, forcing them to spend a relatively long time just to rest.

The presence of a coffee shop that provides a relaxed and relaxed atmosphere is an alternative choice for city residents to relax. The development of coffee shops is no longer only caused by the culture of consumerism that develops in modern society but is also caused by a shift in the distribution of social prestige. As stated by Martono [33] that:

Social prestige or prestige can be manifested in various ways in modern society. Social prestige is not only manifested in various physical symbols, such as how to dress, or through various attributes attached to a person but the designation of individual status can be seen from non-physical symbols, for example, the choice of places to eat, shopping places, recreation areas, clothing brands used. worn, the language used to communicate, and mastery of technology can indicate a person's status.

The development of coffee shops in Indonesia in the last decade cannot be separated from the influence of the mass media. The increase in number and its even distribution in almost all major cities in Indonesia is one of the justifications that the mass media, especially television, has turned the world into a global village. Instant and worldwide communication give substance to Marshal McLuhan's idea which was first expressed in the 1980s that the world will become a global village. So it is only natural that Hanners [34] argues that “Western culture will dominate throughout the world. The whole world will become a copy of the lifestyles, consumption patterns, values ​​and norms and ideas and beliefs of Western society”.

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4. Coffee shops and lifestyle

The phenomenon of the rise of coffee shops in various corners of cities in Indonesia (including coffee shops and cafes that provide coffee) both international coffee shops and local coffee shops, can be said to be the influence of opening an international coffee shop franchise with the largest network in the world, Starbucks, around 1998 with 11 branches in major cities in Indonesia. This has had a major impact on the lifestyle of the urban community, especially in terms of enjoying coffee.

The development of coffee shops in Makassar city, both in terms of quantity and quality, has opened up space for the people of Makassar city to socialize. The patterns of interaction and communication created in coffee shops are so relaxed, loose, and fluid, that cultural boundaries seem to be melting. Various forms of negotiation, conflict resolution, business transactions, as well as consolidation, and political imagery can even be completed in the coffee shop space. This phenomenon makes today's coffee shops a new asset for the people of Makassar city which deserves appreciation for being able to become a bridge for the development of local wisdom, namely tudang sipulung.

When viewed from its cultural-historical roots, coffee shops are not impossible to appear as a substitute for entertainment, a place to hang out, and a place to share information for the people of Makassar city. Therefore, the cultural process that develops so naturally must be appreciated because it has an important role in the transformation of space which is currently being symptomatic in almost all corners of Makassar city.

The existence of a coffee shop in Makassar city has created a new identity, through the creation of a space where Makassar city residents from various economic, educational, and social status backgrounds meet. Coffee shops are also a means of glue for the cultural diversity of the people of Makassar city. But on the other hand, the creation of community centers of this kind is also part of a process of cultural escalation towards the search for a new identity, especially for the younger generation. Chaney [35] in his book Lifestyle argues that “a lifestyle or ways of behaving that are related to conventional expectations which then form new patterns of choice through ways of taste patterns that shape and support the hierarchy of privileges and status".

The culture of enjoying coffee in coffee shops can be categorized as a popular culture when referring to Agger's opinion, according to him, popular culture has a lot to do with everyday problems that can be enjoyed by all people or certain people [36]. Popular culture has more influence on groups of young people and is the center of society's ideology and culture, even though popular culture continues to be a contradiction and debate [36]. Popular culture also becomes part of elite culture in certain societies and shows more of the entertainment side, which then seems more consumptive. This is what underlies Dyer by arguing that "entertainment is a personal need of the society that has been influenced by the capitalist structure" [37].

Popular culture can be grouped into several streams, namely: (a) culture is built based on fun but not substantial, and relieves people from the boredom of working all day long, (b) popular culture destroys traditional cultural values, (c) culture becomes a big problem in the view of Marx's capitalist economy, and (d) popular culture is a culture that drips from above [38]. The culture of drinking coffee for urban people with modern characteristics is closely related to the view of time. Sztompka [39] sees “modern consumer society is marked by shopping and holiday seasons. As a result, the date, apart from having a calendar meaning, is also culturally meaningful for certain people.”

Sztompka [40] describes the characteristics of modernity in everyday life which can be seen in the following phenomena:

(3) Separation between work and leisure time, and more leisure time, (4) increasing consumerism. Daily life is focused on income and consumption of goods that are considered as symbols of an important role (conspicuous consumption, shopping as a self-satisfying activity regardless of the real need to buy).

The culture of consumerism in modern society can be seen from several aspects. Consumerism is a form of expansion of capitalist commodity production which has led to an increase in the widespread accumulation of material culture in the form of consumer goods and places of purchase and consumption. This has led to the growth of consumption activities and the prominence of the use of leisure time in contemporary western society.

Meanwhile, the sociological perspective sees that a person's satisfaction obtained from consumed goods is related to his socially structured access. The focus of this perspective lies in the various ways people use goods, in order to create social bonds or social differences. Another perspective is the emotional enjoyment of consumption activities and especially the places of consumption activities that cause arousal and aesthetic pleasure directly to the body. What unites a number of writers are the attention to consumption as a communicative activity rather than an instrumental activity. The focus of attention on images, signs, and symbols of consumption also causes renewed interest in personal identity rather than collective practice [41].

On the other hand, Bourdieu in Scott [41], sees consumption as motivated by the need for social groups to achieve status through differences that strengthen the class position. For Bourdieu, “a sense of judgment is rooted in habitus, is a marker of social class and is closely linked to the hierarchy of access to economic capital, cultural capital and social capital”. This is what underlies Scott's statement that consumerism emphasizes consumer culture and personal identity.

4.1 Coffee shop as public space for Makassar city community

Discussions and debates in public life show that democracy needs space to share experiences and correct its implementation in state life. This is what Jurgen Habermas calls the public sphere. The public sphere for Kellner is a place for information, discussion, contestation, political struggle, and organization, which includes broadcast media and new cyberspace, as well as face-to-face interactions in everyday life. What is meant by public space here is all organs of information and political debate, such as newspapers and journals, as well as political discussion institutions, such as parliaments, political clubs, salons and public assemblies, drinking places and coffee shops, meeting halls, and public spaces. Another public space, where discussions on social, political issues can take place.

Habermas identifies the public sphere as an area of ​​social life that ensures access for all citizens to interact, conduct free rational discussions, identify common problems and, through these discussions, influence political action. In Habermas' view, the public sphere is:

An arena that is free from the government (even if it is financed by the government) and also one that enjoys autonomy from partisan economic forces, devoted to rational debate (i.e. for debate and discussion that is not based on interests, disguises, and manipulation), and accessible and supervised by the public. It is here, in this public space, that public opinion is built (Imron Rosidin).

Habermas explained that the "public sphere refers to the functions of criticism and control of state authorities which are carried out by the public informally, as well as formally during periodic elections" (Imron Rosidin).

Habermas argues that in seventeenth and eighteenth century Europe (and, in particular, in England), the gradual spread of capitalism made possible the emergence of a different kind of public sphere: the “bourgeois public sphere”. The bourgeois public sphere is increasingly becoming a significant part of social life, made up of private individuals gathered together in public places (such as the coffee shops of the seventeenth century in London, the salons of France, and the table societies of Germany. in the eighteenth century) to elaborate on the key issues of the time (particularly political affairs) and exchange views and opinions on matters important to the common good.

The position of public space for urban communities is very important, considering its function in providing space for people to interact and socialize with social and cultural issues freely without pressure. The development of coffee shops in Makassar city cannot be separated from the influence of modernization and globalization which is strengthened by the mass media. The coffee shop that is becoming a trend in the United States has exported its image to Indonesia. Modern coffee shops that have sprung up and dominate the current coffee shop business in Makassar city are stalls managed by owners of large capital. With adequate capital, good management, such coffee shops are able to exist in the midst of coffee shop business competition because they are able to capture market tastes. Meanwhile, the coffee shops that existed earlier, but were not accompanied by adequate capital, management, and management that followed the tastes of the market, then such coffee shops will run in place or even go out of business.

In Makassar city, Warkop Phoenam (“Warkop” in Indonesian Term as Warung Kopi, in English: Coffee Shop)is one of the most phenomenal warkop. Others call it Warkop Dottoro, Dg. Sija, Dg. Anas, Cappo, Warkop 76, Lagaligo, Aleta, Ogie, Planet, La Mario, Coffee Zone, Buana, Rally, and others. Meanwhile, the presence of other coffee shops or new coffee shops, by carrying out and offering new concepts and sensations, has also begun to attract interest from Makassar city residents.

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5. The socio-cultural entity

From the perspective of a global cultural approach, we see that globalization is driven by cultural uniformity based on the mass media so that it threatens culture and national identity. This is what underlies McLuhan's term global village with the basic idea being that "the spread of mass media, especially television and now the internet, aims that everyone in the world can be exposed, almost instantly, to the same image.

Horton and Hunt [42] see it from the point of view of "whether an action is important or not important".

Values ​​are collective (together) ideas about what is considered good, important, desirable, and considered worthy, as well as about what is considered not good, unimportant, unwanted, and inappropriate in a culture. Values ​​refer to things that are important in human life, both as individuals and as members of society. There are three classifications of social values: (1) material value, namely, everything that is useful for the body or tangible objects that can be used as human physical needs, (2) vital value, is everything that is useful for humans so that they can carry out activities or activities in his life, (3) spiritual values, (spiritual) humans that are universal.

The coffee shop that exists in Makassar city today is a coffee shop that has experienced a shift in meaning from a traditional coffee shop that only offers coffee as a means of mere physical need to a modern coffee shop that offers sensation and atmosphere (relaxed atmosphere, sexy waiters, internet facilities). Free and various other supporting facilities). So that visitors are happy to spend their time at the coffee shop. In modern coffee shops, it is easy to find visitors who carry out socialization or political negotiations, business transactions, free and fluid discussions of social and cultural issues, as well as those who use coffee shops as a means of releasing congestion and fatigue caused by pressure in the world of work.

The presence of a coffee shop as a means of tudang sipulung for the residents of Makassar city has had an impact on the young people of the city. The coffee shop, which was previously characterized by the majority of visitors from the elderly, has now turned to the young world. Young people as the center of an ideological change, with the presence of coffee shops, slowly but surely have an effect on the increase in consumerism among them. However, the presence of a warung should be seen as something that is beneficial for the social life of the diverse people of Makassar city. Coffee shops should be able to become a means of socio-cultural glue for city residents and a good educational tool for young people.

5.1 Changes in the meaning of coffee shops as space for socio-cultural entities

The rapidly increasing population of Makassar city makes the need for public spaces also increase (Figure 1). This potential seems to be well captured by entrepreneurs by opening a coffee shop. The development of coffee shops in Makassar city is more or less related to the culture of the people of Makassar city. H. Haerullah stated:

Figure 1.

The dimensions of change in socio-cultural entities.

The development of coffee shops in Makassar City cannot be separated from the culture of the Bugis-Makassar people who really like to hang out even though they seem to tend to waste time (interview, January 30, 2017).

Nawi BS, an IT practitioner who sometimes hangs out at a coffee shop 7 days a week, sees:

The emergence of coffee shops in Makassar City is because South Sulawesi people like to get together and like to drink coffee (interview 17 January 2017).

A coffee shop for coffee connoisseurs is a new public space and social space that allows its visitors to socialize with fellow visitors, both from the community and outside the community. From the habit of visiting coffee shops, coffee shop visitors can make many friends or acquaintances. The intensity of visits to coffee shops is high, making them individuals who are easy to accept new friends. The coffee shop is a unifier in the midst of the diversity of Makassar city residents. For Muhammad Yusuf, this function should receive attention and continue to be developed, as in his following statement:

The social benefits of a coffee shop are as a unifier, socializing in a coffee shop without looking at SARA elements (interview on January 15, 2017).

The improvement of services and facilities provided by coffee shop managers in Makassar city today emphasizes the function of coffee shops as a socio-cultural space for the people of Makassar city. The provision of space with adequate air conditioning facilities makes coffee shops a viable choice for various elements of society. Not infrequently we meet local authorities holding meetings to socialize their programs to both their subordinates and the community or coffee shop community.

In addition to discussions in formal forms that are usually carried out by local authorities and company leaders to their employees. In fact, the discussions that are much livelier are those carried out by various communities at their respective tables. The themes raised as topics of discussion are generally situational, depending on events or social realities currently being hotly discussed by the community at that time.

The phenomenon that is also currently developing towards the use of coffee shop space as a social space is bazaar activities by students, birthdays, and reunions. Ahmad Syamsuddin stated that:

In addition to interacting as ordinary people, I see that coffee shops have been transformed to replace our living rooms. In the past I wanted to meet an old friend, “let's go home, meet at home”, but now, “let's meet at a coffee shop”. From some of the writings that I read, the houses that are being built now tend to shrink both in terms of size and in terms of function. In the past, the living room had a social function, interaction with neighbors, family who came, work matters, business. This is almost never done in living rooms but shifts to coffee shop spaces (interview 24 January 2017).

From the observations, it was found data that it is not uncommon for disputes that arise as a result of social or business relationships to be resolved in coffee shops. Which problems like this were previously solved at home or in the office.

5.2 Changing the meaning of coffee shops as an effective political means

The diversity of visitors to coffee shops in Makassar city is so obvious. There are all kinds of people in the coffee shop. Coffee shops do not discriminate between ethnicity, religion, and race, do not differentiate between rank, position, and occupation. All mingle in a coffee shop space that is free, relaxed, relaxed, and fluid. This diversity is one of the attractions for politicians to enliven the coffee shop discussions.

This phenomenon has grown rapidly since the direct election of mayors was held in Makassar, and it has been cultivated by most politicians in Makassar city. There are several forms of activities carried out by politicians in coffee shops, including events that are packaged in the form of talk shows which usually take place in collaboration with radio stations, local newspapers, and coffee shop managers. From the writer's observation and involvement in coffee shops during this research, the most common form is the socialization of political actors through photos, posters, and billboards that are often attached to the walls of coffee shops.

Socialization carried out by candidates for rulers or candidates for members of the council, basically got mixed responses for the coffee shop community. For those who are not related to practical politics, the activities carried out by politicians in coffee shops are less effective in influencing the preferences of a voter, as stated by Ahmad Syamsuddin that:

Politicians socializing in coffee shops means entering one's spare time. When people are having fun and being happy, they come in and offer an issue or program, making it easier to accept. Personally, it's not very effective at influencing one's preferences (interview 25 January 2017).

Meanwhile, Muhammad Yusuf saw that the activities of political actors in coffee shops had many benefits. Muhammad Yusuf said that:

Personally, at least he treats coffee and cigarettes. At least we know who the candidates will be, we get information about the programs offered. This is a political lesson that is not obtained in college or school (interview on 15 January 2017).

In the world of politics, coffee shops provide an adequate contribution to education and information about politics for some residents of Makassar city. This happened because the political discussions both formally and informally were so intense in coffee shops. Socialization is usually done by political figures or authorities in coffee shops can be a source of information and reference for the coffee shop community. Likewise, the socialization carried out by the candidates and their volunteers, who will advance in a contest for the seat of power in Makassar city, becomes material or source of information for the coffee shop community about the current condition of Makassar city. This is possible because, in socialization or imaging like this, most of the actors discuss the current condition of Makassar city and ideas for future improvements. The frequent discussions of this kind in coffee shops are also one of the main attractions as news material for journalists to hang out in coffee shops. So it is no exaggeration if Ahmad Syamsuddin, states that:

The coffee shop is a place to get news, gather and share information with journalists (interview on January 24, 2017).

One of the clear differences between the coffee shops of the past and the coffee shops of today is adequate facilities for visitors to access information. The coffee shop managers generally provided accessible information facilities, such as television, newspapers, and internet networks. It is from this facility that coffee shop visitors get information. The information obtained is often a hot topic of discussion in coffee shop spaces.

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6. Conclusions

  1. The change in the meaning of traditional coffee shops to modern coffee shops is marked by simple facilities that develop into public spaces equipped with facilities and information such as television, newspapers, and internet networks to meet the needs and satisfaction of visitors.

  2. Coffee shops have become socio-cultural entities in developing patterns of interaction and interrelation as unifiers in association regardless of race, religion, and so on.

  3. Coffee shops have been used as a means of political discussion and self-image, both formally and informally, socializing work programs with political figures or authorities and effectively digging up actual information from visitors.

  4. Today's coffee shops have a new entity, namely as a unifier in association regardless of race, ethnicity, religion and as a means of political discussion and self-image, both formally and informally.

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Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

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Written By

Maksud Hakim and Ali Syahban Amir

Submitted: February 13th, 2022 Reviewed: February 22nd, 2022 Published: May 10th, 2022