Nematodes are the most plentiful animals on earth, commonly found in soil or water, including oceans. Some species of nematodes are parasites of plants and animals. Plant-parasitic nematodes are non-segmented microscopic, eel-like round worms, obligate parasite possess stylets that live in soil causing damage to plants by feeding on roots or plant tissues. Plant-parasitic nematodes feed on roots, either within the root, some nematodes feed leaves. These nematodes cause breakdown of resistance to fungal diseases in fruit crops. Plant-parasitic nematodes living host tissue to feed on to grow and reproduce. Nematode life cycle consists of an egg, 4 pre-adult stages (juveniles) and an adult, life cycle depending on the species and the temperature. Nematodes do not move long distances (less than 6 inches per year). They are usually transported over long distances on machinery, in nursery stock, transplants, seeds, or by animals, moves soil, water and wind. They acquire nutrients from plant tissues by needle-like feeding structure (stylet/spear). Nematodes can be classified into three groups depending on feed on the plants such as ectoparasitic nematodes are always remaining outside the plant root tissues. Migratory endoparasitic nematodes move through root tissues sedentary endoparasitic nematodes penetrate young roots at or near the growing tip. They steal nutrients, disrupt water and mineral transport, and provide excellent sites for secondary pathogens (fungus and bactria) to invade the roots and decay. Several nematode species that cause problems in fruit orchards that are major limiting factors in fruit crop production cause extensive root necrosis resulting in serious economic losses. The root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne spp.), burrowing nematode (Radopholus similis) and citrus nematode (Tylenchulus semipentrans) are the major nematode pests that infect fruit crops. Parasitic nematodes that can damage tree fruit roots. Many kinds of nematodes have been reported in and around the roots of various fruit crops, only few are cause serious damage, including Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.), Lesion nematodes (Pratylenchus species), Ring nematodes (Mesocriconema spp) are cigar-shaped that are strictly ectoparasitic, Dagger nematodes (Xiphinema spp) are relatively large ectoparasites that feed near root tips, Sting nematodes (Belonolaimus species) are ectoparasitic, Citrus nematodes (Tylenchulus semipenetrans) are sedentary semi-endoparasites. Nematodes reduce yield without the production of any noticeable above ground symptoms. Typical above ground symptoms of nematode infections stunting, yellowing and wilting. Major nematodes associated in large number of vegetables crops in India such as root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.), cyst nematodes (Heterodera spp.), lesion nematodes (Pratylenchus sp.), reniform nematodes (Rotylenchulus sp.) lance nematodes (Hoplolaimus spp.), stem and bulb nematode (Ditylenchus spp.) etc. Root-knot nematodes are important pests of vegetables belonging to solanaceous (brinjal, tomato, chili), cucurbitaceous (biter ground, cucumber, pumpkin, bottle gourd) leguminous (cowpea, bean, pea), cruciferous cauliflower, cabbage, broccoli, brussels, sprout), okra and several other root and bulb crops (onion, garlic, lettuce, celery, carrot, radish). Four species (M. incognita, M. javanica, M. arenaria and M. hapla) are more than 95% of the root-knot nematode population worldwide distribution. Stem and Bulb nematode (Ditylenchus spp.) commonly attacks onion, garlic, potato, pea and carrot etc. The nematodes spread from one area to another mainly through infested planting materials, water drains from infested areas into irrigation system, soil that adheres to implements, tyres of motor vehicles and shoes of plantation workers. Management recommendation through bio-pesticides, cultural practices, enrichment of FYM, Neem cake and other organic amendments.
Nematodes are microscopic roundworms live in soil, marine, freshwater. Plant parasitic nematodes cause economic damage to cultivated crops in the tropics and subtropics areas, estimated about 10 percent of world crop production is lost due to nematode . More than 4100 species of plant-parasitic nematode of global food security  and damage caused by plant nematodes has been estimated at $US80 billion per year . Presently 25 genera of plant parasitic nematodes, include species that are economic pests of crop plants. Ten most important nematode genera are significance at global level
Plant Parasitic nematodes are associated in agricultural crop in global food security. Agriculturally important root-knot nematodes and identified by Berkeley  (1855) who observed galls on cucumber roots. Plant-parasitic nematodes have a stylet, which is used for penetration of host plant tissue and release proteinaceous secretions from the glands to the host cell. These glandular secretions induce cellular metabolically active feeding cell . Cellulose is the primary component of plant cell walls, cellulases (β-1,4-endoglucanases) are secreted to degrade the cell wall which allows nematode entry into host tissue. On the basis of their feeding habits, they are migratory ectoparasites, endoparasites, semi-endoparasitic. Ectoparasitic nematodes in the soil, feed at the root surface and Endoparasitic nematodes feed within the root. Endoparasitic nematodes are further divided into migratory and sedentary groups. Migratory endoparasitic nematodes include
The most economically important nematodes, the root-knot and cyst nematodes are wide range of species . The potato (
Fruits are the most important rich in Vitamins A and C and minerals like Calcium and Iron, low caloric values and low in fats. The plant parasitic nematodes are economic importance in fruit production. Fruit crops are perennial in nature, harbor and build-up of nematode population. Roots damaged by the nematodes lose efficiency in the utilization of available soil moisture and nutrients and easy prey to many fungi and bacteria which cause root decay. Symptoms of nematode attack often include reduced growth, chlorosis, wilting and death of plants. These resulted in reduced yields and poor fruit quality of fruits viz., citrus, banana, grapevine, pineapple, pomegranate and papaya. Nematode management is important for high yields and quality of fruits production. The integrated Nematode Management is population reduction of plant parasitic nematodes and development of resistant varieties of crops.
1.1 Root-knot nematodes (
Root-knot nematodes (
1.2 Cyst nematodes (
Cyst nematodes (
1.3 Lesion nematodes (
1.4 Burrowing nematodes (
1.5 Citrus nematode
The citrus nematode was first discovered in California, later described as a new species,
1.6 Reniform nematode (
Reniform nematodes (
1.7 Stem and bulb nematodes (
Stem and bulb nematodes (
2. Common practices in nematode management
Management practices should be effective, environmentally safe, and economical and must focus on reducing nematode populations to levels below the damage threshold. The common methods of nematodes management used resistant varieties, rotating of crops, soil amendments, soil solarization and applying pesticides. Soil solarization is very effective for control of many nematodes and soil-borne pathogens. Soil solarization of field to ensure adequate moisture, cover with plastic, to make it air tight, at least 45 days during June and July. Resistant plant cultivars is limited because few nematode very specific for specific resistance, correct identification of the nematode species and race before cultivar selected. Crop resistance cultivars with crop rotation is the best management practices.
In crop rotation, crops must be select carefully because some species of nematodes viz., root-knot, reniform, and burrowing are very wide host ranges. Crop rotation and cover cropping are often practices in integrated pest management to reduce plant-parasitic nematode incidence. Soil nematode effectively decreased by rotational cultivation of non-host cultivars of wide host range of
Green manuring as sudangrass and corn are excellent green manure crops that provide good nematode control. The organic agriculture for environmental welfare, biological controls are great interest for crop producers. The efficacy of nematophagous bacteria and fungi in the control of cyst and root-knot nematodes has been well-documented [82, 83]. Parasitic bacteria (
Most nematicides are highly toxic synthetic pesticides health risk. Limitations uses of chemical pesticides are alternative methods and great attention to nematode control. Chemical nematicides are often used in the management of root-knot nematodes, restrictions in some soil fumigants due to increased environmental toxicity expensive costs and risk to humans.
Nematode release β-1,4-endoglucanase and polygalacturonase during primary infection and feeding site and in plants growth proteins are secreted during processes to allow for cell enlargement . Several root-knot resistance gene (
Management of nematodes is an integrated method of pest management system. Because of most commonly practiced methods including crop rotation, developing resistant and tolerant cultivars, using chemicals and cultural practices [24, 73]. Effective management practices are required accurate diagnosis, and proper effective management techniques.
There are several genera and species of nematodes that are of economic importance. Correct nematode diagnosis can developing management program. The nematodes must be eliminate minimize the damage to determine the appropriate method. Commonly practiced methods are including crop rotation, resistant and tolerant cultivars, cultural practices and chemicals. The ability to reduce yield losses caused by nematodes is need to understanding about pathogen biology and the application of appropriate control measures. Use of chemicals is impractical commercial and cultural methods fail to complete control. Breeding for resistance and tolerance is the major strategy for long-term and environmentally sound control. It is necessary to research particularly nematodes race and pathotype, and a great need for global collaborative research to control of these important pathogens.
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