Open access peer-reviewed chapter - ONLINE FIRST

Combined Ketogenic Diet and Walking Exercise Interventions in Community Older Frailty and Skeletal Muscle Sarcopenia

By Jia-Ping Wu

Submitted: October 17th 2021Reviewed: November 10th 2021Published: December 16th 2021

DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.101579

Downloaded: 27

Abstract

The ketogenic diet and walking exercise training interventions are two key public health lifestyle factors. The potential of combined lifestyle factors interventions focused on getting to compliance in diet and exercise. A balanced ketogenic diet and regular exercise interventions is key modifiable factor to the prevention and management of community older frailty and skeletal muscle sarcopenia. Influence health across the lifespan and reduction of the risk of premature death through several biochemistry mechanisms. Community older group’s lifestyle factors interventions contribute identity in their natural living environment. While the older health benefits of walking exercise training interventions strategies are commonly to study, combining ketogenic diet and walking exercise interventions can induce greater benefits in community older groups.

Keywords

  • ketogenic diet
  • exercise therapy
  • community health planning
  • natural
  • exercise intervention

1. Introduction

The ketogenic diet is a 60% high-fat, 30% adequate-protein, and 10% low-carbohydrate diet used to treat aging-related diseases in the community older groups. The ketogenic diet interventions are a specialized diet that involves a highly restricted intake of carbohydrates and proteins and a high proportion of fat consumption in community older groups [1]. It has proven to be used in the treatment of older-related diseases in community groups because the mechanism of action of the ketogenic diet interventions causes changes in the levels of ketone bodies with exercise training interventions in the body, reducing the aging-related diseases [2, 3]. The purpose of this chapter review was to systematically review the systemic effects of ketogenic diet restriction when combined with walking exercise intervention in community older groups. Thus, in this chapter review, we want to discuss combining ketogenic diet interventions and walking exercise interventions in community older groups. The ketogenic diets very high in fat can promote ketogenesis differently depending on other different macronutrient ratios [4]. The ketogenic diets intervention for weight loss in older humans may be counterproductive to obesity, however, which is not typically associated with NAFLD/NASH [5, 6]. Acetoacetate, acetone, and β-hydroxybutyrate are the three ketone bodies produced in community older groups. It is also important to eat healthy ketogenic diet interventions and exercise interventions regularly as well as a check-in with your healthcare provider [7]. After a short-time walking exercise, make appropriate adjustments based on your own feelings, such as frailty and sleepiness [8]. However, the benefits of walking exercise regimens improve the immune system, helps digestion, promote the release of muscle hormones, and when they enter the body to eliminate inflammation, reduce visceral fat, reduce inflammation, helps improve brain-derived neurotrophic factor substances, mitochondrial cells work normally, and help longevity [9]. The precise regimen of action of the combined ketogenic diet interventions and walking exercise interventions in community older groups is not known, although many possible interventions explanations have been proposed. There are many changes that occur in the body as a result of the ketogenic diet, but it is unclear which of these alterations is responsible for the walking exercise interventions effects. This is expected, however, as the mechanism of action of the combined ketogenic diet and walking exercise interventions in community older groups is similarly a mystery [10]. Sarcopenia and frailty are prevalent in the community of older aging-related diseases [11]. Sarcopenia is because of the presence of loss of muscle mass with low muscle strength and low physical function in the community older groups (Figure 1). What is sarcopenia? And what causes sarcopenia?

Figure 1.

Sarcopenia is a muscle-wasting condition disease. (A) Skeletal muscle strength loss is related to aging.(B). Skeletal muscle structure disruption is associated with aging.

Sarcopenia is defined as the loss of both coordination of muscle mass and strength, which causes difficulty walking and poor daily activities balance. Sarcopenia is a major aging-related disease with a health condition for contributes to public health and sociate. Aging-related skeletal muscle sarcopenia can lead to disability and lack of independence, as well as increase the risk of falls. Skeletal muscle strength loss led to lower muscle function (Figure 1A), and skeletal muscle structure disruption, in addition to a loss of muscle mass because of an increase in fat tissue skeletal muscle strength evaluated appendicular muscle mass was measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (Figure 1B). Aging disrupts skeletal muscle ability to lose maintain muscles. With aging, a lot of signals are sent from the brain to the muscle leading to a loss in mass and strong (Figure 2A). Frailty is a body system impairment associated with increased oxygen stressor. The walking exercise interventions regimens are to stave off frailty transitions over time among the elderly populations [12]. Both sarcopenia and frailty are detrimental outcomes in older adults to processes exacerbated by acute illness or injury. Multiple weight cycles in the community older groups are a predictor of lower muscle mass and reduced strength with potential for sarcopenia in elderly with obesity (Figure 2B). Severe obesity overweight cyclers with lower muscle mass and strength showed a greater risk of developing sarcopenia. Pro-inflammation is a hallmark of aging. Aging-associated obesity is adipose tissue and skeletal muscle inflammation associated with skeletal muscle loss and impaired myogenesis [13]. Combined ketogenic diet interventions and walking exercise interventions are shown to decline infiltration of proinflammatory macrophages in skeletal muscle sarcopenia in obesity and being associated with muscle insulin resistance in the community human older groups.

Figure 2.

Combined ketogenic diet and exercise interventions in community older groups. (A) The foods of the ketogenic diet we eat can support or hinder older health. The different intensity exercise interventions combined with the ketogenic diet have different effects on the older man’s health. (B) Obese sarcopenia can contribute to obesity-induced muscle loss. Aging-related sarcopenia contributes to age-induced muscle loss.

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2. The ketogenic diet in the community older skeletal muscle sarcopenia

The key aspect of the ketogenic diet is a high proportion of fats, adequate levels of protein, a low proportion of carbohydrates primarily used to treatment difficult-to-control aging chronic diseases [14]. The ketogenic diet is now used to treat in the community older groups for rapidly burning more fat when there is a low carbohydrate intake [15]. The ketogenic diet, low carbohydrate intake, can lead to elevated blood ketone bodies. Measured blood ketones levels can allow for adjustment of the ketogenic diet to meet the user’s needs [16]. But now new technologies are being researched in the breath acetone sensors are becoming more popular due to less invasiveness and convenience [17, 18, 19]. Future technologies are very promising but are still in the early development stages. The ketogenic diet became popular as a therapy for epilepsy in the 1920s and 30s. Recently, it was developed to provide an alternative to anti-aging, which had demonstrated success as an aging therapy [20]. However, the ketogenic diet interventions are eventually largely abandoned due to the mitochondrial dysfunction and excessive inflammatory responses to induce pathology in age-related diseases in the community older groups. There are several theories about the mechanism of action of the ketogenic diet intervention including increased acidity in the blood.

2.1 The Ketogenic diet is converted to ketone bodies

The ketogenic diets forces to burn off of fats rather than carbohydrates [21]. A ketogenic diet, a high fat, in food is converted triglyceride (TG). The liver converts triacylglycerol (TAG) into fatty acid and ketone bodies. An elevated ketone body in the blood eventually lowers the aging-related diseases [22]. We hoped that ketogenic diet therapy could be maintained ketone bodies by the liver in the community older groups. Blood ketone bodies were produced β-hydroxybutyrate, acetoacetate, and acetone. They consumed a very low-carbohydrate, and excess high-fat diet [23]. Ketone bodies (KBs) are considered as an alternative source of energy supply [24]. When a person eats a regular ketogenic diet, food is converted into glucose, which is transported around the body and used by various cells as an energy source [25], but when too little carbohydrates are available, the liver processes fats to provide the brain with energy in the form of fatty acids and ketone bodies. An increased blood level of ketone bodies is referred to as ketosis. These ketone bodies are thought to possess anti-aging properties in the community older groups, as β-hydroxybutyrate supplementary has been shown to protect old human health [26]. In 1921, endocrinologists demonstrated that ketone bodies were produced by the liver including three water-soluble compounds, acetone, β-hydroxybutyrate, and acetoacetate, as they eat a diet rich in fat and low in carbohydrates.

The key aspect of the ketogenic diet involves the restriction of carbohydrates, which are no longer able to be converted to glucose and provide for the body’s metabolic and energy needs . To compensate for this, fatty acids are converted into fuel sources through a process of oxidation in the mitochondria. To detect acetoacetate in blood, but does not react with β-hydroxybutyrate which is the predominant circulating ketone body. In the community older groups’ bodies can become more strongly positive as the metabolic derangements improve β-hydroxybutyrate is converted to acetoacetate . The ketogenic diet mimics aspects of starvation, the body is forced to burn fats rather than carbohydrates, when this is combined with a low intake of carbohydrates which causes the body to produce ketones . The stabilization of the ketogenic diet may occur as a result of the efficiency of the ketone bodies as a fuel source. The ketogenic diet is converted fatty acids to ketone bodies for energy to increase the number of mitochondria as the body adapts [27]. However, this is of no consequence provided the ketogenic diet converted ketone bodies (β-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate) are closing in community older groups and the patient is continuing to improve clinically (Figure 3A).

Figure 3.

The ketone body converses. (A) The ketogenic diet foods. (B) Ketogenic diet raised ketone body levels. Blood ketone bodies (<0.6 mmole/L) are markers specifically β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), acetoacetate (AcAc), and acetone. The breath acetone level is lower compared to blood BHB. Direct measurement of beta-hydroxybutyrate circumvents this problem. Therefore, the β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) blood test may underestimate the true circulating ketone bodies.

2.2 The β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) ketone supplements interventions in the community older skeletal muscle sarcopenia

It is not surprising that sarcopenia obesity or obese sarcopenia is linked to many adverse health outcomes, such as ketogenic diet and exercise training. Thus, skeletal muscle is the largest organ making up around 40% of body weight. It is essential for metabolic functions regulating blood glucose levels in the body. Furthermore, we discuss the role of β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) supplementary interventions exercise factors released by the liver [28]. Walking exercise training may be able to increase their blood β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) concentrations in the community older groups and be increased in ketosis. Endogenous production of high levels of the ketone body β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) is regarded as 5 mM blood BHB for 120 min after walking exercise in the older men (Figure 3B) [29]. This ketogenic diet has long been used as a treatment in the community of older men focused on the therapeutic effects of the ketone body β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB). Recent reports demonstrate that developed ketone can help significantly increase the blood circulating β-hydroxybutyrate in the community older humans [30]. Ketone supplements can efficiently attenuate age-related diseases in older humans. We argue this inflection point affects older human health. Some reports indicated that one of the ketone bodies, β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), in the community older humans can inhibit aging-related diseases, such as sarcopenia or Alzheimer’s disease (AD) . The favorable aspect of ketosis in both ketogenic diet and ketogenic supplements in aging-related diseases has been discussed. We summarize and suggest that aging research is entering a new milestone that has unique medical, commercial, and societal implications.

2.3 The different types of ketogenic diet intervention regimens in the community older skeletal muscle sarcopenia

Many foods and drugs used to treat these conditions can contribute to sarcopenia, as they can cause an imbalance in muscle metabolic and disrupt the pathways that control muscle mass. Nutritional ketogenic diet factors are also important for maintaining muscle and muscle growth in community older patients who may be sarcopenia and frailty. With an adequate intake of protein each day, most people should aim to lean meat, poultry, fish, seafood, eggs, nuts, seeds, and legumes (Figure 2A). The ketogenic diet intervention regimens are a special diet designed to help the community older groups that fail to respond adequately to aging-related diseases [31]. In the absence of glucose due to lack of carbohydrates in the ketogenic diet interventions, the community older groups are no longer able to be converted to glucose and provide the body’s metabolic and energy needs, fatty acids are the majored converted into the fuel sources through synthesized the ketone bodies β-hydroxybutyrate, acetoacetate and acetone [32, 33]. The ketogenic diet is a mixed diet containing low carbohydrates, consisting primarily of proteins and fat. Some healthy foods are eaten on a ketogenic diet, for example, seafood, low-carb vegetables, cheese, eggs, meat, poultry, coffee, and tea (Figure 3A) [34]. The importance of high fat in aging-related diseases reducing regimens on different walking exercise training models is shown by comparing the effects of four different types of ketogenic dietary regimens. A typical ketogenic diet interventions regimens are made up of the following: (I). A standard keto diet (SKD): typically contains a very low, only 5% carbohydrate, 15% moderate proteins, and 80% high fat diet. This classic SKD contains a 3:1 ratio to combined protein and carbohydrate. (II) The high protein keto diet (HPKD): this contains 5% carbohydrates, 35% protein, and 60% fat. HPKD is about the same as the standard keto diet but includes more protein. (III) The cyclical keto diet (CKD): this ketogenic diet feeds like 5 ketogenic days of periods of higher-carbs feeds, and then 2 high carbohydrate days. (IV) The targeted keto diet (TKD): this type of ketogenic diet allows you to add more around carbohydrates workouts. Although this keto diet is usually safe for diabetes, epilepsy, and aging-related diseases, they may be had some initial body adaptation. Be sure to consume a balanced optimized ketogenic diet to support your fitness program. All food groups are necessary to sustain healthy energy levels and get the most out of your workout [35]. A ketogenic diet contains 5% carbohydrates, carbohydrates are vital, as they can fuel your muscles before exercise [36]. Carbohydrates are also important after walking exercise training to replenish glycogen stores and assist with the absorption of amino acids into your muscles during recovery [37]. Up to 35% protein helps to improve muscle recovery after walking exercise training, repairs tissue damage, and builds muscle mass [38]. Up to 60% of consuming healthy fats has been shown to help burn body fat and preserve muscle fuel during workouts, making your energy last longer [39]. The ketogenic diet interventions contain adequate amounts of protein for body growth. The total protein in the ketogenic diet is also sufficient to maintain health for a given older age. In the classic ketogenic diet, the ratio of fats to carbohydrates and proteins combined is 4:1 [40]. Although it emerged in the community older groups of aging-related diseases could be effectively controlled using these interventions. They may still fail to achieve aging control in the community older groups [41]. For these intervention individuals, the ketogenic diet interventions were re-introduced as a technique for managing the condition. However, the ketogenic diet has been shown in a study of rats to have anti-aging properties and inhibit the development of aging-related diseases in the community older groups.

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3. The walking exercise intervention in the community older skeletal muscle sarcopenia

What causes of sarcopenia in community older people? By the age of 70, sarcopenia affects 10–30% of older adults lost muscle mass and this is replaced with fat and fibrous tissue, particularly in people who are physical inactivity, malnutrition, hormones changes, inflammation increased, and aging-related diseases. Sarcopenia is common in older people, but can also earlier in their 40s life without exercise intervention causes skeletal muscle mass and strength begin to decline and accelerate with aging [42]. Exercise training can help lower the risk of aging-related diseases in the older community groups, for example, decreases blood pressure, lower LDL cholesterol levels, developing type 2 diabetes, increase your heart’s size and strength, and improve cardiorespiratory fitness. Walking exercise training is a low-intensity aerobic activity that reduces the risk of the older community groups’ diseases [43]. If you have another aging-related chronic disease, you should speak with your healthcare professional before starting a new exercise program. The difference of intensity of walking exercise performs change arterial system during the exercise stimulus [44]. Moderate walking exercise training models can improve arterial endothelial function in the community group of an older healthy man. General recommendations to promote good overall health, aim to get at least 150 min of moderate-intensity exercise, or 75 min of high-intensity exercise training, or a combination of the two each week for optimal young adult health [45]. However, low-intensity walking exercise training for 15 min at least three times per week and spend 10 min of your lunch break walking exercise. Chronic exercise training that can mimic the effects of exercise is associated with lower blood pressure response in older men [46]. Starting a new walking exercise routine can be challenging in the community older groups. However, having real objectives can help you maintain a fitness program in the long term [47]. Simply it is important to warm up before you start your walking exercise like arm swings, leg kicks, and walking lunges doing so can help to prevent injuries and improve your flexibility and reduce soreness [48]. Alternatively, walking exercise training in the older community groups warm up by doing easy movements of the walking exercise training you are planning to do. For example, warm-up before you walking exercise. Walking exercise training interventional improvements oxygen consumption between 15 and 29% in older adults lasting between 6 and 12 months [49]. A significant improvement in aerobic capacity was also shown following exercise training of shorter duration almost 9–12 weeks in older people (Figure 2). A time course, intensity, and adaptation in maximal aerobic capacity with walking exercise training are different in older compared with younger people and suggest improvements in both cardiac function and peripheral muscles oxygen extraction [50]. During exercise training, oxygen consumption in older people is higher than in people. The successful elderly walking exercise interventions regimens. The successful elderly walking exercise regimens are a limited effect on arterial structural remodeling [51, 52]. Walking exercise has major implications on endothelial function and endothelium dilation [53]. Therefore, walking exercise significantly improves endothelial flow-mediated dilation function. Other reports demonstrated that endothelium dilation is greater in the older man. About 100 days of walking exercise intervention improves endothelium dilation in older healthy men [54]. The greater endothelium dilation in older men who regularly perform aerobic exercise is mediated nitric oxide. The intensity of exercise performed and duration of the exercise stimulus may be changed the arterial system [55]. However, no change in endothelial function is observed for mild- or high-intensity exercise training for 12 weeks in a group of young healthy men. In a healthy older population, a simple walking exercise did not improve endothelial function. Walking exercise interventions of a shorter duration do not alter the endothelial function or arterial stiffness in the older population, for example, 10 days [56]. It is possible that high exercise intensity could diminish oxidative stress. Based on this study regimen, it is reasonable to suggest that at least 90 days of exercise training is necessary to stimulate improvements in the elderly endothelial function [57]. A daily brisk walking exercise intervention for 120 days was associated with significantly improved arterial compliance in the older community groups [58]. Regular exercise intervention training is independent of baseline compliance body composition and oxygen capacity [59]. There are many different types of walking exercise training to choose from interventions. Find a new regiment nice for you and be sure to vary them occasionally in the community older groups, for example walking speed over 4 m walking distance in m/s. The goal is to start to help prevent injuries slowly to build up your fitness level and let your body rest from time to time [60]. Keeping track of your walking exercise training progress in the community older groups or taking a virtual group class are examples of actionable steps that can help you stay motivated and achieve your goals. From an early treatise collection, authors also describe how an exercising old man was cured of aging-related diseases when he was completed from consuming a ketogenic diet [61]. Neither walking exercise intervention nor the ketogenic diet intervention is able to cure aging but work due to their ability to suppress age-related diseases. This session describes how alterations in the walking exercise intervention and ketogenic diet intervention played a role in anti-aging management. Forced the elderly walking exercise regimen during 120 days timelines in the community older groups (Figure 4). This timeline details the important events of each phase of the elderly walking exercise regimen during each day of the study. The pre-exercise phase during 50–60 days. This stage is the preacclimation phase involves the older men’s experimenter handling and baseline locomotor activity.

Figure 4.

The successful elderly walking exercise regimens in the community older sarcopenia disease groups. This elderly walking exercise is an easy-to-follow program. This program can be adjusted to your fitness level and made as challenging as you want. One round of walking exercise training will only take you 12 days, and one day will only take you 30 min to complete. It does not require equipment.

Stage 1:The older human experimenter handling, 2–5 min/day, 25 days.

Stage 2:The baseline locomotor activity, 60 min/day, 35 days.

During the acclimation phase (60–90 days) all older humans undergo 10 days of acclimation walking exercise training.

Stage 1 of acclimation phase:5–10 min/day, 10 days, 5–7 m/min, 5–10 min, by 3 days of rest.

Stage 2 of acclimation phase:5–10 min/day, 20 days, 8–10 m/min, 5–10 min, by 3 days of rest.

During the walking exercise training phase (90–120 days), one round of walking exercise training needs 12 consecutive days. A minimum of two rounds of walking exercise training followed by a 6 days rest period is required during the walking exercise training phase (24 days). Furthermore, this regimen can be modified to include multiple rounds of walking exercise training in this phase. Bodyweight measurements can be made throughout all phases of the study a before and after each phase of this walking exercise training regimen. Assigned nonexercise and walking exercise training sessions scores after all acclimation and walking exercise training phase scores, and range from 1 to 4, with 4 being the highest possible score. Briefly,

  1. Assign a training score of 4: The older human walking exercise entire walking training session without assistance.

  2. Assign a training score of 3: The older human walking exercise entire walking training requires minimal assistance (less than 25%) from the regimen.

  3. Assign a training score of 2: The older human walking exercise require much assistance (greater than 25%) from the regimen.

Finally, a training score of 1: The older human walking exercise are noncompliant and fail to complete an exercise session.

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4. Combined ketogenic diet and walking exercise interventions in the older community skeletal muscle sarcopenia

Skeletal muscle has a resistance and strength training ability to adapt and regenerate, which should be done at least twice a week in combination with ketogenic diet interventions to the response. However, there are no approved medications to treat obesity sarcopenia or obese sarcopenia and new drugs. Many health professionals have little knowledge of obesity sarcopenia or obese sarcopenia, they necessarily consider to treat aging-, foods diet-, or drug-related muscle wasting. Exercise physiological programs for older people are best positioned to with chronic diseases including sarcopenia. Combined ketogenic diet with walking exercise interventions is one of the most effective ways to reduce the risk of aging-related diseases in the older community groups [62]. The ketogenic diet and walking exercise are both important for optimal health. Both ketogenic diet and walking exercise interventions in the older community groups can help to reduce aging-related heart, brain, vascular, stomach, muscle, lung, liver, kidney, and large intestine injury (Figure 3). While old men may be tempted to pick one over the other, a ketogenic diet and walking exercise training work hand in hand, and combining both will optimize health and quality of life [63]. Cardiac physiological functions are associated with walking exercise training intervention. After 1 year of progressive walking exercise training intervention was confirming physiological cardiac remodeling with walking exercise intervention in the community older people. The influence of walking exercise interventions on aging-related cardiovascular diseases demonstrates in older men than young. In older community groups exhibited myocardial fatty acid metabolism response to beta-adrenergic stimulation after 12 months of walking exercise training [64]. The well-established ketogenic diet promotes the older man’s health. The ketogenic diet interventions are high in healthy unsaturated fats from undergoing walking exercise interventions in later life [65, 66]. Ketogenic diets among nonpharmacological treatments for those with exercise intolerance are available to the brain, muscle, and heart, where they generate energy for cells in the mitochondria (Figure 2) [67]. The major aging-related heart disease pathophysiological conditions—left ventricular hypertrophy, chronic heart failure, atrial fibrillation, arterial structural remodeling [68]. Pathophysiology is related to multifactorial interventions other than diet or supplementation. In the community older human groups treated with difficult-to-control syndromes are those requiring a lot of energy, such as heart, brain, and muscle [69]. The brain in a carbohydrate-rich diet usually relies on glucose as the preferred substrate for an energy source. The ketogenic diet is a special case of a high-fat diet, about adopting saturated fat in the diet as a cause of heart disease in the community older groups, the long-term ketogenic diet might decrease mitochondrial functions [70]. Glucose is initially the context of a low carbohydrate catabolized in the cytoplasm through the process of glycolysis which produces ATP and NADH [71]. The ketogenic diet reduces hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia. Amino acids of threonine, isoleucine, leucine, and lysine were observed for ketogenic amino acids is not true for the heart, conversely, the anoxic heart experiences the greatest [72]. Combined ketogenic diet and exercise interventions in community older groups are high in healthy unsaturated fats from olive oil manipulate nutrient-sensing pathways, particularly heart infarction, diabetes mellitus, and also liver, lung, and kidney disease varieties and antioxidants that help to fight harmful molecules free radicals. Gains in muscle mass of 5–10% and improvements in muscle strength power of 30–150% have been observed after 12 weeks of the combined ketogenic diet and walking exercise interventions in the older community skeletal muscle sarcopenia.

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5. Molecular and cellular of the combined ketogenic diet and walking exercise interventions in the community older skeletal muscle sarcopenia

The physiological molecular and cellular mechanisms of the combined ketogenic diet and walking exercise interventions in the older community groups that underlie diminished aging response in older age. About 120 days of walking exercise training interventions produced a reduction in plasmatic levels of protein carbonylation and lipid peroxidation in older [73]. Lipid peroxidation is one of the most irreversible changes of oxidative protein modifications, observed on an increase in the protein carbonylation and lipid peroxidation in the community older groups [74, 75, 76]. However, nonpharmacological strategies such as exercise interventions and ketone body supplements are of significant difference decreased. In the combined ketogenic diet and walking exercise interventions in the older community groups reduced nucleic acid oxidation and lipid peroxidation were observed [76, 77, 78, 79]. Ketone body supplementation and walking exercise interventions have been shown to result in a reduction in superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) levels [80]. While 120 days of the walking training exercise was seen to be associated with increased SOD activity. The earliest studies showed glutathione reductase [81, 82], catalase [83, 84], glutamine synthetase [85] that these compounds cause older lifestyle changes like you know, people talk about exercising and walking that improve your health for your body, and managing stress, among participants give lifestyle tips on the ketogenic diet and walking exercise training to control their mitochondria keep moving. After exercise interventions, although another study showed approximately no change in protein carbonylation across the age groups. Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) induces nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) inducible to produce NO. Increasing nitric oxide (NO) and nitric oxide synthase are promoted the repairment of damaged pathways and accelerated endothelial nitric oxide synthase [86]. In this walking exercise training interventions regimens, inhibition of the extracellular-signal-regulated inducible nitric oxide synthase and down-requirement endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) resulting in disturbed RAS system. The ACE2-Ang II-AT1R/AT2R axis is a well-established component of RAS through angiotensin (Ang II)/angiotensinII type 1 receptor (AT1R) or angiotensin (Ang II)/angiotensinII type 1 receptor (AT2R) [87, 88]. Walking exercise training interventions improved cognitive remediation renin-angiotensin system (ARS) in the community older groups. After adaptive walking exercise training intervention with the ketogenic diet for two rounds of walking exercise, the maximal exercise capacity test was measured. Walking exercise training intervention after ketogenic diet activated SIRT-1/SIRT-3 signaling pathways [87, 88, 89, 90] and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) [91, 92] because walking exercise training interventions increased NAD/NADH ratio in the community older groups. SIRT-1/SIRT-3 signaling pathways belonging to the renin-angiotensin system (ARS) have also been thoroughly explored [93, 94]. SIRT-1/SIRT-3 pathway is a signaling pathway that preserves health under conditions demonstrated that the activation of AMPK through walking exercise training increases SIRT activation and mTOR inhibition [95]. Although walking exercise training is an effective way to improve SIRT-1, SIRT-3, VEGF, AMPK, and mTOR. Walking exercise training to regulate vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) synthesis can rise various interventional. SIRT-1, SIRT-3, VEGF, AMPK, and mTOR are seen increases before and after our exercise intervention. NO and VEG has been demonstrated measurable decreases in the community older groups. VEGF plays an important role in the benefits of walking exercise training performance and brain blood flow in the community older groups. The synthesis of VEGF can be induced by NO [88]. In addition, combined ketogenic diet and walking exercise training intervention were seen to increase intracellular AMPK pathway, the AMPK pathway was the main pathway through PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway in the community older groups. Therefore, a walking exercise training was planned for up-regulation PI3K/Akt/mTOR and AMPK pathways and anti-inflammatory [96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101]. Walking exercise training interventions generally leads to bred with mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) affecting genes involved in every aspect of the mtDNA repair [102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109]. These findings combined are particularly interesting when considering mtDNA deletions and inflammation factor, NF-KB, in the community older groups.

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6. Conclusions

Patients in the community older groups remain cooperative with the nutritional and walking exercise interventions will reduce aging disorder diseases in community older frailty and skeletal muscle sarcopenia. In the communication older frailty and skeletal muscle sarcopenia population, a walking exercise program improved healthy. Some older communication patients reported mild no need intervention. Walking exercise interventions of shorter duration, no changes were observed for preacclimation. Most importantly, involving the use of accredited walking exercise physiologists were implementing walking exercise programs for the community older frailty and skeletal muscle sarcopenia groups.

It should further be noted that walking exercise training programs and ketogenic diet interventions to the effective treatments for aging in the community older groups. Exercise recommendations for the community older groups, the participants will conduct walking exercise training. The walking exercise was easy, not difficult in the community older groups. Thus, walking exercise interventions in the community older groups program for patients with ketogenic diet was combined. This was associated with some improvement in molecular and cellular markers of the community older groups’ performance. This pragmatic trial in primary healthcare aimed to assess the effect of a health promotion program with or without exercise intervention on physical activity in community older groups. It is possible that exercise therapy has been reported to improve the walking distance sitting test, 6 m walking distance, and slow walking speed during walking periods in community older frailty and skeletal muscle sarcopenia groups. After each exercise regimen phase, we find ineligible interventions, especially during challenging walking conditions in the community older groups, such as the average walking speed for 15 m/min. The content of the guidance used in the intervention has been effective in motivating subjects to exercise walking in the community older groups. It contrasts with its limited effect on exercise interventions, changes in vital signs during exercise, changes in energy metabolism, walking distance.

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Jia-Ping Wu (December 16th 2021). Combined Ketogenic Diet and Walking Exercise Interventions in Community Older Frailty and Skeletal Muscle Sarcopenia [Online First], IntechOpen, DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.101579. Available from:

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