Open access peer-reviewed chapter

Proterozoic Newer Dolerite Dyke Swarm Magmatism in the Singhbhum Craton, Eastern India

Written By

Akhtar R. Mir

Submitted: 27 March 2022 Reviewed: 06 April 2022 Published: 14 May 2022

DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.104833

From the Edited Volume

Geochemistry and Mineral Resources

Edited by Hosam M. Saleh and Amal I. Hassan

Chapter metrics overview

200 Chapter Downloads

View Full Metrics


Precambrian mafic magmatism and its role in the evolution of Earth’s crust has been paid serious attention by researchers for the last four decades. The emplacement of mafic dyke swarms acts as an important time marker in geological terrains. Number of shield terrains throughout the world has been intruded by the Precambrian dyke swarms, hence the presence of these dykes are useful to understand the Proterozoic tectonics, magmatism, crustal growth and continental reconstruction. Likewise, the Protocontinents of Indian Shield e.g. Aravalli-Bundelkhand, Dharwar, Bastar, and Singhbhum Protocontinent had experienced the dyke swarm intrusions having different characteristics and orientations. In Singhbhum craton, an impressive set of mafic dyke swarm, called as Newer dolerite dyke swarm, had intruded the Precambrian Singhbhum granitoid complex through a wide geological period from 2800 to 1100 Ma. Present chapter focuses on the published results or conclusions of these dykes in terms of their mantle source characteristics, metasomatism of the mantle source, degree of crustal contamination and partial melting processes. Geochemical characteristics of these dykes particularly Ti/Y, Zr/Y, Th/Nb, Ba/Nb, La/Nb, (La/Sm)PM are similar to either MORB or subduction zone basalts that occur along the plate margin. The enriched LREE-LILE and depletion of HFSE especially Nb, P and Ti probably indicate generation of these dykes in a subduction zone setting.


  • geochemistry
  • newer dolerite dykes
  • Singhbhum craton
  • India

1. Introduction

Precambrian mafic magmatism and its role in the evolution of Earth’s crust has received particular attention of the geoscientists during the last three decades because it has not only been influenced by progressive secular compositional variation and mantle sources/reservoirs but also by onset of plate tectonics. Study of dykes is useful for recognition of Large Igneous Provinces (LIP) and rebuilding of different continents which may have displaced through geological time [1]. All protocontinents of India such as Aravalli-Bundelkhand, Dharwar, Bastar and Singhbhum retain dykes of varied orientations, therefore, these dykes or dyke swarms represent a main thermal episode during the Proterozoic or Precambrain times [2]. Geochemical and isotope studies of these dykes offer an opportunity in understanding the geochemical evolution of mantle through space and time [3, 4].

Singhbhum Craton is a book that records complex geological and tectonic processes from Paleoarchean to Neoproterozoic [5, 6]. Several dykes of mafic to acidic compositions are intruding the Singhbhum Granitoid Complex, which are collectively referred to as the Newer dolerites dykes (NDD) in the geological literature [7, 8]. Being the latest magmatic episode of the Singhbhum Granitoid Complex, Newer dolerite dykes provide the path in understanding the Proterozoic geodynamic evolution of the Singhbhum Craton [9]. The present work contributes in understanding the mantle source characteristics and tectonic setting of the NDD.


2. General geology

Mahanadi Graben and Sukinda thrust borders the Eastern Indian shield in the west and granulite terrain of Eastern Ghats along with recent alluvium surrounds this shield in the south, whereas, Gangetic alluvium and Quaternary sediments of Bengal basin exist in north and east of this shield (Figure 1). The major divisions of this shield includes: Chotanagpur Granite Gneiss Complex, Singhbhum Mobile Belt and Singhbhum Craton. The general geological features of each of the above geological provinces are briefly discussed in the following sections.

Figure 1.

Simplified geological map of eastern Indian shield illustrating the three geological provinces viz. Chotanagpur granite gneiss complex (CGGC), Singhbhum Mobile Belt (SMB) and Singhbhum craton (SC). SSZ – Singhbhum shear zone [9].

2.1 Chotanagpur granite gneiss complex

Chotanagpur Granite Gneiss Complex (CGCC) exists in West Bengal and Jharkhand states of India and covers an area of about 80,000 km2 (Latitudes 23°00′N to 25°00′N; Longitudes 83°45′E to 87°45′E). It is mostly made of granites, granite-gneisses, migmatites, dolerite dykes and pegmatite, aplite and quartz veins From the structural patterns, worked out in different parts of the CGGC, it is clear that the region has undergone polyphase deformation producing distinctive folds and related linear fabrics [8].

2.2 Singhbhum mobile belt

The formations occurring in between the Singhbhum Granitoid Complex (SGC) and CGGC are collectively recognized either as the Singhbhum Mobile Belt (SMB) or Singhbhum Group. The SMB (Figure 2), has been divided into five litho-stratigraphic domains from north to south [11, 12] like (a) volcano-sedimentary belt, (b) Dalma metavolcanic belt, (c) Chaibasa and Dhalbhum Formations, (d) the rocks occurring in the SSZ and (e) Dhanjori and/or the Ongarbira metavolcanic rocks.

Figure 2.

Simplified geological map of the Singhbhum craton [10].

2.3 Singhbhum craton

The Singhbhum Craton (SC) records a long history of crustal evolution from Mesoarchaean to Mesoproterozoic. It is an extensive terrain of granite and gneissic complex with subordinate metabasic and minor metasedimentary rocks (Figure 2). Some important geological units are briefed below:

2.3.1 Older metamorphic group

Older Metamorphic Group (OMG) occurs near Champua (Latitudes 22°04′N: Longitudes 85°40′E) and as enclaves in the SGC. This group had experienced amphibolite facies metamorphism and is made of pelitic schists, garnetiferous quartzite, calc-magnesian metasediments and sill like mafic rocks [5]. Goswami et al. [13] and Mishra [14], have dated detrital zircons and recognized an older limit of 3.5Ga age for these supra-crustals. On the bases of Pb/Pb whole rock dating, Moorbath and Taylor [15] has established 3378 ± 98 Ma age for these supra-crustals. This age matches with Sm/Nd (TDM model) ages of 3.41, 3.39 and 3.35 Ga [15]. Sharma et al. [16], however, pointed out that protoliths of OMG amphibolites are 3305 ± 60 Ma old and therefore OMTG which intrude OMG cannot be older than 3300 Ma. The younger 3.40, 3.35 and 3.20 Ga ages have been interpreted as metamorphic events [17, 18].

2.3.2 Singhbhum granitoid complex

It has been suggested that SGC (Latitudes 21°00′ and 22°45′ N: Longitudes 85°30′ and 86°30′E) is composed of 12 distinct units that were emplaced in three successive magmatic phases [5]. The K-poor, granodiorite trondhjemite early (phase I) has been dated as 3.25 ± 0.05 Ga [19]. The II and III phases are made of granodiorite that grade to monzogranite and granite and these phases are dated as 3.06 Ga (Pb/Pb whole rock) and 2.9 Ga (Rb/Sr. whole rock) respectively [5]. The other granitic bodies that occur in SC show ages similar to that of SGC, for example, Bonai granites (3369 ± 57 Ma) [20] and Katipada tonalite (3275 ± 81 Ma) [21]. Recent U–Pb zircon studies have revealed that rocks of the SG batholith were emplaced between ~3.45 Ga and ~ 3.32 Ga [22].

2.3.3 Banded iron formations

BIF is considered to have been deposited in three interconnected basins [5]. These basins are: (i) Noamundi (Latitudes 22°09′N: Longitudes 85°31′E) – Koira (Latitudes 21°54′N: Longitudes 85°15′E) basin of west Singhbhum district and Keonjhar, (ii) Gorumahisani (Latitudes 22°18′30′N: Longitudes 86°17′E) – Badampahar (Latitudes 22°04′N: Longitudes 86°07′E) basin along the eastern border of the Singhbhum Granitoid Complex and (iii) Daitari-Tomka basin in the southern parts of the Singhbhum Craton. In the Noamundi– Koira BIF, rocks are made up of shale, phyllite, the middle formation of banded hematite jasper and an upper formation of magniferous shale, chert, manganese formation and shale. A granite body intruding BIF near Sulaipat has been dated as 3.12 ± 0.01 Ga [23]. Some mafic and ultramafic rocks referred to as Gorumahisani Greenstones are associated with this Gorumahisani-Badampahar BIF sequence [24].

2.3.4 Bonai volcanic suite

Bonai volcanics show sub-aerial and sub-marine features in the west and east parts of its extension respectively [24, 25]. These volcanics are made of mafic rocks, tuffs and subordinate silica volcanic clastic interbeds. It has been inferred that these volcanics show island arc basalt characteristics [24].

2.3.5 Jagannathpur volcanic suite

These volcanics are exposed around Noamundi upto Jagannathpur and are younger than BIF of Noamundi-Koira belt [24]. Significantly, NDD are not cutting across the Jagannathpur Suite. It, therefore, appears that it is either equivalent in age or younger than the NDD. Alvi and Raza [26] found these to be calc-alkaline basalts and suggested that these lava flows represent an early arc volcanism. The Jagannathpur lavas have been dated around 1629 ± 30 Ma by K/Ar method [5] and 2250 ± 81 Ma by Pb/Pb whole rock isochron method [27].

2.3.6 Gorumahisani volcanic suite

It is associated with Gorumahisani-Badampahar BIF along the eastern border of SBGC. The rocks of this volcanic suite are intruded by Kumhardubi (Latitude 22° 17′N: Longitude 86°19′30″) - Dublarbera (Latitude 22°29′30″ N: Longitude 86°17′E) gabbro- anorthosite, Rangamatia (Latitude 22°29′15″N: Longitude 86°17′30″E) Leucotonalite, Katupith (Latitude 22°18′N: Longitude 86°17′30′′E) Leucogranite and NDD swarm.

2.3.7 Simlipal complex

Recently Kar et al. [28] suggested that the circular shape of Simlipal complex is only a topography controlled rather than an existence of alternate bands of mafic volcanic and quartzites. Further, they suggested that the Simlipal complex overlies the weakly metamorphosed basement heterolith unit (Lulung Formation) which is overlain by Barehipani Formation and Jurunda Formation. Paleoproterozoic age for this complex has been given by Saha [5]. Further, Iyengar et al. [29] suggested 2084 ± 70 Ma age for Similipal complex by following the Rb-Sr whole rock method.

2.3.8 Kolhan group

This group exists on the western margin of the SBC and its length is around 100 km with a width of about 12 km. Saha [5] correlated Chaniakpur-Keonjhargarh, Mankarchua and Sarpalli-Kamakhyanagar formations with Kolhan Group. The Singhbhum granite Basement, Dongoaposi (Jagannathpur) lavas and the Iron Group surround Kolhan basin on the NE, S-SE and west respectively [30]. The Kolhan shales north of Hat Gamaria are intruded by three parallel sills of the NDD. South west of Jagannathpur, flat lying Kolhan shales overlie the Jagannathpur lava.


3. Petrography

NDD have experienced low grade regional metamorphism in the vicinity of Singhbhum Shear Zone, however they are fresh to least effected in the western and central parts of the Singhbhum Granitiod Complex. NNE–SSW trending ultramafic-mafic dyke exposed near Keshargaria is medium to coarse grained rock with green to dark green color. The ultramafic dykes which consist of olivine (25–52%) and pyroxenes (45–65%) are present. Mafic dykes are mainly massive, sometimes coarse grained and their color varies from black to greenish gray. The essential constituents of dolerite type of dykes includes pyroxenes, plagioclases and quartz with little amphiboles. Clinopyroxene is mainly augite in the form of euhedral to subhedral prismatic phenocrysts and also as granular aggregates in the groundmass. Rarely, clinopyroxene shows alteration to pale-green amphibole and/or biotite around the grain boundaries. Quartz (0.5 to 3%) is present as subhedral to anhedral crystals. Accessory minerals are opaques, apatite, and rutile. Opaque minerals (0.5 to 5%) include magnetite and Cr-Spinel. Norite samples consist dominantly orthopyroxene (hypersthene) and plagioclase (labradorite) together with subordinate diopsidic augite and small amounts of quartz. In Quartz dolerites relatively greater proportion of anhedral quartz is noticed. The major constituents in quartz dolerite are calcic plagioclase, clinopyroxene (diopside-augite) and subordinate amount of orthopyroxene (hypersthene, enstatite). Coarse grained gabbroic variety of the NDD is mostly coarse grained dark colored. Under microscope, they show overall hypidiomorphic texture with local development of subophitic texture. They show subhedral laths of labradorite plagioclase and augite. Orthopyroxene is rarely found within this petrographic variant.


4. Geochemistry

While observing geochemical characteristics, NDD have been classified as (i) ultramafic dykes {having MgO >30.0 wt. %, SiO2 < 45.0 wt. %, Al2O3 < 5.0 wt. % and alkalies <1.0 wt. %; (ii) Group I dykes {having MgO 12–22 wt. %, SiO2 45–53 wt. %, Al2O3 < 11.0% and total alkalies <3.0%; (iii) Group II dykes {having MgO 7.0–19.0 wt.%, SiO2 51–60 wt. %, Al2O3 10–12 wt. % and alkalies 1.0–3.50 wt. %; (iv) Group III {having MgO 6.0–12 wt. %, SiO2 51.0–70.0 wt. %, Al2O3 10.0–12.5 wt. % and total alkalies 2.0–4.5 wt. %. Group I dykes contain lower MgO and MnO and higher SiO2, TiO2, Al2O3, P2O5 and alkalies as compared to Ultramafic dykes. Group II contains high TiO2, Fe2O3, MgO and P2O5 contents and lower SiO2 and Alkalies relative to group III dykes. In Total Alkali-Silica relationships the NDD show chemical variation from ultramafic to dacite through basalt and basaltic andesite (Figure not shown). Some samples show chemical features like MgO > 8%, SiO2 > 52%, TiO2 ≤ 0.5% and CaO/Al2O3 < 1 similar to that found in boninitic rocks [31, 32, 33, 34].

In under investigated samples Mg# (Mg # = molar 100 Mg/Mg + Fetotal) show variation like 89–85, 79–64, 80–43 and 74–49 in ultramafic dykes, group I, II and III dykes respectively. Such a change in Mg# is consistent with the fractional crystallization of ferromagnesian minerals [35]. The presence of normative quartz content in studied dolerite samples (excluding ultramafic samples) having Mg# >70 may indicate their derivation from multiple parental magmas. Mir and Alvi, [36] have suggested more investigation in terms of isotope geochemistry and radiometric data of ultramafic dykes from Keshergarya village, Singhbhum craton. They suspect their relationship with the mafic members of the NDD. Tholeiite and calc-alkaline trends are commonly based on AFM ternary plot (A = Na2O + K2O, FeO* = total iron as FeO, and M = MgO) [37]. In AFM diagram the NDD show tholeiitic trend. Ultramafic dykes concentrate towards MgO corner of AFM diagram (Figure 3).

Figure 3.

K2O + Na2O-Fe2O3t-MgO (AFM) diagram showing theoleiitic trend of NDD. Field lines are after Kuno [37] and Irvine and Baragar [38].

During the partial melting or fractional crystallization the transitional elements like Nickel (Ni) and Cobalt (Co) are compatible with olivine whereas Scandium (Sc), Chromium (Cr) and Vanadium (V) are compatible with clinopyroxene [39], hence these elements are important in petrogenetic studies of basic rocks. These elements are useful to demarcate the primary nature of magma as it has been noted that primary mid ocean ridge basalt (MORB) magmas retain high concentration of Ni (> 250–400 ppm), Cr (> 600 ppm) and Mg # > 70 [35]. Mg#, Ni & Cr varies like {(85–89, 150–304 & 560–2458), (64–79, 45–145 & 255–733), (43–80, 9–73 & 31–524), (49–74, 17–43 & 42–226)} respectively in concern ultramafic dykes, group I, II and III mafic dykes. Such geochemical observations infer that the samples with low Mg #, Cr and Ni values may have evolved through fractional crystallization of olivine and pyroxene [35]. Further, it has been suggested that some dyke samples having similar Mg# with distinct Ni and Cr contents and some samples having distinct Mg# with similar Ni and Cr contents indicates that either the diverse extents of partial melting of the same source or heterogeneous mantle sources are responsible for the generation of different phases of the Newer dolerite dykes. Ti/V values ranging from 20 to 50 indicates the low oxygen fugacity ( ƒO2) i.e. reduced condition of magma generation like MORB setting whereas Ti/V values ranging from 10 to 20 are markers of high ƒO2 i.e. oxidizing condition of magma generation like subduction zones or supra-subduction zones settings [40]. In concern Newer dolerite dykes, Ti/V values range from 14 to 30, 9–29, 10–34 and 14–32 in ultramafic dykes, group I, II and III dykes respectively which indicates generation of melts for these dykes had occurred under varied oxidizing conditions.

Mafic intrusions in subduction environments are important for deciphering interaction between subduction slabs and mantle. Such interactions usually result in the mantle wedge being enriched in LILE by introduction of fluids and /melts from the converging lithosphere [41]. Both fluids and melts can be introduced at different depths above a subduction zone [41]. Thus, mafic rocks across subduction zone environments may record variable degrees of mantle source modification by slab derived components [41].

The studied NDD have low K/Rb ratios up to 320 perhaps suggesting the source region of the Newer Dolerites experienced fluid modification [41, 42]. The ratios of elements such as Barium (Ba), Thorium (Th), Zirconium (Zr) and Niobium (Nb) are useful to know about the subduction zone related metasomatism of mantle, hence the values of Ba/Th, Ba/Zr & Ba/Nb in ultramafic dykes, group I, II and III dykes range like {(59–197, 3–6 & 38–119), (35–365; 1–5 & 18–195), (34–231, 1–6 & 10–76) and (37–228, 2–14 & 20–106)} respectively. Such values are higher than that of the average values of the continental crust which in turn points towards the subduction zone related metasomatism of mantle source of these rocks [42]. Two alternative processes could explain the negative Nb anomaly (Figure 4) observed in the NDD: (i) metasomatic enrichment of lithospheric mantle [44] and (ii) chemical interaction between lithospheric mantle and asthenosphere-derived magma having incompatible elements but little Nb [45]. However, high La/Nb and La/Ta of Newer dolerite dykes supports the metasomatic enrichment of lithospheric mantle as a reason for Nb anomalies. Hence, the negative anomalies of Nb and Ti on primitive mantle normalized patterns (Figure 4) [42], abundance of light rare earth elements (LREE) (Figure not shown), nearly flat sub-parallel pattern of heavy rare earth elements (HREE) (Figure not shown), chondrite normalized ratio of Lanthanum to Ytterbium (La/YbN < 12.0) and chondrite normalized ratio of Lanthanum to Samarium (La/SmN < 4.0) of concern NDD supports their affiliation with arc or subduction zone setting [46].

Figure 4.

Primitive mantle normalized multi-element spider diagram of NDD. Normalized values are after Sun and McDonald [43]. CLM- continental lithospheric mantle; E-MORB-enriched mid ocean ridge basalts; N-MORB-Normal mid ocean ridge basalts; OIB-Ocean island basalts.


5. Petrogenesis

The petrogenesis of mantle derived magmatic rocks can commonly be traced by their geochemical and isotopic data. The mafic magmatic activity in the form of dykes at intervals throughout the Proterozoic provides a useful window to monitor mantle evolution [47, 48].

From the mentioned geochemical characteristics, it may be inferred that the NDD having Mg# <60 are evolved members that have been formed through fractional crystallization of Mg-rich minerals like olivine and/or pyroxene [49]. On TiO2 vs. Al2O3/TiO2 (Figure 5a) and CaO/TiO2 diagrams (Figure 5b) NDD plot in MORB, low TiO2 boninite & high-Mg andesite fields which suggests the compatibility of Ti and retention of Al and Ca in residual phases like pyroxenes, garnet, plagioclase and spinel [50]. Further, these relationships indicate that low TiO2 samples were derived from relatively more hydrously fractionated magmas and high TiO2 samples were derived from least hydrously fractionated magmas [51].

Figure 5.

(a) TiO2 vs. Al2O3/TiO2 and (b) TiO2 vs. CaO/TiO2 binary diagrams for NDD. HMA-high Mg Andesites and MORB-Mid Ocean ridge basalts.

Fractional crystallization associated with crustal contamination (AFC) is an important process during magma evolution that may modify both elemental and isotopic compositions [52]. As we know that the concentration of Rubidium (Rb), Barium (Ba), Potassium (K), Sodium (Na) etc. is rich in crustal materials whereas P2O5 and TiO2 is poor in these materials. Hence, any crustal contamination of mafic magma changes the primary geochemistry of magma accordingly [41]. However, in concern samples the low content and range of K2O and NaO2 are indications of least crustal contamination in these rocks. In addition to this, the ratio of Cerium to Lead (Ce/Pb) and Niobium to Uranium (Nb/U) are not changed due to partial melting, hence, these ratios can be applied to know about the effects of alteration or crustal contamination of mafic rocks. In concern samples these ratios are higher than that of upper continental crust (Ce/Pb = 3.2) and (Nb/U = 9) [53]. Therefore, it is suggested that the investigated NDD have least or no contamination of crustal materials.

Trace element ratios, such as La/Yb, Th/Yb, Ba/La and La/Nb are widely used to identify the metasomatic agents and estimate the flux from the subducted slab [54]. All these ratios in case of NDD imply varying inputs of sediment and fluid components from the subducting slab in their formation.

The high (La/Yb)N and (Gd/Yb)N in combination with relatively low HREE abundance of the NDD suggest that they may have formed by low degrees of partial melting of a garnet bearing source. Asthenospheric or deep or plume and lithospheric or shallow or non-plume derived mafic melts or basalts can be differentiated or evaluated by geochemical ratios like Lanthanum (La) /Tantalum (Ta) and La/Nb. Thompson and Morrison [55] suggested that values of La/Ta =10–12 and La/Ta >30 indicates that basaltic rocks may have been derived from asthenospheric mantle and lithospheric mantle respectively. Further, Wang et al. [56] used La/Nb ratio to discriminate asthenospheric mantle and lithospheric mantle sources. They suggested La/Nb <1.5 for asthenospheric mantle derived mafic rocks and La/Nb >1.5 for lithospheric mantle derived mafic rocks. In majority of NDD it has been seen that La/Ta is greater than 30 and La/Nb is greater than 1.5 that reveals their derivation may be from lithospheric mantle source. Moreover, on primitive mantle-normalized multi-element diagram (Figure 4), NDD show patterns differed from that of normal mid ocean ridge basalts, enriched mid ocean ridge basalts, ocean island basalts and continental lithospheric mantle and show depletion of Ba, Nb, Sr., P, Ti and richness of Zr. Such geochemical characteristics are similar to that found in arc or back-arc extension basalts [57, 58].


6. Tectonic setting

Keeping in view the importance of dykes or dyke swarms in identification of large igneous provinces, reconstruction of continents, continental rifting and continental-continental collision events [59], the geochemical studies on NDD may have potential in understanding the geodynamic evolution of Singhbhum craton in Precambrian times. The association of mafic dykes with the initiation of sedimentary basins and their geochemistry retaining long term memories of subduction processes in the lithosphere mantle are too well known [60]. Origin of NDD has been either related to arc/back-arc tectonic setting i.e. non-plume source [42, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66] or plume source [5, 67]. In addition, Boss [68] suggested both depleted and enriched mantle source for Newer dolerite dykes. However, mantle plume model faces some issues in evaluation of origin of the NDD due to following reasons (i) age of NDD varying from 2800 to 1000 Ma [5, 69, 70] suggests that it is hard to tap a uniform magma source for such a long time interval, (ii) absence of large scale mafic lavas in Singhbhum craton having intraplate setting/geochemistry and (iii) further, the occurrence of voluminous hydrous lithospheric mantle across the cratons developed during the Archaean (~3 Ga) and its role in the Proterozoic magmas [48].


7. Conclusions

Reported age of newer dolerite dykes vary from 900 Ma to 2800 Ma and traverse a number of rock types in some regular sets like NNE–SSW and NW-SE trends. Variations in major elements, particularly SiO2, Al2O3, CaO, TiO2 contents, and CaO/TiO2 and Al2O3/TiO2 ratios in these dykes indicates that their Ca and Al are held in the residual mantle phases such as clinopyroxene, plagioclase, spinal and garnet. The overall low Mg #, Cr and Ni values in studied NDD indicate their evolution through fractional crystallization of olivine and pyroxene. A few dyke samples having similar Mg# with distinct Ni and Cr contents and some samples having distinct Mg# with similar Ni and Cr contents indicates that either the diverse extents of partial melting of the same source or heterogeneous mantle sources are responsible for the generation of different phases of the Newer dolerite dykes. In studied NDD low content and narrow range of K2O and NaO2 in addition to higher values of Ce/Pb and Nb/U than that of upper continental crust are indications of least crustal contamination in these rocks.

Values of Ba/Th, Ba/Zr & Ba/Nb in NDD are higher than that of the average values of the continental crust which in turn points towards the subduction zone related metasomatism of mantle source of these rocks. Further, the enriched LREE and flat sub-parallel pattern of HREE along with La/YbN <12.0 and La/SmN <4.0 of concern NDD supports their affiliation with arc or subduction zone setting. Moreover, their primitive mantle-normalized multi-element patterns differed from that of normal mid ocean ridge basalts, enriched mid ocean ridge basalts, ocean island basalts and continental lithospheric mantle and show depletion of Ba, Nb, Sr., P, Ti and richness of Zr. Such geochemical characteristics are similar to that found in arc or back-arc extension basalts.



Author is sincerely thankful to the Director, Leh Campus Taru, University of Ladakh for providing facilities in preparation of this book chapter. Author pays thanks to Dr. Malik Zubair A. and Dr. Farooq A. Dar for their valuable suggestions during write up of this book chapter. Constructive comments and valuable suggestions from anonymous reviewers are duly acknowledged.


  1. 1. Bryan SE, Ernst RE. Revised definition of large igneous provinces (LIPs). Earth Science Review. 2008;86:175-202
  2. 2. Srivastava RK, Sivaji C, Chalapathi Rao NV. Geochemistry, geophysics and geochronology. In: Srivastava RK, Ch S, Chalapathi Rao NV, editors. Indian Dykes. New Delhi: Narosa Publishing House Pvt. Ltd.; 2008. p. 626
  3. 3. Tarney J. Geochemistry and significance of mafic dyke swarms in the Proterozoic. In: Condie KC, editor. Proterozoic Crustal Evolution. Elsevier: Amsterdam; 1992. pp. 151-179
  4. 4. Hall RP, Hughes DJ. Early Precambrian crustal development: Changing styles of mafic magmatism. Journal of the Geological Society of London. 1993;150:625-635
  5. 5. Saha AK. Crustal evolution of Singhbhum-North Orissa, Eastern India. Memoir, Geological Society of India. 1994;27:341
  6. 6. Majumdar R, Bose PK, Sarkar S. A commentary on the tectono-sedimentary record of the pre-2.0 Ga continental growth of India Vis-à-Vis a possible pre-Gondwana afro-Indian supercontinent. Journal of African Earth Sciences. 2000;30:201-217
  7. 7. Dunn JA. The stratigraphy of south Singhbhum. Memoir, Geological Survey of India. 1940;63(3):303-369
  8. 8. Mahadevan TM. Geology of Bihar and Jharkhand. Text Book Series. Bangalore: Geological Society of India; 2002. p. 563
  9. 9. Sarkar AN. Precambrian tectonic evolution of eastern India: A model of converging microplates. Tectonophysics. 1982;86:363-397
  10. 10. Iyengar SVP, Murthy YGK. The evolution of the Archaean-Proterozoic crust in parts of Bihar and Orissa, eastern India. Records, Geological Survey of India. 1982;112:1-5
  11. 11. Sarkar SC, Gupta A, Basu A. North Singhbhum Proterozoic mobile belt, eastern India: Its character, evolution and metallogeny. In: Sarkar SC, editor. Metallogeny Related to Tectonics of the Proterozoic Mobile Belts. Calcutta: Oxford and IBH Publishing Co.; 1992. pp. 271-305
  12. 12. Gupta A, Basu A. North Singhbhum Proterozoic mobile belt eastern India-a review. Special Publication, Geological Survey of India. 2000;55:195-226
  13. 13. Goswami JN, Mishra S, Wiedenbeck M, Ray SL, Saha AK. 3.55 Ga old zircon from Singhbhum-Orissa iron ore craton, eastern India. Current Science. 1995;69:1008-1011
  14. 14. Misra S. Precambrian chronostratigraphic growth of Singhbhum-Orissa craton, eastern Indian shield: An alternative model. Journal of the Geological Society of India. 2006;67:356-378
  15. 15. Moorbath S, Taylor PN. Early Precambrian crustal evolution in eastern India: The ages of the Singhbhum granite and included remnants of older gneiss. Journal of the Geological Society of India. 1988;31:82-84
  16. 16. Sharma M, Basu AR, Ray SL. Sm-Nd isotopic and geochemical study of the Archaean tonalite-amphibolite association from the eastern Indian craton. Contribution to Mineralogy & Petrology. 1994;117:45-55
  17. 17. Mishra S, Deomurari MP, Wiedenbeck M, Goswami JN, Ray S, Saha AK. 207Pb/206Pb zircon ages and the evolution of the Singhbhum craton, eastern India: Anion microprobe study. Precambrian Research. 1999;93:139-151
  18. 18. Upadhyay D, Chattopadhyay S, Kooijman E, Mezger K, Berndt J. Magmatic and metamorphic history of Paleoarchean Tonalite-Trondhjemite-granodiorite (TTG) suite from the Singhbhum craton, eastern India. Precambrian Research. 2014;252:180-190
  19. 19. Moorbath S, Taylor PN, Jones NW. Dating the oldest terrestrial rocks – Facts and fiction. Chemical Geology. 1986;57:63-86
  20. 20. Sengupta S, Paul DK, De Laeter JR, McNaughton NJ, Bandyopadhyay PK, De Smeth JB. Mid-Archaean evolution of the eastern Indian craton: Geochemical and isotopic evidence from the Bonai pluton. Precambrian Research. 1991;49:23-37
  21. 21. Vohra CP, Dasgupta S, Paul DK, Bishoi PK, Gupta SN, Guha S. Rb-Sr chronology and petrochemistry of granitoids from the southeastern part of the Singhbhum craton, Orissa. Journal of the Geological Society of India. 1991;38:5-22
  22. 22. Dey S, Topno S, Liu Y, Zong K. Generation and evolution of Palaeoarchaean continental crust in the central part of the Singhbhum craton, eastern India. Precambrian Research. 2017;298:268-291
  23. 23. Chakraborty KL, Majumder T. Geological aspects of the banded Iron formation of Bihar and Orissa. Journal of the Geological Society of India. 1986;31:305-313
  24. 24. Banerjee PK. Stratigraphy, petrology and geochemistry of some Precambrian basic volcanic and associated rocks of Singhbhum district, Bihar and Mayurbhanj and Koenjhar districts, Orissa. Memoir, Geological Survey of India. 1982;111:58
  25. 25. Bose MK. Precambrian picritic pillow lavas from Nomira, Koenjhar, Eastern India. Current Science. 1982;51:677-684
  26. 26. Alvi SH, Raza M. Nature and magma type of Jagannathpur volcanics, Singhbhum, eastern India. Journal of the Geological Society of India. 1991;38:524-531
  27. 27. Misra S, Johnson PT. Geochronological constraints on evolution of the Singhbhum Mobile belt and associated basic volcanics of eastern Indian shield. Gondwana Research. 2005;8:129-142
  28. 28. Kar A, Ray J, Sinha S, Kar R, Manikyamba C, Paul M, et al. Geology of the Simlipal Volcano-Sedimentary Basin of Singhbhum revisited: A simplistic interpretation. Journal of the Geological Society of India. 2022;98:329-334
  29. 29. Iyengar SVP, Chandy KC, Narayanaswamy R. Geochronology and Rb-Sr systematics of the igneous rocks of the Simlipal complex, Orissa. Indian Journal of Earth Science. 1981;8:61-65
  30. 30. Mukhopadhyay J, Ghosh G, Nandi AK, Chaudhuri AK. Depositional setting of the Kolhan group: Its implications for the development of a Meso to Neoproterozoic deep-water basin on the south Indian craton. South African Journal of Geology. 2006;109:183-192
  31. 31. Srivastava RK. Geochemistry and petrogenesis of Neoarchaean high-Mg low-Ti mafic igneous rocks in an intracratonic setting, Central India craton: Evidence for boninite magmatism. Geochemical Journal. 2006;40:15-31
  32. 32. Srivastava RK. Global Intracratonic Boninite-Norite magmatism during the Neoarchean–Paleoproterozoic: Evidence from the central Indian Bastar craton. International Geology Review. 2008;50:61-74
  33. 33. Subba Ra DV, Balaram V, Naga Raju K, Sridhar DN. Paleoproterozoic Boninite-like rocks in an Intercratonic setting from northern Bastar craton, Central India. Journal of the Geological Society of India. 2008;72:373-380
  34. 34. Mir AR, Alvi SH, Balaram V. Boninitic geochemical characteristics of high-Mg mafic dykes from Singhbhum Granitoid complex, eastern India. Acta Geochimica. 2015;34(2):241-251
  35. 35. Wilson M. Igneous Petrogenesis. London: Unwin Hyman Ltd.; 1989. p. 466
  36. 36. Mir AR, Alvi SH. Mafic and ultramafic dykes of Singhbhum craton from Chaibasa, Jharkhand, eastern India: Geochemical constraints for their magma sources. Current Science. 2015;109(8):1399-1403
  37. 37. Kuno H. Differentiation of basalt magmas. In: Hess HH, Poldervaart A, editors. The Poldervaart Treatise on Rocks of Basaltic Composition. New York: Interscience; 1968. pp. 623-688
  38. 38. Irvine TN, Baragar WRA. A guide to the chemical classification of the common rocks. Canadian Journal of Earth Science. 1971;8:523-548
  39. 39. Rollinson HR. Using geochemical data: evaluation, presentation, interpretation. Essex, U.K.: Longman Scientific Technical; 1993. p. 344
  40. 40. Shervais JW. Ti-V plots and the petrogenesis of modern and ophiolitic lavas. Earth & Planetary Science Letters. 1982;87:341-370
  41. 41. Zhao JH, Zhou MF. Geochemistry of Neoproterozoic mafic intrusions in the Panzhihua district (Sichuan Province, SW China): Implications for subduction-related metasomatism in the upper mantle. Precambrian Research. 2007;152:27-47
  42. 42. Mir AR, Alvi SH, Balaram V. Geochemistry of mafic dikes in the Singhbhum Orissa craton: Implications for subduction-related metasomatism of the mantle beneath the eastern Indian craton. International Geology Review. 2010;52(1):79-94
  43. 43. Sun SS, Mc Donough WF. Chemical and isotopic systematics of oceanic basalts: Implications for mantle composition and processes. In: Saunders AD, Norry MJ, editors. Magmatism in the Ocean Basins. Vol. 42. London, New York, Sydney: Special Publication, Geological Society of London; 1989. pp. 313-345
  44. 44. Kepezhinskas P, McDermott F, Defant M, Hochstaedter A, Drummond MS, Hawdesworth CJ, et al. Trace element and Sr–Nd–Pb isotopic constraints on a three-component model of Kamchatka arc petrogenesis. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta. 1997;61:577-600
  45. 45. Gladkochub DP, Wingate MTD,Pisarevsky SA, Donskaya TV, Mazukabzov AM, Ponomarchuk VA, et al. Mafic intrusions in southwestern Siberia and implications for a Neoproterozoic connection with Laurentia. Precambrian Research. 2006;147:260-278
  46. 46. Verma SP. Extension-related origin of magmas from a garnet-bearing source in the Los Tuxtlas volcanic field, Mexico. International Journal of Earth Science (Geologische Rundschau). 2006;95:871-901
  47. 47. Ahmad T, Tarney J. Geochemistry and petrogenesis of Garhwal volcanics: Implications for evolution of the north Indian lithosphere. Precambrian Research. 1991;50:69-88
  48. 48. Radhakrishna T, Joseph M. Geochemistry and petrogenesis of the Proterozoic dykes in Tamil nadu, southern India: Another example of the Archaean lithospheric mantle source. Geologische Rundschau. 1998;87:268-282
  49. 49. Ringwood AE. Composition and Petrology of the Earth’s Mantle. London: Mc Graw Hill; 1975. p. 618
  50. 50. Sun SS, Nesbitt RW, Sharaskin AY. Geochemical characteristics of mid ocean ridge basalts. Earth & Planetary Science Letters. 1979;44:119-138
  51. 51. Pearce JA, Norry MJ. Petrogenetic implications of Ti, Zr, Y and Nb variations in volcanic rocks. Contribution to Mineralogy & Petrology. 1979;69:33-47
  52. 52. De Paolo DJ. Trace element and isotopic effects of combined wall rock assimilation and fractional crystallization. Earth & Planetary Science Letters. 1981;53:189-202
  53. 53. Taylor SR, McLennan SM. The Continental Crust: Its Composition and Evolution. Oxford: Blackwell; 1985
  54. 54. Hanyu T, Tatsumi Y, Nakai S, Chang Q , Miyazaki T, Sato K, et al. Contribution of slab melting and slab dehydration to magmatism in the NE Japan arc for the last 25 Myr: Constraints from geochemistry. Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems. 2006;7(8):1-29
  55. 55. Thompson RN, Morrison MA. Asthenospheric and lower lithospheric mantle contributions to continental extension magmatism: An example from the British Tertiary Province. Chemical Geology. 1988;68:1-15
  56. 56. Wang XL, Zhou JC, Qiu JS, Jiang SY, Shi YR. Geochronology and geochemistry of Neoproterozoic mafic rocks from western Hunan, South China: Implications for petrogenesis and post-orogenic extension. Geological Magazine. 2008;145:215-233
  57. 57. Saunders AD, Tarney J. Back-arc basins. In: Floyd PA, editor. Oceanic Basalts. Glasgow: Blackie; 1991. pp. 219-263
  58. 58. Holm PE. The geochemical fingerprints of different tectonomagmatic environments using hygromagmatophile element abundances of tholeiitic basalts and basaltic andesites. Chemical Geology. 1985;51:303-323
  59. 59. Ernst RE, Buchan KL. Large mafic magmatic events through time and links to mantle-plume heads. In: Ernst RE, Buchan KL, editors. Mantle Plumes: Their Identification through Time. Vol. 352. Boulder, Colorado: Geological Society America, Special Paper; 2001. pp. 483-575
  60. 60. Goodenough KM, Upton BGJ, Ellam RM. Long term memory of subduction processes in the lithospheric mantle: Evidence from the geochemistry of basic dykes in the Gardar Province of South Greenland. Journal of the Geological Society of London. 2002;159:705-714
  61. 61. Mir AR, Alvi SH, Balaram V. Geochemistry, petrogenesis and tectonic significance of the newer dolerites from the Singhbhum Orissa craton, eastern Indian shield. International Geology Review. 2011a;53(1):46-60
  62. 62. Mir AR, Alvi SH, Balaram V. Geochemistry of the mafic dykes in parts of the Singhbhum granitoid complex: Petrogenesis and tectonic setting. Arabian Journal of Geosciences. 2011;4:933-943
  63. 63. Mir AR, Alvi SH, Balaram V, Bhat FA, Sumira Z, Dar SA. A subduction zone geochemical characteristic of the newer dolerite dykes in the Singhbhum craton, eastern India. International Research Journal of Geology and Mining. 2013;3(6):213-223
  64. 64. Bose MK. Proterozoic dykes from Singhbhum granite pluton. In: Srivastava S, Rao C, editors. Indian dykes. New Delhi: Narosa Publication; 2008. pp. 413-445
  65. 65. Sengupta P, Ray A, Pramanik S. Mineralogical and chemical characteristics of newer dolerite dyke around Keonjhar, Orissa: Implication for hydrothermal activity in subduction zone setting. Journal of Earth System Science. 2014;123(4):887-904
  66. 66. Dasgupta P, Ray A, Chakraborti TM. Geochemical characterisation of the Neoarchaean newer dolerite dykes of the Bahalda region, Singhbhum craton, Odisha, India: Implication for petrogenesis. Journal of Earth System Science. 2019;128:216
  67. 67. Pandey OP, Mezger K, Upadhyay D, Paul D, Singh AK, Söderlund U, et al. Major-trace element and Sr-Nd isotope compositions of mafic dykes of the Singhbhum craton: Insights into evolution of the lithospheric mantle. Lithos. 2021;105959:382-383
  68. 68. Bose MK. Mafic–ultramafic magmatism in the eastern Indian craton – A review. Geological Survey of India. 2000;55:227-258
  69. 69. Mallick AK, Sarkar A. Geochronology and geochemistry of mafic dykes from Precambrians of Keonjhar, Orissa. Indian Minerals. 1994;48:3-24
  70. 70. Kumar A, Parashuramulu V, Shankar R, Besse J. Evidence for a Neoarchean LIP in the Singhbhum craton, eastern India: Implications to Vaalbara supercontinent. Precambrian Research. 2017;292:163-174

Written By

Akhtar R. Mir

Submitted: 27 March 2022 Reviewed: 06 April 2022 Published: 14 May 2022