Open access peer-reviewed chapter

Advancement in Energy Storage by Paraffin

Written By

ElSayed G. Zaki, Shimaa M. Elsaeed and Abdelghaffar S. Dhmees

Submitted: July 21st, 2021 Reviewed: March 8th, 2022 Published: March 28th, 2022

DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.104401

From the Edited Volume


Edited by ElSayed G. Zaki and Abdelghaffar S. Dhmees

Chapter metrics overview

23 Chapter Downloads

View Full Metrics


Paraffin uses in energy storage depends on preparation by encapsulation method become more effective nonconventional technique novel storge material. Many measurements as hydrophilicity, energy storage capacity, size distribution and encapsulation ratio can be evaluated. It was also found that a higher coating to paraffin ratio leads to a higher paraffin encapsulation ratio. The hydrophilicity value of microencapsulated paraffin depended mainly on the ratio of paraffin to coating the higher the ratio, the lower was its product hydrophilicity Surface response method used to design and based conditions to optimize it. Using paraffin in energy storage in the future is promising.


  • energy storage
  • paraffin
  • surface response method
  • phase change material

1. Introduction

The main concern for the world is environmental sustainability challenge. Depending on fossil fuels and environmental pollution are the most driving force for the technologies of the future. Using renewable energy and its optimization is the vital factor of energy.

Energy storage is a vital part of energy saving and power supply, as energy demand and energy availability often does not coincide in time.

Storing thermal energy, sensible, latent and thermochemical energy storage are the three main ways. Paraffin oil or liquid paraffin oil is obtained in the process of crude oil distillation It is a colorless and odorless oil that is used for varied purposes. In some cases, paraffin oiland mineral oilare synonymous terms [1]. Fluid paraffin oil is a mineral oil and is a side-effect of unrefined petroleum refining. It is straightforward, lackluster, unscented, and dull oil, which is chiefly made out of high-bubbling alkane subsidiaries. Fluid paraffin (high-bubbling mineral oil) is a combination of higher sub-atomic weight alkane subordinates and has various names, including nujol.


2. Nanomaterials paraffin in erergy storge

Synthesis of new phase change materials is very important role in development of energy. So we were synthesis a series of blends for paraffin of solid solid phase change materials, side chains based on crystalline epoxy resin and diamine of poly propylene oxide together through a one-pot curing process [2].

The examination aftereffects of a novel nanoparticle-paraffin-following earthenware composite stage change material (NCPCM) for dormant warmth nuclear power stockpiling applications. The NCPCMs are created by unconstrained soften invasion of paraffin wax and profoundly conductive nanoparticles (e.g., nano-graphene) in a permeable earthenware system [3] numbers are utilized as an illustration to show the example preparation measure in our labs. To make bigger NCPCM units, the cycle can be increased. The iron ore tailing permeable media is created by a froth gel-projecting strategy as show in Figure 1.

Figure 1.

(a) The NCPCM sample preparation process [3]. (b) Schematic experimental setup for enhanced heat transfer demonstration.

An energy stockpiling framework has been intended to study the warm attributes of paraffin wax with an inserted nano size copper oxide (CuO) molecule [4].

Figure 2 shows the variation of thermal conductivity with respect to temperature for paraffin wax and nanoparticle—in paraffin wax emulsion of various concentrations. The exhibition improvement of structure stable PCMs with the expansion of peeled graphene nano-platelets (xGnP) as a warmth move advertiser [5]. Characterization of test to determine cross of nanomaterial’s based on silicon oxide and cesium oxide nanoparticles on thermo-actual attributes of the paraffin through stage change material (PCM) [6].

Figure 2.

Thermal conductivity of the paraffin wax and CuO—in paraffin wax [4].

The composite blend was sonicated for an hour utilizing a sonicator to get the fine scattering of the paraffin nanoparticles. The surfactant compound in design was not used in this examination to avoid their impact on the warm conductivity of the half and half nano/paraffin. The pre-arranged cross breed nano/paraffin tests were then shaped into the round and hollow structure as displayed in Figure 3 [6].

Figure 3.

Molded hybrid-nano/paraffin samples. (a) Pure paraffin; (b) 0.5 HnP; (c) 1.0 HnP; and (d) 2.0 [6].

Examining the warm properties of three concentrations vary from 0.5 to 1.5 wt% of titania-silver nanocomposite particles scattered paraffin wax PCM without and with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) surfactant for both non-cycled and warm cycled tests. The colloidal arrangement is then splashed with different times to eliminate the wastes from the arrangement. The gotten arrangement is then separated, was dried at temperatures differ from 90 to 100°C for 12 hours and then dried to fine phase. Titania-silver NCP is delivered with the means are too represented in Figure 4 [7].

Figure 4.

Preparation of nanocomposite particles [7].

Suspension polymerization method are used to form microcapsules containing paraffin wax as centers and polystyrene. Formtion of four exploratory elements, including level of initiator/styrene mass proportion (BPO/St wt.%), paraffin wax/styrene mass proportion (PCM/St), level of stabilizer/styrene mass proportion (PVP/St wt.%), and water/styrene mass proportion (H2O/St), on microcapsules properties were researched [8].

Figure 5 displays the insertion of an and C on molecule extent. It tends to be seen that base molecule extent will accomplished at most extreme percent of BPO/St and PVP/St, despite the fact that at small degrees of %PVP/St the expanding of %BPO/St has a contrariwise impact on molecule extent.

Figure 5.

Effect of a (%initiator/styrene mass proportion) and C (%stabilizer/styrene mass proportion) on particle size [8].

Figure 6 shows the essential advances engaged with the emulsion polymerization strategy. In this strategy, an insoluble monomer contained in the dissolvable gets scattered consistently by the method for mechanical mixing in the response medium which contains a specific emulsifier and surfactant [9].

Figure 6.

Schematic representation ofin situpolymerization method employed for the synthesis of microcapsules [9].

The EPDM rubber network features required for low leakage and good thermal performance were determined by Vulcanizing Paraffin wax (PW) PCM and Ethylene-Propylene-Diene-Monomer (EPDM) together using varied Benzoyl Peroxide concentrations. PCM systems were once popular. Vulcanized EPDM impregnation in high-temperature molten PW was used to create this product [10].

Quantitatively investigates a horizontal finned shell and tube LTES unit with various triplex-layer PCM parameters along the radial direction. The impacts of metal fin arrangements and PCM parameters on the melting performance of the LTES unit are analyzed using a comprehensive storage density evaluation (CSDE) criterion, and the optimum structure is determined using the CSDE criteria [11].


3. Conclusion

Paraffin uses in energy storage are now very important role of paraffin to overcome shortage of energy. Nanoparticles paraffin in energy storage become more advancement in energy storage. Many materials are used in energy storage as Phase Charge materials by mixing sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) surfactant, titania-silver nanocomposite particles scattered paraffin wax and nano size copper oxide. Response surface methodology RSM used to determine suitable position in the required space.



This work has been supported by the Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute (EPRI) research.


Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.


  1. 1. Speight JG. Handbook of Industrial Hydrocarbon Processes. MA, United States: Gulf Professional Publishing; 2019
  2. 2. Lian Q , Li Y, Sayyed AAS, Cheng J, Zhang J. Facile strategy in designing epoxy/paraffin multiple phase change materials for thermal energy storage applications. ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering. 2018;6(3):3375-3384
  3. 3. Li R, Zhou Y, Duan X. Nanoparticle enhanced paraffin and tailing ceramic composite phase change material for thermal energy storage. Sustainable Energy and Fuels. 2020;4(9):4547-4557
  4. 4. Jesumathy S, Udayakumar M, Suresh S. Experimental study of enhanced heat transfer by addition of CuO nanoparticle. Heat and Mass Transfer. 2012;48(6):965-978
  5. 5. Ramakrishnan S, Wang X, Sanjayan J, Wilson J. Heat transfer performance enhancement of paraffin/expanded perlite phase change composites with graphene nano-platelets. Energy Procedia. 2017;105:4866-4871
  6. 6. Pasupathi MK, Alagar K, Mm M, Aritra G. Characterization of hybrid-nano/paraffin organic phase change material for thermal energy storage applications in solar thermal systems. Energies. 2020;13(19):5079
  7. 7. Bose P, Amirtham VA. Effect of titania-silver nanocomposite particle concentration and thermal cycling on characteristics of sodium dodecyl sulfate added paraffin wax thermal energy storage material. Energy Storage. 2021;3(2):e192
  8. 8. Jamekhorshid A, Sadrameli SM, Bahramian AR. Process optimization and modeling of microencapsulated phase change material using response surface methodology. Applied Thermal Engineering. 2014;70(1):183-189
  9. 9. Sivanathan A et al. Phase change materials for building construction: An overview of nano/micro-encapsulation. Nanotechnology Reviews. 2020;9(1):896-921
  10. 10. Dashtizadeh Z, Abdeali G, Bahramian AR, Alvar MZ. Enhancement of thermal energy absorption/storage performance of paraffin wax (PW) phase change material by means of chemically synthesized Ethylene Propylene Diene Monomer (EPDM) rubber network. Journal of Energy Storage. 2022;45:103646
  11. 11. Xu H, Wang N, Zhang C, Qu Z, Cao M. Optimization on the melting performance of triplex-layer PCMs in a horizontal finned shell and tube thermal energy storage unit. Applied Thermal Engineering. 2020;176:115409

Written By

ElSayed G. Zaki, Shimaa M. Elsaeed and Abdelghaffar S. Dhmees

Submitted: July 21st, 2021 Reviewed: March 8th, 2022 Published: March 28th, 2022