Open access peer-reviewed chapter

Multilingual Broadcasting Practice by Rural Radios in Kumbo, Cameroon

Written By

Delphine Nkahmenyuy Veranso and Fogwe Evelyn Chibaka

Reviewed: August 13th, 2021 Published: February 2nd, 2022

DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.99918

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Abstract

Rural multilingualism in the platform of radio broadcasting is a complex sociolinguistic phenomenon that can, if not strategically managed it can lead to chaos and societal conflict especially in a rural setting with intergenerational migrants co-existing. This study examines the languages used by the four rural radios in Kumbo, a rural area in the North West Region of Cameroon, during multilingual broadcasting. It presents findings on the languages used during multilingual broadcasting as well as how they are managed. Here, we bring to mind the importance of multilingual broadcasting practice in rural communities especially in Cameroon, and Kumbo where nothing has been done in this domain. The data used were collected through the use of 118 questionnaires (100 for the radio audience and 18 for the radio staffs), “conversational‟ interviews with the radio staffs and 2 focus group discussions. The data were analyzed using the SPSS and Content Analyses models. Being a multidisciplinary study, there were two theoretical frameworks employed from two inter-related disciplines. They are the Social Responsibility Theory which accounts for the things needed to be done by journalists to satisfy and provide their audience with accurate information and the Communicative Competence Theory which deals with the effectiveness of the messages broadcast in line with the respect of the structures of these languages to communicate effectively. The first theory is in line with the field of Journalism while the second is within the field of Linguistics. It was discovered that there are eight (8) languages used by all radios houses. Six (6) are national languages of the country and two (2) are the official languages of the country. Out of the national languages used, four (Cameroon Pidgin English, Fulfulde, Lamnso) are used for wider communication, three (Limbum, Noni/Noone and Oku) are developing while one (Hausa) is dispersed.

Keywords

  • multilingual broadcasting practices
  • multilingual broadcasting
  • rural radios and language use
  • rural communities
  • Kumbo

1. Introduction

Languages serve as a means of communication between groups of people. They are used to express thought, emotion and to spread information. In the Cameroonian context, language serves as the main form of identification between two groups of people who dress alike and have the same native meals. It serves as a means of unity, strength and growth in communities. According to [1], the languages of a community can be compared to its natural resources. This therefore means that if a country has so many languages, that is multilingualism, the country should be considered wealthy.

1.1 The description of Kumbo

Kumbo, also known as ‘Kimboh’ is the capital of Bui Division, North West Region of Cameroon. It has a population of about eighty thousand two hundred and twelve (80,212) based on the 2005 census report. It is divided into three distinctive hilly settlement areas: Tobin, Mbveh and Squares.

Apart from the popularity of its boarding schools, it is host to two referral hospitals - St. Elizabeth Catholic Hospital Shisong and Banso Baptist Hospital (BBH). It is also host to the Nso palace. There are four radio stations in Kumbo. One is owned by a non-governmental organization (City Community Radio (CCR)), another by the Roman Catholic Church (Radio Evangelium (RE)), the other by a private individual (Helen Kris FM Radio (Helen Kris)) and finally by the community (Bui Community Radio (BCR)). All four radio stations work for the service of the community and are highly competitive. Religiously, there is a Roman Catholic denomination, a Protestant order, an Islamic order and a Pentecostal order.

It is an area where farming is considered as the source of livelihood. Crops such as maize, coffee, beans, groundnuts, potatoes, kola-nuts, cabbage are produced here and exported to urban cities like Douala, Bamenda, Yaounde, and the Far North. Also, some of the products are transported to neighboring countries like Nigeria, Chad and Gabon.

1.2 The linguistic situation of Cameroon

In the twenty-first edition of Ethnologue present Cameroon as a multilingual country with two hundred and eighty three languages (283) [2]. Out of these, two hundred and seventy seven (277) are living while the remaining six (6) are dead. According to the description of language statuses in the world, Cameroon is presented as a bilingual country, with English and French languages as the languages used for administrative transactions both nationally and internationally. With this in mind, it does not mean that the two hundred and seventy seven languages identified by [2] are neglected. The 1996 Constitution of the Republic of Cameroon states that.

“The official languages of the Republic of Cameroon shall be English and French, both languages having the same status. The State shall guarantee the promotion of bilingualism throughout the country. It shall endeavor to protect and promote national languages” [3].

Since language determines and influences thought as presented by the famous Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, it is in line with this that this paper looks at multilingual broadcasting practices by the four radio stations in Kumbo - two privately-owned radio stations (Helen Kris and City Community Radio), a Christian-owned radio station (Radio Evangelium) and a community radio station (Bui Community Radio) – who have decided to not only use English and French languages during broadcasting, but also other native languages.

In terms of the languages used, these radio houses prefer not only to use the native language of the area where they are located but those of neighboring communities to convey information because as [1] states, “language is a right; a human right of the same level of importance as all other inalienable human rights” so that when information is disseminated, the people can be involved.

At the level of the media landscape in Cameroon, the languages in use by the national broadcasting service, Cameroon Radio and Television (CRTV) are French and English. However, regional stations of the service broadcasting house use the native languages of the area, as is the case in Buea (Mokpwe), North (Fulfulde), and West (Ngemba). In Kumbo however, the case seems to be different as it does not only make use of Lamnso but other languages around the area.

This then leads us to the main point of focus of the paper, which is to find out the number of languages used during broadcasting by the rural radios in Kumbo and how these languages are managed.

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2. Theoretical framework

Being a multidisciplinary study involving the fields of Journalism and Linguistics, this paper makes use of two theories. The Social Responsibility Theory (SRT) by [4] is used in line with the journalism aspect of the study while the Communicative Competence Theory (CCT) by [5] will be used in line with the linguistic aspect of the discourse.

Even though politically motivated, SRT was developed as a result of the impracticality of individual media experts and tried to bond them in the service of cultural diversity even though it knowingly acknowledged the fact that the strategy might reduce their profits. In line with this paper, it will be used to present what the journalists need to consider as social obligation to the community they intend to inform before sending across their message. These obligations should avoid the promotion of crime, disunity, instability and violence. It rather guides them on issues of accountability, truth, accuracy, objectivity, and balance especially when they make use of the languages involved in the broadcasting process.

The term Communicative Competence was adopted by Dell Hymes. He defined communicative competence not only in line with Chomsky’s essential grammatical competence but also as the ability to use this competence in various communicative (society) situations. There are three models under this theory.

They are the models of [6, 7, 8], and the description of components of communicative language competence in [9].

In this paper, these models are used to address sociolinguistic and pragmatic issues related to multilingual broadcasting. The role of linguistic or grammatical competence is used to look at the effectiveness of translation messages into other languages and the effect it has on the community. Also, Bachman and Palmer’s goal setting, assessment and planning strategies are used.

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3. Results

A mixed method of data collection and analysis was used. This mixed method has to do with the use of qualitative and quantitative approaches. The quantitative part of the data collection made use of 118 questionnaires (100 for the radio audience and 18 for the radio staff), while the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) is used to analyze the data collected. The qualitative data were collected through the use of “conversational‟ interviews with the radio staffs and 2 focus group discussions. They were analyzed using Content Analysis. All of these will be done based on [10].

The adoption of multilingual broadcasting in a rural community like Kumbo warrants motivations. In order to comprehend this, the radio staff were asked to present these reasons. As seen on the frequency table and pie chart below (Table 1 and Figure 1), two reasons (with equal representation), the possibility of getting a larger audience and the presence of a multilingual audience were seen as the main reasons for this adoption with a 22.2% (4 respondents) response rate, while the need to provide firsthand information, educate, inform the people and boost their culture all came in second place with an 11.1% (2 respondents) response rate per response.

FrequencyPercentValid percentCumulative percent
to send information211.111.111.1
the presence of a multilingual audience422.222.233.3
to educate the community211.111.144.4
to provide first- hand information211.111.155.6
cultural boost211.111.166.7
vast outreach422.222.288.9
no response211.111.1100.0
Total18100.0100.0

Table 1.

Reasons for using multilingual broadcasting.

Figure 1.

Reasons for using multilingual broadcasting.

To know whether multilingual broadcasting was used by these radios, the participants were asked two questions (one from the questionnaire administered to the staffs) and (one from the questionnaire administered to the audience) to identify the languages used by these radio houses during multilingual broadcasting.

Since the staff make use of these languages, it was imperative that they give the total number of languages they use during broadcasting. On Table 2, the results clearly present the number of languages used during multilingual broadcasting by each radio house. From the data collected, it was discovered that all four radio houses make use of eight languages. These languages are; Noni, Fulfulde, Lamnso, English, Limbum, French, Oku, and Pidgin.

Radio EvangeliumCity community radioBui community radioHelen Kris FM radio
Lamnso
Limbum
Kom0000
Noni
French
English
Hausa0000
Fulfulde
Pidgin
Oku

Table 2.

Radio staff identification of languages used during broadcasting in their respective radio stations.

To achieve a balance as to the number of languages used during multilingual broadcasting, the audience was asked to identify the languages they hear when they listen to the radio during broadcasting.

We discover however in Table 3 that the audience identifies the use of ten languages during broadcast. We also discover that the number of languages identified by the audience is not specific, but varies per participant. For the purpose of the study, we will limit ourselves to the eight languages identified by the radio staff due to their frequencies of identification. This variation ranges from the use of 2 languages up to the use of 10 languages.

FrequencyPercentValid percent
233.03.0
32121.021.0
41515.015.0
51414.014.0
61616.016.0
72121.021.0
877.07.0
922.02.0
1011.01.0
Total100100.0100.0

Table 3.

Audience identification of the number of languages used during multilingual broadcasting.

As a follow-up to this question, the audience was asked in another question to present these languages as seen below.

In total, 10 languages (Lamnso which was identified in all 100 questionnaires, followed by English which was chosen by 95 participants, French by 84, Oku by 60, Fulfulde by 56, Limbum by 33, Noni by 27, Pidgin and Hausa by 24 and Kom by 6) were identified.

Based on the data presented on Figure 2, we discover that there is an unequal representation of some languages as compared to others. With this in mind, we asked how these languages, are managed by these radio stations and the following results were achieved.

Figure 2.

Audience language identification during broadcasting as used by the radio stations.

From Table 4, it is clear that these languages are used in different situations by the various radio stations. Also, it can be observed that some of these languages seem to be used more extensively than others. From the statistics above, it is clearly seen that there is a greater use of certain languages during broadcasting as compared to others. These allocations given to these languages are justified by the radio staff in the data collected with the use of “conversational” interviews.

Table 4.

Frequency of language use per program by the radio stations in Kumbo.

()represents Radio Evangelium, ()represents City Community Radio, ()represents Helen Kris Radio, and ()represents Bui Community Radio. Where there is a (O), it signifies the absence of the use of a particular language by all four radio stations. Also, there are situations where you have just two languages two or even one language used in a domain by the radio stations such as the case of Noni, Fulfulde and Oku Languages which are not really used by radio stations in all the domains at some point in time as are the cases with languages like Lamnso, English and French.

There is a high use of Lamnso (present in all 6 slots by all the radio stations) as compared to the other languages. This is followed by English Language, which is considered as the appropriate language of exchange between the working class and the students, who make up the bulk of listeners per radio. This language also runs relay programs like ‘Luncheon Date’, ‘Cameroon Calling’ and ‘Cameroon this Morning’ from the main national radio station, CRTV. The other native languages have programs run in their languages by these radio stations. These programs are centered religious issues and “partial‟ cultural awareness issues. As for French, it is considered less active and it is only used when the information to be broadcast is paid for by those who wish to send across the information. It is used during news broadcast by all four radio stations because they relay the news from CRTV.

The radio houses in Kumbo have gone the extra mile to try to provide the information needed by these communities. However, with such representation of language use, there is obviously a clear revelation of language marginalization which is seen in how they are used and the justifications presented by the media staff. There is limitation as to the amount of information provided during broadcast to satisfy these communities whose languages are marginalized during broadcast [11]. May be with more financial sources to manage issues such as payment of staff and funds for constant maintenance of equipment, they may be able to allocate equal functions to the languages used during broadcasting.

During programs, there are also issues of language use in that there are programs that are: (1) Monolingual (cultural program). These programs are presented strictly in one language like Lamnso. “Lan e wong Nso” is an example of such programs. (2) Multilingual (adverts, entertainment) which run with the use of more than one language per episode. They include programs like “salut ya neighbor”.. (3) Others which make use of more than one language (news, publicity, adverts, education, religion), in different episodes of the programs.

There are monolingual programs that run in different languages per episode. Just like what was got from the answers from the respondents from the radio stations, programs that are important to the communities in general are multilingual while those that are considered “less important” to the general audience are monolingual. That is why instead of looking at balancing air-time between African and European languages [12] ways should rather be employed into looking at how these native languages can be balanced during broadcasting. A wide variety of the respondents believe that African languages cannot carry discussion of all topics. Interestingly studies like [12] show that “African languages can be used to discuss all possible subjects”. Other reasons to the equal use of these languages are to promote and develop them. The implication of this is that if correct measures are taken, these languages can be developed and more widely used such that the inevitable array of advantages of multilingualism is benefitted by the citizens of this community.

To determine the effects of multilingual broadcasting, we will first look at audience program preferences because whatever effect they portray is as a result of the kind of programs they listen to. Question 14, Section 3, on the questionnaire administered to the radio audience asked the audience about their favorite programs on each of the four radio stations used in this study. The following results were obtained.

Out of the 100 participants who were administered questionnaires, we had 6 respondents who did not respond to this question and 1 respondent, who did not love any of the programs on BCR. Out of the remaining 93 participants, 31 enjoy listening to newscasts, 21 to culture, 14 to entertainment and 10 to educative programs. The love for other programs by the other respondents has a low interest rate because there are programs loved by 6 and less participants (Table 5).

FrequencyPercentValid percent
good programs11.01.0
Music55.05.0
religious matters22.02.0
News3131.031.0
None11.01.0
cultural issues2121.021.0
Advertisement22.02.0
Educative1010.010.0
Advice11.01.0
Entertainment1414.014.0
Announcements33.03.0
Interactive programs22.02.0
Others11.01.0
no response66.06.0
Total100100.0100.0

Table 5.

Audience program choice for BCR.

As for program reference with regards to CCR, 14 out of the 100 participants who were administered questionnaires did not respond to this question. Out of the remaining 86 participants who responded to the question, 25 prefer entertainment, 16 prefer news, 13 prefer cultural programs, 11 prefer music while the remaining 21 records low program choice responses ranging from 7 to 1 (information, advertisement and interactive) per program (Table 6).

FrequencyPercentValid percent
Music1111.011.0
religious matters22.02.0
News1616.016.0
Information11.01.0
health issues33.03.0
cultural talks1313.013.0
Advertisement11.01.0
Educative77.07.0
Entertainment2525.025.0
Sports22.02.0
Announcements33.03.0
Interactive programs11.01.0
Others11.01.0
no response1414.014.0
Total100100.0100.0

Table 6.

Audience program choice for CCR.

On Helen Kris radio, 91 out of the 100 who were administered questionnaires responded to the question while 9 respondents did not plus 2 other respondents who did not like any of the programs. Out of the 91 respondents, 23 enjoy entertainment, 18 enjoy news, 15 enjoy cultural programs, 10 enjoy music while the remaining 25 fall within the least loved programs with participants ranging from 6 to 1 (sports and information) per program (Table 7).

FrequencyPercentValid percent
Music1010.010.0
religious matters22.02.0
News1818.018.0
None22.02.0
Information11.01.0
health issues33.03.0
cultural talks1515.015.0
Advertisement22.02.0
Educative44.04.0
Politics22.02.0
Entertainment2323.023.0
Sports11.01.0
Announcements22.02.0
Interactive programs66.06.0
no response99.09.0
Total100100.0100.0

Table 7.

Audience program choice for Helen Kris.

Out of the 100 questionnaires administered, 8 participants did not respond to the question leaving 92 respondents with program choices. 40 enjoy listening to Bible and religious matters, 10 enjoy Bible teaching, 9 enjoy prayers with 33 respondents left within the least loved programs.

Looking at the responses from the above question, we realize that the top response on each of the tables reflects each of the radio station’s main objective of creation as was presented in chapter three of this study.

Having looked at program choices, we will now present the effects of multilingual broadcasting on the community (Table 8).

FrequencyPercentValid percent
Bible teaching1010.010.0
good programs22.02.0
Music55.05.0
religious matters4040.040.0
News77.07.0
Prayers99.09.0
cultural talks11.01.0
Advertisement11.01.0
Educative66.06.0
Politics11.01.0
Entertainment66.06.0
Announcements11.01.0
Interactive22.02.0
Others11.01.0
no response88.08.0
Total100100.0100.0

Table 8.

Audience program choice for RE.

As presented on Table 9, 6 participants out of the 100 used for this study did not respond to this question. Out of the 94 participants who responded, 24 participants said they receive information from the radio that affects the smooth running of their communities since important information is shared during meetings.10 receive information on educative talks that affect them in terms of health, agriculture and academic issues while 14 said they have changed the way they do certain things because they listen to these radio stations. 8 said there is unity in their community because they receive information from these radio stations in languages they can easily understand. 5 participants said there is change in the way they do things because of multilingual broadcasting. 6 said there is peace in their community while the remaining 37 who are positively affected when listening to multilingual broadcasting programs fall within the range of 6 to 1 participant per effect.

FrequencyPercentValid percent
information2424.024.0
progress22.02.0
development1313.013.0
educative1010.010.0
religious life11.01.0
unity88.08.0
cultural awareness11.01.0
advice11.01.0
entertainment22.02.0
announcements11.01.0
change1414.014.0
news22.02.0
morality55.05.0
health22.02.0
awareness66.06.0
others11.01.0
job openings11.01.0
no response66.06.0
Total100100.0100.0

Table 9.

Multilingual broadcasting effects on the community.

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4. Theoretical analysis

4.1 Social responsibility theory

  1. Media should accept and fulfill certain obligations to society.

    This will include the use of rural methods to satisfy the community or society which will include the use of their languages to provide them with first-hand information important to their welfare and wellbeing.

  2. These obligations are mainly to be met by setting high or professional standards of ‘informativeness’, truth, accuracy, objectivity, and balance.

    These high standards of ‘informativeness’ well be to inform people about what is going on around them and out of their environment; truth, balance, objectivity and accuracy is to give them the right information accurately without favoring a party especially since most of the information to be broadcast in the native languages need to be translated.

  3. The media as a whole should be pluralistic and reflect the diversity of their society, giving access to various points of view and to rights of reply.

    This is done through the use of multilingual broadcasting in this case since the audience in question is diverse. Judging from the purpose of multilingual broadcasting by these radio stations, there is the aspect of inter-activeness between the audience and some of the radio programmes. The possibility of feedback is also available since it is necessary for the running of the radio as well.

  4. The media should avoid whatever might lead to crime, violence, or civil disorder or give offense to minority groups.

    These radio stations in order to promote unity, peace and love avoid the promotion of war by giving the audience the information they require. This is why multilingual broadcasting is important because the diverse audience is provided with the same information without issues of miscomprehensions especially when it has to do with people sharing the information.

  5. Journalists and media professionals should be accountable to society as well as to employers and the market.

    In relation to this work, this theory is used to look at the responsibilities of the journalists in the target media houses in informing their multilingual population. We will look at the use of multilingual broadcasting in information dissemination by these radio stations to satisfy their multi pluralistic audience. It is with this in mind that in a diverse environment like Kumbo, the journalists have to satisfy the people by not only giving them information but also, by giving them information in a language they will understand. This language however is none other than their Mother Tongues or native languages.

4.2 Communicative competence theory

When we look at Bachman and Palmer’s goal setting ideology, the use of multilingual broadcasting by these radio stations are to achieve goals related to specific objectives of these radio stations in adopting multilingual broadcasting. Also, assessment which is seen as a means by which language use context is related to other areas of communicative language ability such as topical knowledge and affective schemata is necessary for this work in that even though these radio stations make use of multilingual broadcasting, they translate and sometimes code-switch specific contents which they consider important to their audience such as news and adverts. At the level of planning which deals with deciding on ways to make use of language knowledge and other components found in the process of language use to complete the chosen task successfully, these radio stations use these languages in specific domains of the radio programming which have been seen in the wat the languages are managed.

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5. Conclusion

The study was carried out in Kumbo. A triangulation approach was adopted:

(1) At the level of the theoretical framework 2) to collect data by means of multiple instruments, questionnaires, focus group discussions and ‘conversational’ interviews and 3) the period of time and place estimated for the data collection which was over a period of six weeks and in four different locations.

In the course of the study, it was found that apart from the multilingual nature of the Kumbo community and the need to provide the community with information needed for their well-being, the need to achieve objectives set up at the time of creation and financial assistance for the functioning of the radio stations were other motivations for the adoption of multilingual broadcasting.

Secondly, 8 languages were identified as languages of multilingual broadcasting. To effectively use these languages, they were allocated uses by fitting them in slots. It was also discovered that these languages were used during monolingual and multilingual programs either ‘monolingually’ or ‘multilingually’.

The study confirmed that the effects of multilingualism on the audience is positive and mostly reflects their daily activities. They promote ways of improving farming activities through seminars and workshops which teach the people about new methods of farming and ways of fighting pests.

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Acknowledgments

This work is complete today because of the contributions of many people. Sincere thanks go to my supervisor, Professor Mrs. Evelyn Fogwe Chibaka, for her patience, guidance, ideas and professional contributions to the quality and completion of this work. Special thanks go to the Faculty of Arts in general and the Department of Linguistics (University of Buea) in particular, for giving me the opportunity to study in this institution. I say thank you to Professor Blasius Chiatoh for giving me insights to the formulation of this topic and to all my lecturers who were ready to answer all my questions and for the knowledge shared.

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Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

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Questionnaire for the community

                        Date

Questionnaire No

University of Buea

Faculty of Arts

Department of Linguistics

Dear Sir/madam,

This questionnaire is an important part of our research study. It has been designed to serve strictly academic purposes. As such, it will not be used for any purpose other than the one for which it has been designed. It aims at investigating “The Effect of Multilingual broadcasting in a rural community: the case of Kumbo central”. Therefore, your answers and suggestions will be very helpful and useful in our research project.

“The Effect of Multilingual broadcasting in a rural community: the case of Kumbo central”

Instructions

Please tick () in the appropriate box or write full statements where necessary.

Section 1: Demographics

  1. Age_________________________

  2. Sex (1) Male 

       (2) Female 

  3. Location _____________________________________________________________________

  4. Level of education

    1. FSLC       

    2. GCE O/L      

    3. GCE A/L      

    4. CAP        

    5. BEPC        

    6. PROBATOIRE    

    7. BAC        

    8. FIRST DEGREE   

    9. MASTERS      

  5. Religion _____________________________________________________________________

    Section 2: Identification of the multilingual status in the radio stations

  6. How many radio stations here in Kumbo do use many different languages for their broadcasting?________________________________________________

  7. List the radio station(s).

       (1) _______________________________________________________

       (2) _______________________________________________________

       (3) _______________________________________________________

  8. How many languages are used by the radio stations in Kumbo?

  9. What are the languages involved?

       (1) _______________________________________________________

       (2) _______________________________________________________

       (3) _______________________________________________________

       (4) _______________________________________________________

       (5) _______________________________________________________

       (6) _______________________________________________________

  10. How often do they use these languages in their programs?

       _____________________________________________________________________

       _____________________________________________________________________

       _____________________________________________________________________

  11. Which radio(s) make use of your favorite language?

       _____________________________________________________________________

       _____________________________________________________________________

       _____________________________________________________________________

Section 3: Identifications of the radio stations and their programs

  1. On a scale of 1-3, where 1 is the lowest and 3 the highest, rank these radio stations according to the one you love.

    Radio123
    Bui Community Radio
    City Community Radio
    Helen Kris
    Radio Evangelium

  2. Why do you prefer the radio stations in that order?

    1. Lowest _________________________________________________

           _______________________________________________________

           _______________________________________________________

    2. Median _________________________________________________

           _______________________________________________________

           _______________________________________________________

    3. Highest _________________________________________________

           _______________________________________________________

           _______________________________________________________

  3. What are your favorite programs on each radio

    1. Bui Community Radio ____________________________________________

           _______________________________________________________

           _______________________________________________________

    2. City Community Radio _________________________________________

           _______________________________________________________

           _______________________________________________________

    3. Helen Kris _______________________________________________

           _______________________________________________________

           _______________________________________________________

    4. Radio Evangelium _____________________________________________

           _______________________________________________________

           _______________________________________________________

Section 4: The Effect of multilingual broadcasting

  1. How does the use of multilingual broadcasting affect;

    1. You _______________________________________

    2. Your family _____________________________________________

    3. The community ____________________________________________

    4. The nation ________________________________________________

Thank you for filling the questionnaire

Questionnaire for the Radio Staff          Date

Questionnaire No

University of Buea

Faculty of Arts

Department of Linguistics

Dear Sir/madam,

This questionnaire is an important part of our research study. It has been designed to serve strictly academic purposes. As such, it will not be used for any purpose other than the one for which it has been designed. It aims at investigating “The Effect of Multilingual broadcasting in a rural community: the case of Kumbo central”. Therefore, your answers and suggestions will be very helpful and useful in our research project.

Instructions

Please tick () in the appropriate box or write full statements where necessary.

Section 1: Demographics

  1. Age_________________________

  2. Sex (1) Male 

       (2) Female 

  3. Radio

      name_______________________________________________________

  4. Location _____________________________________________________________________

  5. Level of education

    1. FSLC       

    2. GCE O/L      

    3. GCE A/L      

    4. CAP        

    5. BEPC        

    6. PROBATOIRE    

    7. BAC        

    8. FIRST DEGREE   

    9. MASTERS      

  6. Religion_____________________________________________________________________

Section 2: Objectives of your radio in line with multilingual broadcasting

  1. Does your radio make use of many languages during broadcasting?

    1. Yes

              2. No

  2. If yes, what are your reasons (objectives) for using multilingual broadcasting?

       ________________________________________________________________________

       ________________________________________________________________________

       ________________________________________________________________________

  3. What is/are the language(s) involved?

      (1) _______________________________________________________

      (2) _______________________________________________________

      (3) _______________________________________________________

      (4) _______________________________________________________

      (5) _______________________________________________________

      (6) _______________________________________________________

      (7) _______________________________________________________

      (8) _______________________________________________________

      (9) _______________________________________________________

      (10) ____________________________________________________

    Section 3: Attained Objectives

  4. Have your objectives being achieved?

    1. Yes 

          (2) No 

  5. If yes, how have they been achieved?

       ________________________________________________________________________

       ________________________________________________________________________

       ________________________________________________________________________

       Which languages are used during

    1. News?

            ____________________________________________________

    2. Adverts?

            ____________________________________________________

    3. Publicities?

            ____________________________________________________

    4. Promos?

            ____________________________________________________

  6. Programs? _________________________________________________

  7. How does multilingual broadcasting contribute to development;

    1. Locally? _________________________________________________

    2. Nationally? _________________________________________________

  8. How do these languages contribute to development?

       ________________________________________________________________________

       ________________________________________________________________________

       ________________________________________________________________________

    Section 4: Problems encountered

  9. What are some of the problems you encounter when you use multilingual broadcasting? _____________________________________________

       ________________________________________________________________________

       ________________________________________________________________________

       ________________________________________________________________________

  10. What are the possible solutions to these problems you are facing? ___________________________________________________

       ________________________________________________________________________

       ________________________________________________________________________

       ________________________________________________________________________

Thank you for filling the questionnaire

1. Interview Guide

  1. What are the motivations to the adoption of multilingual broadcasting?

  2. After looking at the way languages are managed during broadcasting, there are some languages which seem to marginalize others. Why are they partitioned in this manner?

  3. How is this multilingual broadcasting practice effective if the languages are not given equal status during broadcast?

  4. How are these languages used per program?

2. Focus Group Discussion Guide

(1) What are the effects of multilingual broadcasting on you as an individual?

References

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  2. 2. Lewis MP, Simons GF, Fennig CD. Ethnologue: languages of the world, Dallas, Texas: SIL International. Online version:http://www. ethnologue. com. 2009;12(12):2010.http://www.ethnologue.com. [Accessed: 2021-05-06]
  3. 3. Republic of Cameroon. (1996). Constitution of the Republic of Cameroon. Yaoundé: National Printing Press.http://www.all-about-cameroon.com. [Accessed: 2021-05-06]
  4. 4. McQuail D. Mass communication theory: An introduction. Sage Publications, Inc; 1987
  5. 5. Hymes D. On Communicative Competence. In JB Pride and J. Holmes (eds.), Sociolinguistics. Selected Readings. Harmondsworth: Penguin. 1972:269- 93
  6. 6. Canale M, Swain M. Theoretical bases of communicative approaches to Second Language Teaching and Testing. Applied Linguistics. 1980:1-47. http//dx.doi.org/10.1093/applin/l,1.q
  7. 7. Canale M. From communicative competence to communicative language pedagogy. In J Richards and R Schmidt (eds.), Language and Communication. London: Longman. 1983:2-27
  8. 8. BachmanL, Palmer A. Language testing in Practice: designing and developing useful language tests. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 1990
  9. 9. Council of Europe. Commom European Framework of Reference for Languages: Learning, Teaching, Assessment. Strasbourg. http//www.coe.int/t/dg4/linguistic/Source/Framework_EN.pdf
  10. 10. Dörnyei, Z. Research methods in Applied Linguistics: Quantitative, qualitative and mixed method methodologies. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN: 9780194422581https://doi.org/10.1590/S0102-44502009000200012[Accessed: 2021-05-06]
  11. 11. Prah KK. Speaking African on the radio: impact assessment survey of FM/Community Radios using African languages in Ghana, Mali and Senegal. A CASAS Study in cooperation with UNESCO's Communication Development Division. Cape Town: UNESCO and Centre for Advanced Studies of African Society, 200502-0S-2005 (Paris). ISBN: 978-1- 919932-27-9
  12. 12. Gathigi GW. Radio listening habits among rural audiences: An ethnographic study of Kieni West Division in Central Kenya (Doctoral dissertation, Ohio University). Electronic Thesis or Dissertation. Ohio University, 2009.https://etd.ohiolink.edu/[Accessed: 2021-05-06]

Written By

Delphine Nkahmenyuy Veranso and Fogwe Evelyn Chibaka

Reviewed: August 13th, 2021 Published: February 2nd, 2022