Open access peer-reviewed chapter

Introductory Chapter: Recent Advances in Gas Chromatography

Written By

Fabrice Mutelet

Reviewed: October 15th, 2021 Published: April 13th, 2022

DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.101238

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1. Introduction

Gas chromatography (GC) is one of the most widely used techniques for the characterization, the separation and the quantification of complex systems. Researchers have pushed the limits of this technique by coming up with new methods for the preparation of samples and by using and/or coupling new families of columns. This last decade, the hyphenated technique coupling GC or GC-MS and a spectroscopic technique was developed [1]. These combinations of technologies have been used for qualitative but also quantitative studies of complex systems [2, 3, 4, 5]. Multidimensional gas chromatography was also proposed for the analysis of complex fluids found in food, petroleum, and pharmaceutical industries [6, 7, 8]. It is now well established that comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC × GC) is an efficient technique for fast pyrolysis bio-oil analysis [9], petroleum fluids [10], or characterization of flavonoid composition in food [11].

In gas chromatography, different approaches can be considered depending on the nature of the sample. Samples containing light compounds or moderate volatility can be studied using the classical approach. It means by the injection of the samples in the apparatus. For heavy compounds with low volatility, inverse gas chromatography (IGC) is preferred to characterize the samples. In IGC, the sample becomes the stationary phase. Both approaches do not give the same information, while IGC will give information on the interaction between a solute injected and the stationary phase or on the partition coefficient of the solute in the stationary phase, GC allows the quantification of components in the sample.

This last decade, new stationary phases based on ionic liquids or deep eutectic solvents were investigated due to their specific selectivity [12, 13, 14, 15, 16]. Numerous approaches were proposed to classify stationary phases [17]. Among others, Kovats index [18] and solvation models [19, 20, 21, 22] are the most popular to represent the polar character of the stationary phases. All retention data related to Gibbs-free energy may be expressed using solvation models. Parameters from the linear solvation energy relationship (LSER) model can be estimated viagas chromatography. This approach was strongly used to develop relationship between physicochemical properties and LSER parameters [15, 23, 24].

In this book, state of the art of gas chromatography and new developments and applications are presented. New sample preparation techniques and hyphenated techniques are presented. The behavior and the characteristics of new stationary phases based on ionic liquids are also described. Then, theoretical approaches developed to predict the behavior of solutes with stationary phases are detailed.

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Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

References

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Written By

Fabrice Mutelet

Reviewed: October 15th, 2021 Published: April 13th, 2022