Open access

Introductory Chapter: Intelligent Approach to Future Man - Machine Interaction

Written By

Ahmad Hoirul Basori and Andi Besse Firdausiah Mansur

Submitted: 18 March 2022 Published: 17 August 2022

DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.104897

From the Edited Volume

Haptic Technology - Intelligent Approach to Future Man-Machine Interaction

Edited by Ahmad Hoirul Basori, Sharaf J. Malebary and Omar M. Barukab

Chapter metrics overview

99 Chapter Downloads

View Full Metrics

1. Introduction

Industry 4.0 has changed the interaction model between humans and machines. They have defined the “machine” as an automatic process that includes hardware and software [1]. Furthermore, they also discussed the elements of controller modules and administration. Industry 4.0 also brings industrial change from analogue toward digital solutions [2, 3]. Human–machine communication is also enhanced in the high capacity of computer networks [4]. The integration of a Cyber-physical system (CPS), Internet of Things (IoT) and cloud network would be feasible by an advanced network that has high-speed internet access [5].


2. Future man-machine interaction

The evolution of man–machine interaction has come up with some pillars of innovative technology-focused areas such as big data, robots, self-driving cars, and Augmented and Mixed Reality [1]. Big data analytics helps give direction to complex criteria of decision-making problems. For example, robotics might better perceive their object detection and recognition environment. The other development of human-computer interaction is driven by mobile device and interface device growth. Bieller mentioned that a voice-guided user interface becomes accustomed to people’s lives, and it’s been predicted in the next 5 years, it will adopt for more than 80% of technology usage [6].

Furthermore, Augmented Reality (AR)/Virtual Reality (VR) is also widely used because VR gear price is less price, and AR technology can run on smartphones smoothly. Industry 4.0 also strive for the development of autonomous vehicle (AV). Stoma et al. [7] classify the level of automation for an autonomous vehicle into several groups, such as level 0 (without automation), level 1 (assistive driving), level 2 (partial automation), level 3 (Conditional Automation), level 4 (advanced automation) and level 5 (full automation). Level 5 means that car can navigate automatically without any human intervention. It can accomplish all driving requirements in all circumstances [7, 8, 9]. Furthermore, incorporating haptic technology into machines makes interaction more realistic because haptic can give people a sensation of the object in the virtual environment [10]. So they can sense the presence of entities like they felt in the real world.

The chapters introduce and demonstrate the future man–machine interaction in intelligent ways. The man–machine relations relied on developing devices that drive people to change their way of interacting with a machine. Industry 4.0 has incorporated more Artificial intelligence for future interaction and robotic involvement and evolutionary interfaces such as Haptic, AR or VR. The book is concentrated on researchers, industry professionals, graduate students and academicians who need a solution or knowledge for an innovative interaction between humans and machines.



This work was supported by the Deanship of Scientific Research (DSR), King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah Saudi Arabia. The authors, therefore, gratefully acknowledge the DSR technical and financial support.


  1. 1. Nardo M, Forino D, Murino T. The evolution of man–machine interaction: The role of human in industry 4.0 paradigm. Production & Manufacturing Research. 2020;8(1):20-34. DOI: 10.1080/21693277.2020.1737592
  2. 2. Frank G, Santos Dalenogare L, Ayala NF. Industry 4.0 technologies: Implementation patterns in manufacturing companies. International Journal of Production Economics. 2019;210(4):15-26
  3. 3. Kumar R, Haleem A, Garg SK, Singh RK. Automated guided vehicle configurations in flexible manufacturing systems: A comparative study. International Journal of Industrial and Systems Engineering. 2015;21(2):207. DOI: 10.1504/IJISE.2015.071510
  4. 4. Gu Y, Liu Q. Research on the application of the internet of things in reverse logistics information management. Journal of Industrial Engineering and Management. 2013;6(4):963-973
  5. 5. Sony M. Industry 4.0 and lean management: A proposed integration model and research propositions. Production & Manufacturing Research. 2018;6(1):416-432
  6. 6. Bieller E. What’s the Future of Human-Computer Interaction (HCI)?. 2021. Available from: [Accessed: 1 March 2022]
  7. 7. Stoma M, Dudziak A, Caban J, Dro’zdziel P. The future of autonomous vehicles in the opinion of automotive market users. Energies. 2021;14:4777. DOI: 10.3390/en14164777
  8. 8. Gavanas N. Autonomous road vehicles: Challenges for urban planning in European cities. Urban Science. 2019;3:61
  9. 9. Siqueira Silva D, Csiszár C, Földes D. Autonomous vehicles and urban space management. Scientific Journal of Silesian University of Technology. Series Transport. 2021;110:169-181
  10. 10. Sreelakshmi M, Subash TD. Haptic technology: A comprehensive review on its applications and future prospects. Materials Today: Proceedings. 2017;4(2, Part B):4182-4187

Written By

Ahmad Hoirul Basori and Andi Besse Firdausiah Mansur

Submitted: 18 March 2022 Published: 17 August 2022