Open access peer-reviewed chapter

Schistosoma Mansoni Infection and Therapeutic Efficacy of Praziquantel in Preschool-Aged Children

Written By

Genanew Birhanu

Submitted: 21 January 2022 Reviewed: 24 February 2022 Published: 05 October 2022

DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.103901

From the Edited Volume

New Horizons for Schistosomiasis Research

Edited by Tonay Inceboz

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Schistosomiasis is one of the extreme scientific results which can be greater usual in sub-Saharan Africa. It impacts growth, bodily fitness, and cognitive function, mainly in children. The maximum not unusual place method to manipulate schistosomiasis is preventive chemotherapy. Though World Health Organization (WHO) recommends praziquantel for the manage and remedy of schistosomiasis, preschool-aged children (PSAC) are excluded from populace remedy applications specifically due to paucity of statistics on reaction rate. The findings of preceding research accomplished to evaluate the impact of chemotherapy on schistosomiasis confirmed a few variation. This indicates the need for in addition research in one of the kind populations.


  • Schistosoma mansoni
  • Praziquantel
  • therapeutic efficacy
  • preschool children

1. Introduction

1.1 Background

Schistosomiasis is a sickness resulting from parasitic flatworms of the genus Schistosoma. Clinical schistosomiasis is primarily associated with symptoms that include dizziness, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, mild diarrhea, fever, and toxic or allergic reactions. In some cases, however, the disease can evolve to life-threatening complications and causes a wide range of mortality [1]. There are around over 229 million people currently require preventive treatment against this disease, the vast majority of who live in sub-Saharan Africa [2]. In 2017, an predicted 1.4 million incapacity-adjusted existence years (DALYs) had been misplaced to schistosomiasis, accounting for 8.3% of the entire sickness burden resulting from the neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) [1, 3].

Preventive chemotherapy is the number one worldwide method for controlling the morbidity due to schistosomiasis. It is the periodic control of single-dose oral praziquantel (usually given at 40 mg/kg body weight), in which praziquantel is administered without preceding analysis to complete companies or aim companies, most importantly faculty-aged children, counting on the volume of endemicity [4]. The goal is to reduce diease morbidity and transmission toward the removal of the diseases as a public fitness problem. Periodic treatment of at-risk population will cure mild sympthoms and prevent infected people from developing severe, late-stage chronic diseases [5, 6].

However preschool-aged children (PSAC), who are individuals below the age of 5 years, are currently excluded from preventive chemotherapy control campaigns. However, current research finished in exclusive elements of East and West Africa confirmed that during excessive endemicity regions, a good sized percentage of PSAC is already inflamed with Schistosoma spp., and subsequently remedy would possibly want to be prolonged to more youthful age companies in such excessive chance regions [7, 8].

1.2 Statement of the problem

The World Health Organization (WHO) introduced a road map to combat NTDs by 2030; the plan was introduced in 2012 and the goal is to reduce the prevalence of moderate and heavy infections with schistosomiasis, so it become no longer public health problems. By considering this, Ethiopia also set a similar goal to achieve the same goal by the same year using different control measures like periodic mass administration of preventive chemotherapy (deworming) [9, 10].

WHO recommending regular de-worming of SAC (school age children, 5–14 years) and adults (>15 years old) who reside within disease endemic regions and at risk of infection with antihelminthic [9, 10, 11]. On the other hand, studies have also revealed that children aged 5 years and below can be commonly infected by shistosomiasis [12, 13]. Therefore for some, their disease-related morbidity and discomfort have not been averted as quickly or as successfully as possible [14].

Until recently, the parasitological overall performance of praziquantel withinside the more youthful youngster was not nicely known, cooccurring with the general loss of formal documentation and pharmacological medicinal drug of this drug in its use in toddlers and PSAC [15]. Hence, PSAC mostly share similar risk of schistosomiasis with adults that have an effect on normal deworming at the epidemiology and route of schistosomiasis merits extra attention to evaluate the effect of interventions, the adequacy of techniques implemented, and the development made withinside the combat toward anemia. It is likewise vital to set included manipulate packages and compare the effectiveness of manipulate interventions [16]. The initial outcomes of pilot research confirmed that remedy with praziquantel is secure and efficacious on this age institution for the remedy of schistosomiasis [1617]. But the state of affairs in regions endemic for schistosomiasis like Ethiopia is unknown [17].

Younger kids are predisposed to heavy infections with intestinal parasites due to the fact their immune structures are not but completely developed, and in addition they habitually play in fecally infected soil [18]. A look carried out in Uganda suggests that 42.1% of PSAC had detectable S. mansoni egg [19]. The incidence of S. mansoni in PSAC became 25.5% in AzaguieMakouguie and 21.6% in AzaguieM’Bromedistrics of Ivory Coast [20].

There is developing recognition that during excessive endemicity settings, schistosomiasis is likewise not an unusual place in PSAC, and as a result those younger kids may want to be covered in deworming campaigns [21].

Research is likewise had to correctly decide the protection, frequency, and severity of unfavorable occasions after praziquantel management toward schistosomiasis withinside the preschool-aged population [20, 22]. According to a minimum reproduction Kato-Katz thick smears, 35 PSAC of per-protocol population (21.9%) had been determined S. mansoni-positive [22]. Study carried out in Wondo Genet; South Ethiopia exhibits that 85.1% of children under the age of five youngsters had been determined to be inflamed with one or extra intestinal parasites, the superiority of S. mansoni rank second subsequent to Trichuristrichiura constituting 37.2% [23, 24].

In Ethiopia, numerous research assessed the significance of occurrence schistosomiasis among school youngsters [25, 26]. Only few research have suggested the significance of intestinal parasitic infections among beneathneath 5 youngsters [23]. But the suggested findings at the protection of praziquantel in preschool-aged youngsters as preventive chemotherapy for schistosomiasis is not always indicated clearly [10].

Although praziquantel now no longer used as a mass preventive chemotherapy for PSAC for the motive of paucity of records at the efficacy and protection on this age group, it is getting used as first-line remedy for beneathneath 5 medical case of schistosomiasis [27]. To add evidence on the usage of PZQ , this have a look at to evaluate the healing efficacy and protection of praziquantel in PSAC (<5 years) in a place in which S. mansoni endemic in SAC.


2. Literature review

Schistosomias is public health problem which mainly affects developing countries with major consequences for human health as well as social and economic development. It occurs at all stages of the life, but it is more prevalent in pregnant women and young children. It is a critical health concern, since it affects growth and energy level adversely. Globally, schistosomias affects around 200 million people. Most of them are PSAC and school age children in developing countries [28, 29, 30, 31].

Moderate and intense schistosomia depth is related to persistent unfavorable results on nutrition A and iron status, physical, intellectual, and cognitive improvement specifically in youngsters, those morbidities which take a big effect at the fitness of youngsters [22, 32, 33]. Also the geographical distribution of PSAC is basically restrained to the zones wherein fashionable ailment transmission may be very high, for example, in regions wherein pre-national disease control programs (NDCP) occurrence in SAC is nicely greater than over 50% [14].

There are two major reasons why schistosomiasis is one of the public health problems in infants and PSAC. First, this young age group plays a great role in helping to maintain local disease transmission, even though these infected children may be excreting fewer eggs. Besides, rinsing and washing children’s soiled clothes in environmental water bodies also contribute toward more cryptic contamination and disease transmission [15, 27, 29].

The second viable cause entails ordinary water contact. That stops the infection related with water and multiplied re-contamination episodes, which additionally ends in a modern boom of person bug burden. It is consequently in all likelihood that untreated infections received in early youth make contributions to worsening the longer time period medical image of the sickness withinside the person [14]. The anthelmintic drug praziquantel is the cornerstone for morbidity management because of schistosomiasis [14]. Emphasis is positioned on SAC, while PSAC (people underneath the age of 5 years) are generally excluded from preventive chemotherapy. However, in exceedingly endemic areas, a large amount of PSAC is already stricken by schistosomiasis [29]. For that cause, there is an ongoing dialog whether or not preventive chemotherapy with praziquantel ought to be prolonged to preschoolers [17, 29].

Previous findings confirmed that beaten praziquantel (forty mg/kg) administered to PSAC is quite efficacious with cure rates (CRs) around 90% and egg discount rate (ERR) above 95%, while preferred diagnostic methods (Kato-Katz for S. mansoni and urine filtration for S. haematobium) had been used and furnished new perception into the efficacy and protection of praziquantel among a ignored populace organization in a S. mansoni and S. haematobium co-endemic location [22].

The latest examine accomplished in PSAC in Uganda, the usage of quadruplicate Kato-Katz thick smears, mentioned a barely decrease efficacy of praziquantel in opposition to S. mansoni (CR, 80.2%; ERR, 87.9%) [14]. Another examine performed withinside the identical location mentioned big concern findings as the general CR among 305 S. mansoni egg patent people changed into simplest 56.4%, with especially low CR found in preschoolers with a records of preceding praziquantel treatments (CR 41.7%) [17]. PSAC in co-endemic districts of well-known Ivoire Coast shows excessive efficacy in opposition to S. mansoni (CR, 88.6%; ERR, 96.7%) [22].

WHO advocates mass treatment at colleges with the frequency of treatment obsessed with prevalence, and intensity of shistosomiasis infection, but with magnified prevalence through irrigation, ponds and dynamic water bodies, and different at-risk populations might have to be enclosed in treatment programs [34]. In September 2010, an off-the-cuff 2-day meeting came about in Geneva that brought along new proof from many countries regarding the prevalence of schistosomiasis within the younger kid also because of the performance of praziquantel treatment for encouraging changes in its formal licensing or off-label use in treatment of young kids [35].

Studies conducted in five African countries with high prevalence of schistosomiasis (n = 3198) reported high CR, and significant reductions in mean egg counts occurred for both urogenital and intestinal schistosomiasis [32]. Recently, a report showed that praziquantel alone and in combination with mebendazole in the treatment of S. mansoni and soil-transmitted helminthes in PSAC showed similar safety profiles [36, 37].

Treatment of youngsters with praziquantel is ethically warranted, is tried to be safe, and may be enforced with success on the bottom within the frame of preventive chemotherapy. This means the necessity of progressive scale-up of management at the national level. If the above steps are taken and pharmacokinetic studies assist to more optimize pragmatic dosing, praziquantel treatment gap might be closed within the predictable future. By giving infants and PSAC access to medication, this could cause real progress in the management of pediatric infection in the public health setting [21, 32].


3. Conclusion

The prevalence of intestinal schistosomiasis could be very hign in preschool-aged children which really showes a major public health problem. Children with the age of five have been much likely affected with the infection of S. mansoni in comparision with children less than 5 years of age. Administering crushed praziquantel at a dose of 40 mg/kg showed good therapeutic efficacy for S. mansoni in preschool-aged children.



Cure rate


Egg reduction rate


Eggs per gram


Neglected tropical disease


Preschool-aged children


School age children


World Health Organization


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Written By

Genanew Birhanu

Submitted: 21 January 2022 Reviewed: 24 February 2022 Published: 05 October 2022