Integrated photonic technologies are rapidly becoming an important and fundamental milestone for wideband optical telecommunications. Future optical networks have several critical requirements, including low energy consumption, high efficiency, greater bandwidth and flexibility, which must be addressed in a compact form factor (Eggleton et al., 2008, Alduino & Paniccia, 2007, Lifante, 2003). In particular, it has become well accepted that devices must possess a CMOS compatible fabrication procedure in order to exploit the large existing silicon technology in electronics (Izhaky et al., 2006, Tsybeskov et al., 2009). This would primarily serve to reduce costs by developing hybrid electro-optic technologies on-chip for ultrafast signal processing. There is still however, a growing demand to implement all-optical technologies on these chips for frequency conversion (Turner et al., 2008, Venugopal Rao et al., 2004), all-optical regeneration (Salem et al., 2008, Ta’eed et al., 2005), multiplexing and demultiplexing (Lee et al., 2008, Bergano, 2005, Ibrahim et al., 2002), as well as for routing and switching (Lee et al., 2008, Ibrahim et al., 2002). The motivation for optical technologies is primarily based on the ultrahigh bandwidth of the optical fiber and the extremely low attenuation coefficient. Coupled with minimal pulse distortion properties, such as dispersion and nonlinearities, optical fibers are the ideal transmission medium to carry information over long distances and to connect optical networks. Unfortunately, the adherence of the standard optical fiber to pulse distortions is also what renders it less than perfectly suited for most signal processing applications required in telecommunications. Bending losses become extremely high in fibers for chip-scale size devices, limiting its integrability in networks. Moreover, its weak nonlinearity limits the practical realization (i.e. low power values and short propagation lengths) of some fundamental operations requiring nonlinear optical phenomena, such as frequency conversion schemes and switching (Agrawal, 2006).
Several alternative material platforms have been developed for photonic integrated circuits (Eggleton et al., 2008, Alduino & Panicia, 2007, Koch & Koren, 1991, Little & Chu, 2000), including semiconductors such as AlGaAs and silicon-on-insulator (SOI) (Lifante, 2003, Koch and Koren, 1991, Tsybeskov et al., 2009, Jalali & Fathpour, 2006), as well as nonlinear glasses such as chalcogenides, silicon oxynitride and bismuth oxides (Ta’eed et al., 2007, Eggleton et al., 2008, Lee et al., 2005). In addition, exotic and novel manufacturing processes have led to new and promising structures in these materials and in regular silica fibers. Photonic crystal fibers (Russell, 2003), 3D photonic bandgap structures (Yablonovitch et al., 1991), and nanowires (Foster et al., 2008) make use of the tight light confinement to enhance nonlinearities, greatly reduce bending radii, which allows for submillimeter photonic chips.
Despite the abundance of alternative fabrication technologies and materials, there is no clear victor for future all-optical nonlinear devices. Indeed, many nonlinear platforms require power levels that largely exceed the requirements for feasible applications, whereas others have negative side effects such as saturation and multi-photon absorption. Moreover, there is still a fabrication challenge to reduce linear attenuation and to achieve CMOS compatibility for many of these tentative photonic platforms and devices. In response to these demands, a new high-index doped silica glass platform was developed in 2003 (Little, 2003), which combines the best of both the qualities of single mode fibers, namely low propagation losses and robust fabrication technology, and those of semiconductor materials, such as the small quasi-lossless bending radii and the high nonlinearity. This book chapter primarily describes this new material platform, through the characterization of its linear and nonlinear properties, and shows its application for all-optical frequency conversion for future photonic integrated circuits. In section 2 we present an overview of concurrent recent alternative material platforms and photonic structures, discussing advantages and limitations. We then review in section 3 the fundamental equations for nonlinear optical interactions, followed by an experimental characterization of the linear and nonlinear properties of a novel high-index glass. In section 4 we introduce resonant structures and make use of them to obtain a highly efficient all-optical frequency converter by means of pumping continuous wave light.
2. Material platforms and photonic structures for nonlinear effects
Optical telecommunications is rendered possible by carrying information through waveguiding structures, where a higher index core material ( We will neglect second order nonlinear phenomena, which are not possible in centrosymmetric media such as glasses. See (Boyd, 2008) and (Venugopal Rao et al., 2004, Wise et al., 2002) for recent advances in exploiting χ(2) media for optical telecommunications.
We will neglect second order nonlinear phenomena, which are not possible in centrosymmetric media such as glasses. See (Boyd, 2008) and (Venugopal Rao et al., 2004, Wise et al., 2002) for recent advances in exploiting χ(2) media for optical telecommunications.
There are however major limitations that still prevent their implementation in future optical networks. Semiconductor materials typically have a high material dispersion (a result of being near the bandgap of the structure), which prevents the fabrication of long structures. To overcome this problem, small nano-size wire structures, where the waveguide dispersion dominates, allows one to tailor the total induced dispersion. The very advanced fabrication technology for both Si and AlGaAs allows for this type of control, thus a precise waveguide geometry can be fabricated to have near zero dispersion in the spectral regions of interest. Unfortunately, the small size of the mode also implies a relatively large field along the waveguide etched sidewalls (see Fig. 1). This leads to unwanted scattering centers and surface state absorptions where initial losses have been higher than 10dB/cm for AlGaAs (Siviloglou et al., 2006, Borselli et al., 2006, Jouad & Aimez, 2006), and ~ 3 dB/cm for SOI (Turner et al.,2008).
Another limitation comes from multiphoton absorption (displayed pictorially in Fig. 2 for the simplest case, i.e. two-photon absorption) and involves the successive absorption of photons (via virtual states) that promotes an electron from the semiconductor valence band to the conduction band. This leads to a saturation of the transmitted power and, consequently, of the nonlinear effects. For SOI this has been especially true, where losses are not only due to two-photon absorption, but also to the free carriers induced by the process (Foster et al., 2008, Dulkeith et al., 2006). Moreover, the nonlinear figure of merit (=
Lastly, although reducing the modal area enhances the nonlinear properties of the waveguide, it also impedes coupling from the single mode fiber into the device; for comparison the modal diameter of a fiber is ~10μm whereas for a nanowire structure it is typically 20 times smaller. This leads to high insertion losses through the device, necessitating either expensive amplifiers at the output, or of complicated tapers often requiring mature fabrication technologies and sometimes multi-step etching processes (Moerman et al., 1997) (SOI waveguides make use of state-of-the-art inverse tapers which limits the insertion losses to approximately 5dB (Almeida et al., 2003, Turner et al., 2008)).
2.2. High index glasses
In addition to semiconductors, a number of high index glass systems have been investigated as a platform for future photonic integrated networks, including chalcogenides (Eggleton et al., 2008, Ta’eed et al., 2007), silicon nitride (Gondarenko et al., 2009) and silicon oxynitride (Worhoff et al., 2002). Chalcogenides in particular have been shown to have extremely high nonlinear parameters approaching
A high-index, doped silica glass material called Hydex® (Little, 2003), was developed by Little Optics in 2003 as a compromise between the attractive linear features of silica glass and the nonlinear properties of semiconductors. Films are first deposited using standard chemical vapour deposition. Subsequently, waveguides are formed using photolithography and reactive ion etching, producing waveguide sidewalls with exceptionally low roughness. The waveguides are then buried in standard fused silica glass, making the entire fabrication process CMOS compatible and requiring no further anneal. The typical waveguide cross section is 1.45 x 1.5 μm2 as shown in Fig. 3. The linear index at
As will be shown in the subsequent sections below, this material platform also has a moderate nonlinearity, and coupled with long or resonant structures, can be used to generate significant nonlinear effects with low power requirements. In the next section we produce the necessary equations governing light propagation in a nonlinear media, followed by a characterization method for the nonlinearity, and explain the possible applications achievable by exploiting resonant and long structures.
3. Light dynamics in nonlinear media
In order to completely characterize the nonlinear optical properties of materials, it is worthwhile to review some fundamental equations relating to pulse propagation in nonlinear media. In general, this is modelled directly from Maxwell’s equations, and for piecewise homogenous media one can arrive at the optical nonlinear Schrodinger equation (Agrawal, 2006, Afshar & Monro, 2009):
The eigenvalue solution to the dispersion relation can be obtained by numerical methods such as vectorial finite element method (e.g. Comsol Multiphysics). From this the dispersion parameters can be calculated via a Taylor expansion:
The effective area can also be evaluated:
In arriving to eq. (1), we neglected higher order nonlinear contributions, non-instantaneous responses (Raman) and non-phase matched terms; we also assumed an isotropic cubic medium, as is the case for glasses. These approximations are valid for moderate power values and pulse durations down to ~100fs for a pulse centered at 1.55 μm (Agrawal, 2006). The terms
The solution to the nonlinear Schrodinger equation has been studied in detail (Agrawal, 2006, Kivshar & Malomed, 1989). Here we present the solution to this equation for doped silica glass at low and high power regimes. This allows a complete characterization of the waveguide properties which will be extremely useful in studying nonlinear applications such as frequency conversion.
As will be shown below, one of the several advantages of high-index doped silica glass is in its mature fabrication technology which allows for long waveguides with minimal losses. As can be readily seen in Fig. 4, long spiral waveguides of more than 1m of length can be contained in a 2.5 x 2.5 mm2 area.
3.1. Low power regime
At low power, dispersive terms dominate thus leading to temporal pulse broadening. In this limit, the nonlinear Schrodinger equation reduces to:
This equation transforms to a simple linear ordinary differential equation in the Fourier domain, and assuming an input unchirped Gaussian pulse of width
The pulse is seen to acquire a chirp, leading to temporal broadening via dispersion. The analogue in the spectral domain is that the pulse acquires a quadratic phase, which can serve as a direct measurement of the dispersion induced from the waveguide. A well known experimental technique for reconstructing the phase and amplitude at the output of a device is the Fourier Transform Spectral Interferometry (FTSI) (Lepetit et al., 1995). Using this spectral interference technique, the dispersion of the 45cm doped silica glass spiral waveguide was determined to be very small (on the order of the single mode fiber dispersion,
3.2. Nonlinear losses
In order to see directly the effects of the nonlinear absorption on the propagation of light pulses, it is useful to transform Eq. (1) to a peak intensity equation,
where we have neglected dispersion contributions based on the previous considerations. We have also explicitly added the higher order multiphoton contributions (three-photon absorption and higher), although it is important to note that these higher order effects typically have a very small cross section that require large intensity values [see chapter 12 of (Boyd, 2008)]. Considering only two-photon absorption, the solution is found to be:
From this one can immediately conclude that the maximal output intensity is limited by two-photon absorption to be 1/
Experimentally, the presence of multiphoton absorption can be understood from simple transmission measurements of high power/intensity pulses. Pulsed light from a 16.9MHz Pritel fiber laser, centered at 1.55μm, was used to characterize the transmission in the doped silica glass waveguides. An erbium doped fiber amplifier was used directly after the laser to achieve high power levels, and the estimated pulse duration was approximately 450fs. Fig. 5 presents a summary of the results, showing a purely linear transmission up to input peak powers of 500W corresponding to an intensity of 25GW/cm2 (Duchesne et al., 2009). This result is extremely impressive, and is well above the threshold for silicon (Dulkeith et al., 2006, Liang & Tsang, 2004, Tsang & Liu, 2008), AlGaAs (Siviloglou et al., 2006), or even Chalcogenides (Nguyen et al., 2006). Multiphoton absorption leads to free carrier generation, which in turn can also dramatically increase the losses (Dulkeith et al., 2006, Liang & Tsang, 2004, Tsang & Liu, 2008). For the case of two-photon absorption, the impact on nonlinear signal processing is reflected in the nonlinear figure of merit,
By propagating through different length waveguides, we were able to determine, by means of a cut-back style like procedure, both the pigtail losses and propagation losses to be 1.5dB and 0.06dB/cm, respectively. Whereas this value is still far away from propagation losses in single mode fibers (0.2dB/km), it is orders of magnitude better than in typical integrated nanowire structures, where losses >1dB/cm are common (Siviloglou et al., 2006; Dulkeith et al., 2006; Turner et al., 2008). The low losses, long spiral waveguides confined in small chips, and low loss pigtailing to single mode fibers testifies to the extremely well established and mature fabrication process of this high-index glass platform.
3.3. Kerr nonlinearity
In the high power regime, the nonlinear contributions become important in Eq. (1), and in general the equation must be solved numerically. To gain some insight on the effect of the nonlinear contribution to Eq. (1), it is useful to look at the no-dispersion limit of Eq. (1), which can be readily solved to obtain:
The nonlinear term introduces a nonlinear chirp in the temporal phase, which in the frequency domain corresponds to spectral broadening (i.e. the generation of new frequencies). This phenomenon, commonly referred to as self-phase modulation, can be used to measure the nonlinear parameter
Experimentally, the nonlinearity of the doped silica glass waveguide was characterized in (Duchesne et al., 2009) by injecting 1.7ps pulses (centered at 1.55μm) with power levels of approximately 10-60W. The output spectrum showed an increasing amount of spectral broadening, as can be seen in Fig. 6. The value of the nonlinearity was determined by numerically solving the nonlinear Schrodinger equation by means of a split-step algorithm (Agrawal, 2006), where the only unknown parameter was the nonlinear parameter. By fitting experiments with simulations, a value of
From Eq. (9), there are 2 ways to improve the nonlinear interactions (for a fixed input power): 1) increasing the nonlinear parameter, or 2) increasing the propagation length. To increase the former, one can reduce the modal size by having high-index contrast waveguides, and/or using a high index material with a high value of
4. Resonant structures
Advances in fabrication processes and technologies have allowed for the fabrication of small resonant structures whereby specific frequencies of light are found to be “amplified” (or resonate) inside the resonator (Yariv & Yeh, 2006). Resonators have found a broad range of applications in optics, including high-order filters (Little et al., 2004), as oscillators in specific parametric lasers (Kippenberg et al., 2004; Giordmaine & Miller, 1965), thin film polarization optics, and for frequency conversion (Turner et al., 2008, Ferrera et al., 2008). For the case of nonlinear optics, disks (whispering gallery modes) and micro-ring resonators have been used in 2D for frequency conversion (Grudinin et al., 2009, Ibrahim et al., 2002), whereas microtoroids and microsphere have been explored in 3D (Agha et al., 2007; Kippenberg et al., 1991). The net advantage of these structures is that, for resonant frequencies, a low input optical power can lead to enormous nonlinear effects due to the field enhancement provided by the cavity. In this section we examine the specific case of waveguide micro-ring resonators for wavelength conversion via parametric four wave mixing. Micro-ring resonators are integrated structures which can readily be implemented in future photonic integrated circuits. First a brief review of the field enhancement provided by resonators shall be presented, followed by the four-wave mixing relations. Promising experimental results in high-index doped silica resonators will then be shown and compared with other platforms.
4.1. Micro-ring resonators
Consider the four port micro-ring resonator portrayed in Fig. 7, and assume continuous wave light is injected from the Input port. Light is coupled from the input (bus) waveguide into the ring structure via evanescent field coupling (Marcuse, 1991). As light circulates around the ring structure, there is net loss from propagation losses, loss from coupling from the ring to the bus waveguides (2 locations), and net gain when the input light is coupled from the bus at the input to the ring. Note that this is in direct analogy with a standard Fabry-Perot cavity, where the reflectivity of the mirrors/sidewalls has been replaced with coupling coefficients. Using reciprocity and energy conservation relations at the coupling junction, the total transmission from the Input port to the Drop port is found to be (Yariv & Yeh, 2006):
These equations have extremely important applications. From Eq. (10) the transmission through the resonator is found to be unique at specific frequencies, hence the device can be utilized as a filter. Even more importantly for nonlinear optics, for an input signal that matches a ring resonance, the intensity is found to be enhanced, which can be utilized to observe large nonlinear phenomena with low input power levels (Ferrera et al., 2008). In the approximation of low propagation losses, Eq. (12) results in
4.2. Four-wave mixing
Section 3 discussed third order nonlinear effects following the propagation of a single beam in a Kerr nonlinear medium. In this case the nonlinear interaction consisted of generating new frequencies through the spectral broadening of the input pulse. In general, we may consider multiple beams propagating through the medium, from which the nonlinear Schrodinger equation predicts nonlinear coupling amongst the components, a parametric process known as four wave mixing. This process can be used to convert energy from a strong pump to generate a new frequency component via the interaction with a weaker signal. As is displayed in the inset of Fig. 9, the quantum description of the process is in the simultaneous absorption of two photons to create 2 new frequencies of light. In the semi-degenerate case considered here, two photons from a strong pump beam (
The growth of the idler frequency can be obtained by assuming an undepleted pump regime, whereby the product
and is thus directly proportional to the dispersion coefficient (note that at high power levels the phase mismatch becomes power dependant; see (Lin et al., 2008)).
For micro-ring resonator structures, Eq. (14) can be modified to account for the power enhancement provided by the resonance geometry. When the pump and signal beams are aligned to ring resonances, and for low dispersion conditions, phase matching will be obtained, and moreover, the generated idler should also match a ring resonance. In this case we may use Eq. (12) with Eq. (14) to give the expected conversion efficiency:
Four-wave mixing is an extremely important parametric process to be used in optical networks, and has found numerous applications. This includes the development of a multi-wavelength source for wavelength multiplexing systems (Grudinin et al., 2009), all-optical reshaping (Ciaramella & Trillo, 2000), amplification (Foster et al., 2006), correlated photon pair generation (Kolchin et al., 2006), and possible switching schemes have also been suggested (Lin et al., 2005). In particular, signal regeneration using four-wave mixing was shown in silicon at speeds of 10Gb/s (Rong et al., 2006). In an appropriate low loss material platform, ring resonators promise to bring efficient parametric processes at low powers.
4.3. Frequency conversion in doped silica glass resonators
The possibility of forming resonator structures primarily depends on the developed fabrication processes. In particular, low loss structures are a necessity, as photons will see propagation losses from circulating several times around the resonator. Furthermore, integrated ring resonators require small bending radii with minimal losses, which further require a relatively high-index contrast waveguide. The high-index doped silica glass discussed in this chapter meets these criteria, with propagation losses as low as 0.06 dB/cm, and negligible bending losses for radii down to 30 μm (Little, 2003, Ferrera et al., 2008).
Two ring resonators will be discussed in this section, one with a radius of 47.5 μm, a Q factor ~65,000, and a bandwidth matching that for 2.5Gb/s signal processing applications, as well as a high Q ring of ~1,200,000, with a ring radius of 135μm for high conversion efficiencies typically required for applications such as narrow linewidth, multi-wavelength sources, or correlated photon pair generation (Kolchin et al., 2006, Kippenberg et al., 2004, Giordmaine & Miller, 1965). In both cases the bus waveguides and the ring waveguide have the same cross section and fabrication process as previously described in Section 2.2 and 3 (see Fig. 3). The 4-port ring resonator is depicted in Fig. 10, and light is injected into the ring via vertical evanescence field coupling. The experimental set-up used to characterize the rings is shown in Fig. 11, and consists of 2 CW lasers, 2 polarizers, a power meter and a spectrometer. A Peltier cell is also used with the high Q ring for temperature control.
As detailed above, dispersion is a critical parameter in determining the efficiency of four-wave mixing. In ring resonators the dispersion can be directly extracted from the linear transmission through the ring. This was performed experimentally by using a wavelength tunable CW laser at the Input port and then recording the transmission at the drop port. The transmission spectral scan for the low Q ring can be seen in Fig. 12, from which a free spectral range of 575GHz and a Q factor of 65,000 were extracted (=200GHZ and 1,200,000 for the high Q).
As was derived in the beginning of Section 4, the propagation constants at resonance can be found to obey the relation:
In addition, the dispersion data can be used to predict the bandwidth over which four-wave mixing can be observed. In resonators, the linear phase matching condition for the propagation constants is automatically satisfied as the resonator modes are related linearly by :
4.3.2. Four-wave mixing in microring resonators
The 3 GHz bandwidth of the low Q resonator can be used for telecommunication applications such as signal regeneration and amplification (Salem et al., 2008, Ta’eed et al., 2005, Salem et al., 2007). We note that the device reported here was primarily designed for linear filter applications at 2.5 Gb/s, leaving room for further optimization for higher-bit-rate nonlinear applications. Four-wave mixing was obtained in this ring using only 5mW of input pump power at a resonance of 1553.38 nm, while the signal was tuned to an adjacent resonance at 1558.02nm with a power of 550 μW. Fig. 15 depicts the recorded output spectrum showing the generation of 2 idler frequencies: one of 930pW at 1548.74nm, and a second of 100pW at 1562.69nm. The latter idler is a result of formally exchanging the role of the pump and signal beams. The lower output idler power for the reverse process is a direct result of Eq. (16), where the conversion is shown to be proportional to the pump power squared. As is reported in (Ferrera et al., 2008), this is the first demonstration of four wave mixing in an integrated glass structure using CW light of such low power. This result is in part due to the relatively large
The predicted frequency conversion, Eq. (16), was also verified experimentally. Firstly, for a fixed input pump power of 20mW the signal power was varied and the expected linear relationship between idler power and signal power was obtained, with a total conversion efficiency of 25 x 10-6, as is shown in Fig. 16. Moreover, the reverse situation in which the pump power was varied for a fixed signal power also demonstrated the expected quadratic dependence, validating the approximations leading to Eq. (16). Lastly, by tuning the signal wavelength slightly off-resonance and measuring the conversion efficiency, it was experimentally shown, Fig. 17, that these results were in quasi-perfect phase matching, as predicted from Fig. 14.
Experiments were also carried out in the high Q=1,200,000 ring resonator, which is for applications other than telecommunications, such as the realization of a narrow line source (Kawase et al., 2001). The advantage of this ring is the tremendous intensity enhancement factor
5. Perspectives and conclusions
In this chapter we have presented a novel high-index doped-silica material platform for future integrated nonlinear optical applications. The platform acts as a compromise between the attractive linear properties of single mode fibers, namely low propagation losses and robust fabrication process, and those of semiconductors and other nonlinear glasses, and this by having a relatively large nonlinear parameter. Moreover, it outshines other high index glasses in its ability to have very low loss waveguides of 0.06 dB/cm without high temperature anneal, allowing for a complete CMOS compatible fabrication process. A small cross sectional area combined with a high index contrast also allows for tight bends down to 30 μm with negligible losses, permitting long spiral or resonant structures on chip. We have shown that although semiconductors possess a much larger nonlinearity
Apart from the imminent applications in future photonic integrated circuits, these results may also pave way for a wide range of applications such as narrow linewidth, and/or multi-wavelength sources, on-chip generation of correlated photon pairs, as well as sources for ultra-low power optical hyperparametric oscillators.
- We will neglect second order nonlinear phenomena, which are not possible in centrosymmetric media such as glasses. See (Boyd, 2008) and (Venugopal Rao et al., 2004, Wise et al., 2002) for recent advances in exploiting χ(2) media for optical telecommunications.