Due to the risk of radiation exposure, radiation dosimetry is performed regularly to ensure the occupational safety of personnel and radiation workers. Therefore, various dosimeters are widely used to detect neutrons, gamma, X-ray, and proton irradiation fields. As an example, in medical applications, routine personal dosimetry is used to monitor and limit workers’ long-term occupational exposure. Radiation workers who undertake X-ray diagnostic, radiotherapy operations, in clinical and industrial application. Although, the overheads of running an in-house TLD (Thermoluminescent dosimetry) service for monitoring doses to eyes, pacemakers and so on seems rather high for the benefits conferred, however, it is still widely used for reporting doses accurately in various medical centers over the world. TLD also is widely used for measuring entrance doses on a handful of patients to validate a new LINAC/TPS combination. As well as in the industrial field as if petroleum, companies or nuclear reactor, RSO (radiation safety officer) used TLD badges to report delivered doses. In this chapter, we focus on the TLD technique for measuring doses of various ionizing radiation detection. Different methods for evaluations of TL Kinetics are covered. Modern TLD applications in the clinical field are also investigated. Some recommendations on advance dosimetry failure of TLD are concluded.
- TL kinetics
- hybrid-functional density theory
- modern clinical applications
TLD method is considered an important technique as it can store radiation in trap centers for long period. Glow peaks of thermoluminescence dosimeters are later measured and discussed based on some models related to the physical changes in the band structure of dosimeter because of ionizing radiation exposure. A wide range of substances exhibits thermoluminescence (TL) phenomena after being exposed to nuclear radiation such as activated LiF and CaSO4. Thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) emits light when heated up after being irradiated. Due to this special property, TLD could be used as a radiation dosimeter. TLD has many advantages and sensitive to different types of radiation. A dosimeter of higher TL response to thermal neutrons is most commonly used in mixed radiation fields (neutron and gamma ray). The sensitivity of TLD to neutrons depends on the detector compound type, environment and neutron energy. For neutron dosimetry purposes, the neutron and gamma ray dose contribution must be separated by using two different detector types of TLD. The first one should be sensitive to gamma and the other should be sensitive to neutrons plus gamma (as LiF-700 and LiF-600) [1, 2].
The response of fast neutrons depends on the cross-section for the interaction in TLD material and the relative TL efficiency, which depends on the linear energy transfer (LET) of the reaction products in the first place. The response to intermediate-energy depends mainly on the cross-section of the reaction, which may take place with the composite material of the TLD.
1.1 TLD applications in neutron and gamma ray dosimetry
Generally, there are three types of TLD used for neutron dosimetry as follow:
1.1.1 Albedo neutron dosimeter
A considerable fraction of intermediate and fast neutrons can be slowed down to epithermal neutron energy and backscattered in the human body, interacting with the sensitive TL material. An albedo neutron dosimeter is a type of neutron monitor and is typically used in the neutron energy range of 0.2 eV to around 0.5 MeV. The slow neutrons interact with TL material, usually through 6Li (n,α) 3H reaction, and the resulting induced charged particles to stimulate the TL material. Recently, some of albedo TLD dosimeters depend on 10B (n, α) 7Li reactions. Because neutron TL sensitive material responds to gamma radiation, and neutrons are accompanied by this gamma radiation, another TLD is usually utilized in conjunction with TLD with a gamma ray.
The neutron albedo dosimeter measures (a) direct fast neutrons, (b) direct thermal neutrons, and (c) albedo neutrons reflected from the body. This type of dosimeter uses Lexan polycarbonate and/or CR-39 foils, as well as two 10B (n, γ) 7Li converters in a cadmium cover, to efficiently measure the three neutron dosage components independently [3, 4, 5]. Fast neutron dose is assessed in CR-39 by counting proton recoil tracks, while thermal neutron dose is determined by counting α particles created during the process. Because the albedo dosimeter has a sensitivity range of 0.3–30 mSv, it is advised that it be used as a backup dosimeter to assist in the assessment of high dose values in the event of accidents or patients receiving neutron therapy.
In another application, the 10B (n, α) 7Li reactions with the backscattered albedo neutrons employed with Electret’s ionization chamber proposed by Seifert et al. [6, 7]. In this chamber, induced 7Li from the ionization of the gas in the chamber worn on the body’s surface in the above reaction instance. Under saturation conditions, produced charge carriers with the corresponding polarity travel to the surface of the electret. As a result, the change in the electrets voltage is a direct measure of albedo neutron fluence and an indirect estimate of primary neutron fluence. In general, the advantages of albedo TLD dosimeter are: they are relatively inexpensive and can be reused, easily fabricated, lightweight to wear, Readout is simple and can be automated, Insensitive to humidity.
While their disadvantages are: Some of TLD exhibit fading, TLD is sensitive to gamma-ray, they must be worm properly or serious errors can be resulted, the measured values of TLD does not give permanent record as the track detectors, their sensitivity is highly dependent on the angle and energy of incidence radiation.
1.1.2 Hydrogenous radiator TLDs
In this type of dosimeters, the fast neutrons knock out protons from hydrogenous material mixed with the phosphor, and the protons dispel their energy in the dosimeter. In this method, the hydrogenous substances are called proton radiators . This technique has demonstrated that TL materials mixed with hydrogenous material can detect fast neutrons, but the sensitivity needs to be improved by one order of magnitude before using in personnel neutron dosimetry.
1.1.3 LET-dependent deep trap TLD glow peaks
The fast neutron interacts directly with the TL material as calcium fluoride (CaF2:Tm) which is commercially called TLD-300. This type has a glow curve with two glow peaks and the peak temperature Tm centered 150 and 250°C, respectively. The higher temperature peak (250°C) has a greater response to the fast neutrons. TLD-300 dosimeter CaF2: Tm (0.35 Mol. %) showed a lower detection limit of about 0.3 mSv from 241Am-Be source.
2. Characteristic of TLD phosphors
2.1 The glow curve
The term “Glow curve” refers to the graph of TL as a function either of temperature or of time as shown in Figure 1.
Glow curves have the following features:-
The glow curve of a certain phosphor probably best characterizes that phosphor. For example, the appearance of glow peaks only at low temperatures implies that the phosphor loses its stored TL with time, and therefore would be unsuitable for long-term measurements.
A peak at very high temperatures indicates a phosphor that will produce infrared radiation at the temperature necessary to release the TL. This is a problem for the instrumentation.
A glow curve without well-defined peaks makes the selection of the appropriate end for integration difficult. Ideally then, a glow curve should reveal only a single thermoluminescent peak, which occurs at a temperature high enough to ensure room temperature stability but not so high as to present instrumental problems. However, the temperature at which a TL peak appears is quite affected by the heating rate.
The following factors may affect the shape of the glow curve:
2.2 TL sensitivity
The sensitivity of TLD should be evaluated for competitor’s materials to determine the dose linearity, sub linearity or supralinearity behavior of phosphors. The sensitivity and thermal stability of glass samples were found to be dependent on both the starting materials and the method of preparation in Refs. [9, 10, 11, 12, 13].
2.3 Dose rate dependence
TL dosimeters, in general, have demonstrated no dose rate effects over a wide range.
TL is the release, in the form of visible light, of energy absorbed from previous irradiation. The rate at which this energy is released is dependent upon the phosphor temperature and increases sharply at a higher temperature. Even though the concept of “glow peak temperature” that temperature at which the maximum of the glow peak occurs, is both useful and easily demonstrated. It should be remembered that a finite rate of loss of stored energy exists even for much lower temperatures. If a phosphor shows an insignificant loss of TL at room temperature, it is said to have good stability.
3. TL kinetics
The physical process leading to the emission of TL from a sample is related in most cases to the traffic of charge carriers, usually electrons and holes, between different imperfection states in the solid sample. Studying the kinetics of the TL process means the investigation of electron–hole transitions between energy states in cases of both the irradiation of the TL sample and the readout processes. Although, in most experimental situations the TL curve consists of several overlapping peaks, it is appropriate to start the discussion by dealing with a single peak to understand the basic process. For most purposes, it is not necessary to assume that the glow curve consists of only one peak. The analysis of a single peak may just be valid if a series of peaks occur, provided that the peak of interest is sufficiently separated from others, either because it appears separately or because we have an efficient method to isolate it from the rest of the curve.
3.1 First kinetics order
If n is the number of trapped electrons in the sample, which is maintained at constant temperature T, n decreases with time t as:
From Eq. (1) we get:
The rate of photon emission, and hence the rate of release of electrons from traps to their rate of arrival at luminescence centers, determine the strength of the TL glow peak .
When the dosimeter is heated with rate =d
Substitute in Eq. (2), we get:
Substitute in Eq. (3)
It should be noted that
Equation (7) describes the condition of the occurrence of the maximum intensity and the determination of the corresponding temperature, which we call,
The initial concentration
This appears well in the condition of the
We see that changing the heating rate
3.1.1 Second kinetics order
One assumption made up by Randall and Wilkins  which led to the first kinetics order was that once a charge carrier is thermally elevated into the band, it is bound to recombine rather quickly with an opposite sign carrier trapped in a recombination center. Gralick and Gibson  considered another case in which the free carriers may re-trap with equal retrapping recombination probabilities with the further assumption that the concentration of electrons in traps and holes in recombination centers are equal during the entire process. Denoting the total number of traps of the given type (free electrons or holes) by N, they found the kinetics equation:
For linear heating rate
Substitute in Eq. (10),
where Eq. (12) represents the intensity of a glow peak according to the second kinetics order model. At high temperature, the second decreasing function dominates so that the product function is decreasing. Somewhere between two regions the glow curve, therefore, reaches its maximum. Figure 4 Displays a hypothetical glow peak plotted using Eq. (12).
Multiply by and rearrange, one gets
Then Eq. (13) represents the condition of the peak maximum according to the second kinetics order. As can see
Both in the first order and second order, as well as other cases,
Now we can consider the dependence of different portions of the second-order peak on
This shows immediately that for a given temperature in this range the dependence of
Figure 5 shows plotted glow peaks using Eq. (12) for different no. In the low-temperature range, the TL intensity appears to depend on no. As
3.1.2 A single TL peak analysis
As seen in Figure 6, the concentration of the trapping state is denoted by
However, the actual rate of change of n is also related to the retraping term. The rate of retraping is proportional to the concentration of free electrons
The third equation is that of charge neutrality. In its simplest form, it should read
Now let us discuss the kinetics of the process in more general terms and see how the simplified cases of first, second, and more general cases emerge from Eqs. (17)–(20). Two simplifying assumptions were first made by Adirovitch  and later by many other investigators [19, 20, 21, 22, 23]. These are related to the relation between the concentration of the electrons in the conduction band and in traps and to the rate of change of these concentrations, namely:
Although, it seems to be the same connection between these two conditions, basically they are two separate relations and the occurrence of one does not necessarily imply the other. With these assumptions, Helperin and Braner  found the expression:
Since this equation contains two unknown functions,
The condition of Eq. (22) is the relation between functions rather than parameters. It is, therefore, possible that at the low-temperature range of a glow peak, the strong inequality holds, and at higher temperatures where m and n decreases, the inequality “weakens” may be inverted. This may result in a shift from first-order behavior to non-first-order behavior within the same peak .
Then, one can say that:
Then Eq. (22) will take the following form:
The abovementioned second kinetics order, resulting from different assumptions associated with Eq. (22). In one set of assumptions, one can take
In addition, we have to assert the retraping dominates 
We also suppose that the trap is far from being saturated, i.e., the retrapping duration.
Then, from Eq. (26) one can write:
and since we have assumed that
Then, apply to Eq. (22), we get:
Alternatively, one can assume, in addition to the concentration equality, that
Then Eq. (22) takes the same form of Eq. (8) which is found by Gralick and Gibson . Where Eq. (30) sums up both these possibilities by employing the parameter
It should be emphasized that two cases discussed so far, namely first and second kinetics order, are only special cases in a sense, extreme cases and the general case described by equations Eq. (17) through Eq. (19) may be neither first nor second order even if the simplifying conditions of Eq. (21) are assumed to be general. The resulting Eq. (20) consists of many intermediate cases that do not have a distinct kinetics order. Although, some researchers still attempt to determine for every TL peak a first or second kinetics order .
Several attempts [16, 26] have been made to add a third parameter to the two basic ones, the activation energy
The kinetics order,
where as it is shown in Figure 7, and T1 and
Of course, intermediate symmetries represented by different values of
where Eq. (35) represents glow peak intensity according to the general kinetics order.
A few words of caution are in order with respect to this treatment. First, although Eq. (34) has been shown to quite accurately described measured TL peaks [27, 28], it is to be noted that in most cases it is only an empirical presentation and is not based on the three differential equations [Eqs. (17) up to (19)], seem to be more physically significant. However, the general order case is still important because it can handle intermediate circumstances and smooth the first and second-order cases as
3.1.3 General-order kinetics
May and Partridge supposed the empirical equation that has been suggested to explain the thermoluminescence glow peak if the first or second-order kinetics do not describe the glow peak. The equation is namely the general- order kinetics and written by:
Hence is called the pre-exponential factor, the order of kinetics and the rang supposed between 1 and 2 but sometimes this rang has able to be greater than those. The pre-exponential factor is constant for given the dose, however, it differs with changing the absorbed dose with.
3.1.4 Trap parameters evaluation techniques
22.214.171.124 Empirical methods
126.96.36.199 Initial rise method
According to Eqs. (6), (12) and (3), we can say that at the start of the glow peak (initial rise region) the TL intensity is proportional to , irrespective of whether the first kinetics order is obeyed or not . This temperature relationship persists until the quantity of trapped electrons is drastically reduced. Hence, by plotting Log (I) versus 1/T, the value of
From Eq. (6), we see that when
Therefore, the range of the initial rise must be chosen in which the second exponential function has minimum influence on the TL intensity temperature dependence. Therefore, it is necessary to restrict the temperature range such that the TL intensity does not exceed one-tenth of the maximum intensity .
On the temperature scale, a series of points were taken at equal intervals and plotted as ln(I) versus (1/T). The value Ec can then be calculated from the slope of the straight line as the energy determined by the initial rise technique; this value is smaller than the real activation energy
The range of applicability of this equation is restricted by:
188.8.131.52 Peak shape method
Grossweiner  established the first peak shape approach for first-order peaks, writing:
and for second-order peak:
Chen  improved these equations by adding a factor of 0.976 in front of the former and replacing the factor 2 by 1.71 in the latter.
Where stands for and the values of and for the three methods are:
184.108.40.206 Various heating rates method
The activation energy that will be evaluated from Eq. (54) will be of course in accord with the first kinetics order only. However, Chen and Winer , Chen and Kirsh  showed that it can be used as a very good approximation for nonfirst-order cases as well.
The maximum condition, Eq. (16), can also take the following form:
According to this equation, Hoogenstraaten  suggested using several heating rates, a plot of ln(β
3.1.5 Three points method
A new technique was developed by Rasheedy , to evaluate the trap parameters from the measured glow curve according to the general kinetics order.
The behavior of a phosphor’s TL intensity is determined by the following equation, , for generic kinetics order.
Where the pre-exponential factor
This method is based on the proportional of the concentration of populated traps during the running of the TL to the area under the glow peak.
A simple analytical method has been developed to obtain the relative value of
Thus, by calculating the kinetics order
3.1.6 Glow curve analysis (peak shape methods)
A review of the expression used in an intercomparison of glow curve analysis computer programs to evaluate TLD-100 glow curve is given in Ref.  where
Where the parameter α is defined in Eq. (67) as
where the constants
Equation (68) will be used throughout our results which give better fitting to the resultant deconvoluted peaks. Different software was developed by Ratovonjanahary et al. , which uses the first kinetics order with an approximation of the second kinetics order. In this software the following equation was used:
4. Modern clinical applications of TLD
TLD is widely used in various clinical fields for different purposes. The key reasons are undoubtedly their widespread availability, well-studied dosimetric characteristics, and applicability across a broad dose range. Imaging and Radiation Oncology Core-Houston IROC-H conducts remote dosimetry audits on MV photon and electron beams. IROC-H usually used integration between TLD-100 and other dosimetry system like nanoDot or diode systems for achieving the dose commissioning and calibrating dosimetry systems in an acrylic mini-phantom . The failure rate was recorded in dose curves after modeling of the TPS (RayStation-Elekta Inc.) using phantom tests, which was not observed by patient-specific IMRT QA. Such failure was related to little changes in the MLC leaf-tip offset rather than leaf-tip width. Koger and his team  in IROC-H prosed four labeled TLD distributed in an anthropomorphic head-and-neck phantom for correcting such failure, (see Figure 11). It was utilized a 3D diode array were used in addition to assess the detectability of modeling mistakes .
Another crucial issue is to increase the staff’s awareness about radiation safety and enhance radiation protection against unnecessary radiation doses. For such purpose, TLD-100 was recently used to validate occupational doses both inside and outside the nuclear medicine department, radiation protection purposes as well as the dose rate distribution around the positron emission tomography or computed tomography (PET/CT) .
Some recent studies were envisaged to see how the department compared to reports from other centers across the world in terms of the annual number of procedures and exposure limits, and to see if there was an opportunity for further radiation protection enhancements. As an example, personal TLD was calibrated to estimate the personal equivalent dose Hp (10) and Hp (0.07) at PET/CT. It was used for assessing the employee’s exposure . On the other hand, TLD rings personal dosimeters were worn by surgeons in their fingers through sentinel node biopsy procedure to measure personal doses Hp(10) and Hp(0.07), as well as ambiental dose for operating theater and during injection . This will assure that personal equivalent doses are within the acceptable annual determined limits .
Other important recent TLD application in diagnostics is using an anthropomorphic phantom that modeled the reference person to get a conversion coefficient connecting dose area product (DAP) to effective patient dosage. They concluded that the effective dosage at the clinical dark-field radiography system, which generates both attenuation and dark-field pictures, is within the range of chest radiography standard dose values .
TLDs showed to be an excellent choice for skin dosimetry. Omojola et al.  used TLD in measurements of 3D skin dosimetry and verify their results using TPS planning verification at specific spots in the phantom. A full perspective of the dose distribution was achieved; however, they revealed that regions outside the PTV require special attention [52, 53, 54].
In addition, in the field of proton therapy, a novel tissue-equivalent TLD-sheet of manganese doped lithium triborate showed a valuable and effective dosimetry technique. It may also be a great in vivo skin dosimetry instrument for proton treatment due to its flexible and reusable properties. Despite the presence of significant energy dependences in the Bragg peak region, the response properties studied in this work, including as reproducibility, fading effects, dosage linearity and dose homogeneity are acceptable .
Monte Carlo (MC) simulation is considered a good tool to understand well the TLD . Some algorithm methods based on MC as if pencil beam could be involved in accurate dose in MV radiotherapy calculations. It could be useful to calculate the spectrum inside the detector based on four categories primary photon and electrons and secondary photon and electrons .
On the other hand, Low-energy (100 keV) photons (x-rays and gamma) have been widely employed in biological research and medical applications for more than a century, including mammography, fluoroscopy, general radiography, computed tomography, and brachytherapy treatment, among others. The majority of electrons created by low photon energy beams have energies below 10 keV, according to research. The physical processes through which these low-energy electrons interact with matter, on the other hand, are still unknown. Furthermore, it is commonly thought that all energy put within a dosimeter-sensitive volume is converted into a response. However, this assumption could be inaccurate because some of the deposited energy could be utilized to build flaws or damages at the molecular and atomic levels .
The hybrid-functional density theory (H-DFT) has shown to be a promising tool for localizing secondary electrons within a dosimeter volume and calculating the energy spent on creating defects or colors centers, among other things, when it comes to the relationship between the energy deposited and the response of a dosimeter. Following that, the quantity of energy that can be truly turned into a dosimeter response following exposure to ionizing radiation would be more accurately determined.
The aim of this chapter is concerned with TLD materials, measurements and recent various applications in clinical and industrial fields. TL kinetics are also covered in details due to their importance in knowing traps parameters and band structure-related phenomena that are responsible for TL phenomena. Modern clinical applications of TLD are also covered like quality assurance purposes for proton, x-ray and gamma radiotherapy based on phantom tests. In addition, we shed spot on using TLD for recent accurate methods for skin dose evaluation under IMRT/VMAT radiotherapy. Special attention should be oriented to hybrid-functional density theory Monte Carlo simulation to model TL dosimeters. Recent studies proved a promising tool for localizing secondary electrons within a dosimeter volume and calculating the energy spent on creating defects or colors centers, among other things, when it comes to the relationship between the energy deposited and the response of a dosimeter. Such methods could give knowledge about misunderstanding behaviors of some TLD and could eliminate its disadvantages like missing TL signal or fading; angle and energy of incidence ionizing radiation. In general, the properties of TLD like its inexpensive cost and reusability; easily fabricated, lightweight to wear, readout is simple and can be automated, insensitive to humidity make it advantageous in different clinical and radiation safety applications.
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