Open access peer-reviewed chapter

A Traditional and Pharmacological Approach of Medicinal Plants in Mizoram, India

Written By

Amar Deep Soren and Pawi Bawitlung Lalthanpuii

Submitted: 31 January 2021 Reviewed: 04 June 2021 Published: 23 June 2021

DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.98718

From the Edited Volume

Natural Drugs from Plants

Edited by Hany A. El-Shemy

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Abstract

Traditional medicine is the sole method of treatment in rural India even today. Several communities practice their traditional method of treatment and are not affected by the advances in modern medicine. The tribal communities prefer to use and consult their own traditional practitioners since these are easily available, accessible and cheap. It is also believed that these are free of side effects and very effective. The Mizos of the north-eastern state of India (Mizoram), use several plants to treat various ailments. Their practices are unique and are usually carried out by elderly persons of the community or traditional healers. Several plants used in their traditional medicine have been scientifically validated for their efficacy and toxicity studies. However, a large number still awaits identification and efficacy validations. This manuscript describes both the studied and untouched medicinal plants used in the traditional medicine system of the Mizos of Mizoram. Although, several other remedies are yet to be discovered, this study has described most of them in current use.

Keywords

  • medicinal plants
  • Mizoram
  • traditional medicines
  • traditional practices

1. Introduction

Medicinal plants serve as the mainstay of various traditional disease management strategies since time immemorial [1]. These practices are passed onto many generations and some have even led to great discoveries providing instant cure and eradication of various diseases. Despite the growth in the pharmaceutical industry, modern health care system and drugs are still impractical and inaccessible for the less privileged communities [2]. According to World Health Organization (WHO), about 90% of the people in developing countries still use traditional medicines as their primary health care system, while in some parts in combination with modern drugs [3]. Due to high reliance on traditional medicines, WHO has laid down strategies for the improvement of health care system in developing countries particularly for the economically deprived communities. The strategies aim to frame policy, enhance safety, efficacy, quality, ensure access and to promote balanced use of traditional medicines. Through these strategies, traditional medicines are projected to be integrated into disease management programs in Primary Health Centers (PHC), thereby increasing recognition and support from the Government [4]. International organizations and policy makers believe that primary health care system PHCs are still the best to meet the needs of the people in villages and are assumed to be the universal solution for improving human health [5].

The practice of traditional healing in Indian culture has been assumed to be as old as civilization. Traditional healing by various medicinal plants has been trusted and has gained much acceptance among many cultures as the proportion of cure is believed to be high and significant [6]. This may perhaps be related to the rich biodiversity where plants having medicinal values can be obtained from the forest at any disposal. Poor economy background of deprived communities may as well play an important role in the high reliance on forest resources for medicinal purpose and nutraceuticals [7].

Mizoram, one of the 7 sister states of Northeast India is inhabited mainly by the Mizo tribe (Figure 1). It shares an international boundary with Bangladesh in the south western part and with Myanmar in the south eastern side. It also shares the national boundary with the state of Assam in the north; Manipur in the north east and Tripura in the west. It is located between 21°56′N to 24°31′N, and 92°16′E to 93°26′E. The climate of Mizoram is relatively mild. It is never too hot nor too cold during summer and winter [8]. The state lies in the Indo-Myanmar sub-tropical forest region and is a biodiversity hot-spot with many endemic species. The rich biodiversity provides immense treasure and sustainable supply of medicinal plants and hence leads to frequent use of plants as medicine [9]. The knowledge and practices are passed down the generations which are still in practice while some are kept in secrecy by villagers [10]. Medicinal plants are the immediate rescue for various ailments especially in remote areas where modern medical facilities are far from being attained [11]. The practices are quite similar in most parts of the state but the parts of the plant, type of preparation and consumption vary slightly from place to place. In most cases, decoction of the different parts of the plants is consumed orally without meticulous proper dosage [12]. Consumption of decoction of leaves is the most common form of use other than raw, aqueous extract, powdered, crushed, drooping or homogenized in water. The parts of the plant mainly used as medicine are leaves, roots, seeds and stem bark, among which leaves constitute the highest percentage. Besides, various ingredients such as sugar, oil, water, honey, and citrus juice are added to enhance the taste, aid consumption and to conceal the smell [13]. These medicines are usually prepared at home (Figure 2). The medicinal plant parts are also usually processed at home (Figure 3).

Figure 1.

A traditional Mizo couple.

Figure 2.

A traditional healer preparing medicine.

Figure 3.

Turmeric being dried for use as medicine.

Traditional knowledge and practices serve as the basic framework for scientific studies including chemical analysis and biological activity studies. Different varieties of plants have been used as medicine among which some of them are still in use today (Table 1). The various plants used for treatment of various common diseases are discussed in this study.

Sl. NoAilmentMedicinal plant
1Parasite infectionsEuphoria longan, Morus alba, Punica granatum, Schima wallichi, Eupatorium odoratum, Annona squamosa, Artemisia nilagirika, Lagerstroemia speciosa, Benincasa hispida, Carica papaya, Dioscorea bulbifera, Michelia champaca, Piper longum, Trichosanthes anguina, Chenopodium ambrosioides, Gossypium sp., Dalbergia pinnata, Ziziphus oenoplia, Acacia oxyphylla, Milletia pachycarpa, Millettia taiwaniana, Imperata cylindrica, Ilex khasiana, Acmella oleracea, Callicarpa arborea
2DiarrheaCatunaregam spinosa, Chrysophyllum lanceolatum, Aegle marmelos, Ziziphus mauritiana, Tamarindus indica, Spondias pinnata, Rhus semialata, Garcinia morella, Garcinia cowa, Ficus racemose, Emblica officinalis, Dillenia indica, Bruinsmia polysperma, Artocarpus chama, Parkia roxburghii, Mikania micrantha, Melastoma malabathricum, Rourea minor, Rhododendron arboretum, Quercus serrata, Quercus oblongata, Punica granatum, Psidium guajava, Pogostemon cablin, Picrasma javanica, Phyllodium pulchellum, Osbeckia chinensis, Acer oblongum, Actinida chinensis, Careya arborea, Mussaenda macrophylla, Stereospermum tetragonum, Clerodendrum colebrookianum, Blumea lanceolaria
3SkinAchyranthes aspera, Albizia chinensis, Artocarpus lakiicha, Jatropa curcus, Arisaema tortuosum, Artemisia indica, Chenopodium ambrosioides, Chenopodium viscosum, Elsholtzia blanda, Buddleja asiatica, Centella asiatica, Lantana camara, Actinida chinensis, Eryngium foetidum, Mimosa pudica, Polygonum plebeium, Prunus cerasoides, Buddleia asiatica, Erythrina stricta, Tinospora cordifolia, Psychotria calocarpa, Mimosa pudica, Oroxylum indicum, Nigella sativa
4DiabetesDillenia pentagyna, Casearia tomentosa, Abrus precatorius, Averrhoa carambola, Lagerstroemia speciosa, Phyllanthus fraternus, Tinospora cordifolia, Aloe barbadensis, Artocarpus heterophyllus, Curcuma longa, Emblica officinalis, Mimosa indica, Mimosa pudica, Albizia procera, Aegle marmelos, Allium cepa, Alstonia scholaris, Allium sativum, Clerodendrum colebrookianum, Plantago major, Physalis angulate, Passiflora quadrangularis, Scurrula parasitica, Mallotus roxburghianus
5CancerAglaia edulis, Prunus domestica, Ficus hirta, Dillenia pentagyna, Ageratum conyzoides, Blumea lanceolaria, Aloe barbadensis, Artocarpus heterophyllus, Azadirachta indica, Carica papaya, Clerodendrum colebrookianum, Curcuma longa, Emblica officinalis, Mimosa indica, Momordica charantia, Ageratum conizoides, Gynura conyza, Dillenia indica, Scurrula parasitica, Rhynchotechum ellipticum, Aegle marmelos, Allium hookeri, Eryngium foetidium, Mikania micrantha, Alpinia galanga, Ageratum conyzoides, Solanum khasianum, Lonicera macrantha, Senecio scandens, Croton caudatus, Mussaenda macrophylla, Callicarpa arborea, Byttneria aspera, Rhus javanica
6MalariaAcacia concina, Andrographis paniculata, Adhatoda vasica, Alstonia scholaris, Artemisia nilagirika, Clerodendrum serratum, Acacia concinna, Acer oblongum, Alstonia scholaris, Anogeissus acuminata, Artemisia vulgaris, Begonia inflata, Borginia ciliate, Canna indica, Cassia fistula, Chickrassia tabularis, Dichroa febrifuga, Eryngium foetidum, Kyllinga monocephala, Lantana camara, Mikania micrantha, Musa paradisiaca, Sylvestris sp., Passiflora nepalensis, Phyllanthus fraternus, Picrasma javantica, Piper betle, Piper longum, Prunus cerasoides, Rotheca serrate, Spathodea stipulata, Stereosrermum personatum, Vitex peduncularis, Garcinia cowa, Plantago major, Pittosporum napaulense
7Fungal infectionsFicus auriculata, Gelsemium elegans, Chickrassia tabularis, Spathodea stipulate, Asparagus racemosus, Homalomena aromatica, Curcuma longa, Trachyspermum ammi, Callicarpa macrophylla, Bidens pilosa
8MeaslesSecurinega virosa, Adhatoda vasica, Azadirachta indica, Amomum subulatum, Cucurma caesia, Anacolosa crassipes, Securinega virosa, Phyllanthus airy-shawii, Homalomena aromatica, Anogeissus acuminata, Lantana camara, Rhus javanica
9ChickenpoxSecurinega virosa, Adhatoda vasica, Rhus semialata, Embelia nagushia, Anogeissus acuminata, Averrhoa carambola, Embelia vestita
10JaundiceChonemorpha fragrans, Emblica officinalis, Oroxylum indicum, Terminalia chebula, Dillenia pentagyna, Clerodendrum colebrookianum, Catharanthus roseus, Cassia fistula, Carica papaya, Capsicum frutescens, Aeschynanthus sikkimensis, Adhatoda zeylanica, Adhatoda vasica, Homalomena aromatica, Passiflora sp., Acacia concina, Amomum subulatum, Gynura conyza, Lagerstroemia speciosa, Laportea crenulate, Momordica charantia, Musa superba, Alocasia indica, Cucurma caesia, Passiflora edulis, Andrographis paniculate, Ardisia paniculate, Averrhoa sp., Dendrocnide sinuate, Dillenia indica, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Lagerstroemia speciosa, Mallotus roxburghianus, Phyllanthus fraternus, Ficus semicordata, Hedyotes scandens, Mimosa pudica, Bridelia monoica, Benicasia hisipida Curcuma longa, Dendrocnida sinuate, Euphorbia royleana, Saccharum officinarum, Garcinia cowa, Vitex peduncularis, Rubus rosifolius, Punica granatum
11Stomach issuesAloe barbadensis, Aporosa octandra, Erythrina stricta, Lagerstroemia speciosa, Artemisia indica, Baccaurea ramniflora, Berberis nepalensis, Dillenia pentagyna, Elaegnus caudate, Erythrina alba, Callicarpa arborea, Blumea lanceolaria, Carica papaya, Citrus aurantifolia, Curcuma longa, Curcumorpha longiflora, Helicia robusta, Mallotus philippensis, Lobelia angulate, Mentha arvensis, Musa sp., Osbeckia sikkimensis, Tinospora cordifolia, Zanonia indica, Smilax glabra, Senecio scandens, Scoparia dulcis, Saprosma ternatum, Prismatomeris tetrandra, Picria felterrae, Picrasma quassiooides, Picrasma javanica, Acer oblongum, Aganope thyrsiflora
12Food poisoningZingiber officinale, Parkia roxburghii, Carica papaya, Trachyspermum roxburghianum, Phyllanthus emblica, Parkia timoriana, Acer oblongum
13Respiratory ailmentsOccimum tenuiflorum, Zingiber officinale, Drymaria cordata, Terminalia crenulate, Sonchus arvensis, Solanum tuberosum, Senna occidentalis, Pueraria tuberosa, Achyranthes aspera, Uncaria sessilifructus, Tithonia diversifolia, Syzygium cumini, Sonerila maculate, Sapindus mukorossi, Zingiber officinale, Occimum tenuiflorum, Terminalia chebula
14TyphoidVitex peduncularis, Occimum tenuiflorum, Adina cordifolia
15TonsilitisUncaria sessilifructus, Aeschynanthus sikkimensis, Costus speciosus, Sterculia villosa, Smilax glabra, Sarcococca pruniformis, Sapindus mukorossi, Abelmoschus manihot
16Blood pressureAmomum dealbatum, Aporosa octandra, Semecarpus anacardium, Catharanthus roseus, Trachycarpus martianus, Terminalia arjuna, Solanum incanum, Senna occidentalis, Senecio scandens, Rauvolfia serpentine, Picrasma quassiooides, Picrasma javanica, Passiflora quadrangularis
17VomitingAnnona squamosa, Pratia begonifolia, Trichosanthes anguina, Trachyspermum roxburghianum, Pogostemon cablin, Alangium chinense
18Snake biteAntidesma bunius, Phyllanthus acidus, Benicasia hisipida, Wrightia arborea, Pogostemon cablin, Tagetes erecta, Solanum anguivi, Rauvolfia serpentine, Acacia pennata, Pothos scandens
19ToothachePaedaria foetida, Centella asiatica, Solanum incanum, Lepidagathis rigida, Millettia pachycarpa, Cynodon dactylon, Acmella paniculate, Tabernaemontana divaricate, Solanum viarum, Psidium guajava, Physalis angulate, Osbeckia stellate, Osbeckia crinite
20Kidney ailmentsSolanum nigrum, Scoparia dulcis, Saraca asoca, Citrus sinensis, Saccharum arundinaceum, Osbeckia sikkimensis, Achyranthes bidentata, Smilax ovalifolia, Costus speciosus, Jasminum nervosum, Hedychium spicatum, Rotula aquatic, Begonia inflata, Desmos chinensis, Ardisia macrocarpa, Myrica esculenta, Ageratina adenophora, Stevia rebaudiana, Actephila excelsa, Oryza sativa, Vitex peduncularis, Solanum nigrum, Centella asiatica, Occimum tenuiflorum, Phyllanthus fraternus, Ricinus communis, Sida acuta, Hedyotes scandens, Helicia robusta, Mimosa pudica, Plantago asiatica, Xanthium strumarium, Tagetes erecta, Syzygium cumini, Stevia rebaudiana, Siegesbeckia orientalis, Sida acuta, Pseudognaphalium luteoalbum, Actephila excelsa

Table 1.

Commonly used medicinal plant by the Mizos of Mizoram.

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2. Medicinal plants used in the traditional medicine system

2.1 Parasitic infections

Different varieties of plants have been used traditionally for the treatment and elimination of parasites in human and livestock. In Mizoram, the fruits of Euphoria longan (Lour.) Steud (theifeihmung), bark of Morus alba L. (thingtheihmu), and the juice of the fruit and bark of Punica granatum L. (theibuhfai) have been reported to have antiparasitic activities [14]. The bark extract of Schima wallichi (khiang), crushed leaves of Eupatorium odoratum Linn. (tlangsam) [15], juice of Annona squamosa L. leaves (theiarbawm), decoction of the leaves of Artemisia nilagirika Clarke (sai), root mixed with powdered fruits of Lagerstroemia speciosa ZL. (chawnpui), seeds of Benincasa hispida (maipawl), seeds of Carica papaya L. (thingfanghma), decoction of the tubers of Dioscorea bulbifera L. (ram-bahra), leaf juice of Michelia champaca L. (ngiau) mixed with honey, decoction of Piper longum L. (voko-hrui), and the fruits of Trichosanthes anguina L. (berul) have also been reported to be used frequently for the elimination of parasites [13]. Also, Chenopodium ambrosioides L., Gossypium (la) species and Dalbergia pinnata (Lour.) (Hruitengtere) have been reported to possess anthelmintic efficacy [16, 17]. In addition, the roots of Ziziphus oenoplia (L.) Mill. (muvanlai hling) are also consumed as an anthelminthic [18].

Acacia oxyphylla, locally known as Khang-ngo has been reported for its use as a deworming agent. Its alcohol extract has exhibited significant nematocidal activity at 5, 10 & 20 mg/ml concentrations against the fowl nematode Ascaridia galli [19] and anticestodal activity against the fowl cestode Raillietina echinobothrida [20]. The root peels of Milletia pachycarpa, locally known as Ru-lei showed a concentration dependent activity against R. echinobothrida and A. galli [21, 22]. Also, the extract of Acacia caesia stem bark (20 mg/ml) has been found to possess distinct anthelmintic activity against the tapeworm Raillietina tetragona [23]. The methanol extract of Millettia taiwaniana roots are also known to possess significant anthelmintic activity at 20 mg/ml against intestinal tapeworms Taenia tetragona and Raillietina galli [24, 25]. Likewise, the chloroform extract of Imperata cylindrica roots have exhibited anthelmintic activity against R. tetragona and A. galli [26]. Ilex khasiana, locally known as KZ thing also showed activities in which the methanol extract of leaves exhibited a concentration dependent increase in anthelmintic activity against R. tetragona [27]. The hexane, chloroform and methanol extracts of Acmella oleracea, locally known as ansapui or ankasa in Mizo, showed distinct anthelmintic activity against R. echinobothrida and A. galli [28, 29]. Likewise, the alcohol extract of Callicarpa arborea, locally known as hnahkiah is known to possess anticestodal activity against R. echinobothrida [30].

2.2 Diarrhea

Certain plants from Mizoram have been reported for their capacity to ameliorate diarrhea. The juice of the fruits of Catunaregam spinosa (Thunb.) (Sazukthei), bark of Chrysophyllum lanceolatum Casar. (Theipabuan), Aegle marmelos (Correa) Linn. (Belthei), Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. (Borai/Kawrsunhlu), Tamarindus indica L. (Tengtere), decoction of the bark of Spondias pinnata (L.f.) Kurz. (Tawitaw), fruits of Rhus semialata Murray (Khawmhma), fruits of Garcinia morella (Gaertn.) Desr. (Kawrvawmba), boiled leaves of Garcinia cowa Roxb. ex Choisy. (Chengkek), fruits of Ficus racemosa L. (Thei-chek/Chho), crushed bark juice of Emblica officinalis Gaertn. (Sunhlu), decoction of the bark of Dillenia indica L. (Kawrthindeng), fruits of Bruinsmia polysperma (C. B. Clarke) Steenis. (Theipaling/Kawh/Theirelchhin/Theichhinkhup), and the inner coat of the bark of Artocarpus chama Buch. Ham. (Tatkawng) were described to be effective against diarrhea [14]. The fruits or young shoots of Parkia roxburghii G. Don (zawngtah), boiled leaves of Mikania micrantha (Japan hlo), and Melastoma malabathricum Linn. (Builukham) are often used for the treatment of diarrhea [15]. Also, the infusion of the leaves of Rourea minor (Gaertn.) Alston (chingpirinu thei/pho arh) and the flowers of Rhododendron arboretum Sm. (chhawkhleiparsen) are used for treating diarrhea and dysentery. Galls produced from the tree of Quercus serrata (sasua/sasaw thing), fruits of Quercus oblongata D. Don (then), young fruits of P. granatum Linn. (theibuhfai/Darjeeling/manding), bark and young leaves of Psidium guajava Linn. (kawlthei/kawiam/charthei), Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth. (Patchouli), and the infusion of the bitter bark of Picrasma javanica Blume (thing damdawi/khawsik damdawi thing) are also known to be used to treat dysentery. In addition, the decoction of the bark, leaves and roots of Phyllodium pulchellum (L.) Desv., decoction of the roots of Osbeckia chinensis Linn. (builukham), and a decoction of bark and leaves of Acer oblongum Wall. Ex DC. (thing phingphihlip) are also used for treating diarrhea [18].

The activities of certain traditionally acclaimed antidiarrheal plants on different microorganisms have been evaluated. The methanol extracts of 12 plants namely, Albizia lebbeck, Bombax ceiba, Abroma augusta, Actinida chinensis, Careya arborea, Chonemorpha fragrans, Clerodendrum colebrookianum, Costus speciosus, D. indica, Gynura conyza, Hibiscus sabdariffa, and Momordica charantia showed distinct inhibition zones against gram positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus), gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa), and yeast (Candida albicans) with Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) ranging from 1.635 to 7.972 mg/ml [31]. Likewise, A. chinensis, C. arborea, Mussaenda macrophylla and Stereospermum tetragonum extracts were also reported to have inhibition activity against 4 microorganisms namely Fusarium graminarum, S. aureus, Escherichia coli and Fusarium oxysoporum f. sp. ciceri [32]. The alcohol extracts of C. colebrookianum Walp., exhibited antimicrobial activity against bacteria such as E. coli (MTCC DH5α), Serratia marcescens (MTCC 7103) and S. aureus (MTCC 4301) [33]. The alcohol extracts of Blumea lanceolaria root, stem and leaf showed antibacterial activity against three bacteria namely E. coli, S. aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa [34].

2.3 Skin diseases

For the treatment of various skin diseases, the crushed leaves of Achyranthes aspera L. (buchhawl) and Albizia chinensis (Osb.) Merr. (vang), juice of the crushed bark of Artocarpus lakiicha Roxb. (theitat) and Jatropa curcus L. (thingthau), pounded poultice of Arisaema tortuosum (Wall.) Schott. (mithi vaimim), crushed leaf juice of Artemisia indica Willd. (sai), Chenopodium ambrosioides (buarchhimtir), C. viscosum Vent. (phuihnamchhia) and Elsholtzia blanda Benth. (nauhri), powdered flower pastes of Buddleja asiatica Lour. (serial), infusion of Centella asiatica (L.) Urban (lambak), and Lantana camara var. aculeate (L.) Mold. (hling pangpar) have been reported to be effective against various skin diseases [35]. The bark infusion of A. chinensis Merr. (vang) was also found to be effective against skin disorders [13]. Plants such as Eryngium foetidum L. (bahkhawr/bachikhawm), Mimosa pudica L. (hlo nuar/hlo zak), Polygonum plebeium, and Prunus cerasoides D. Don are often used for the treatment of various diseases of the skin [36]. Buddleia asiatica Lour (Se rial/Sial rial), paste of bark of Erythrina stricta Roxb. (Fartuahpui), and the root paste of Tinospora cordifolia (DC.) Miers. ex. Hook. (Theisawntlung) have also been reported for their healing properties of skin diseases [17, 37]. The juice of the stem, bark and leaves of Psychotria calocarpa Kurz (kawr pelh), and an infusion of the bark of A. chinensis (Osb) Merr. (Vang) is commonly used as a lotion for scabies and various skin diseases [18].

The ethanolic extract of M. pudica (hlo nuar) was found to heal wound in a concentration dependent manner [38]. The ethanolic extract gel of Oroxylum indicum (archangkawm) (10%) was found to enhance wound contraction which led to reduction of mean healing time in mice [39]. The dried seed extract of Nigella sativa has been known to accelerate collagen synthesis thereby reducing wound healing time [40].

2.4 Diabetes

Antidiabetic properties of certain plants have been reported from different parts of Mizoram. Decoction of the bark of Dillenia pentagyna Roxb. (Kaihzawl), decoction of the roots of Casearia tomentosa Roxb. (Vakithei) [14], juice of Abrus precatorius L. (sentet) leaves mixed with milk [13], fruits of Averrhoa carambola L. (theiherawt), bark of Lagerstroemia speciosa (L.) Pers. (thla do/chawnpui), decoction of the aerial parts of Phyllanthus fraternus Webster. (Mithi sunhlu) and decoction of the stem of Tinospora cordifolia (DC.) Miers. ex. (hrui vankai/hrui vankai hnah mam) are commonly used to treat diabetes [37]. Antidiabetic activity of plants such as Aloe barbadensis (L.) Burm.f. (awle lei), Artocarpus heterophyllus (Lam.) (lamkhuang/la ui), Curcuma longa (L.) (aieng), E. officinalis (L.) (sunhlu), M. indica (L.) (theihai), and M. pudica (L.) (hlo nuar) have also been reported [31]. Albizia procera Roxb. (kang tek), A. marmelos (L). Corr (bel thei), Allium cepa Linn. (purun sen), Alstonia scholaris (thuamriat), Allium sativum Linn, (Linn.) R. Br (purun var), and C. colebrookianum Walp. (phuihnam) are frequently used for the treatment of diabetes [41, 42]. A decoction of the whole plant of Plantago major Linn. (kel ba an), fruits, stem and leaves of Physalis angulata L. Var. angulata L. (Kelasawirawphit/chalpang puak), tea made from leaves of Passiflora quadrangularis L. (sapthei lian chi) and fruits of A. marmelos (L.) Correa (bel thei) have been reported for their use as an antidiabetic remedy [18].

The ethanolic extract of Scurrula parasitica (thlilthli ek bawm) at concentrations of 100 and 200 mg/kg has been known to possess significant hypolopidemic and antihyperglycemic activity in albino rats [43]. The methanolic extract of Mallotus roxburghianus (zawngte nawhlung) leaves have shown to possess antidiabetic properties on streptozocin induced diabetic models of experimental animals. However, the activity may not be dose dependent, as the two different doses of extract (200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg) did not show any significant variation in the results [44].

2.5 Cancer

Increase in cancer cases in recent years has led to the exploration of certain anticancer plants for immediate remedy. The juice of Aglaia edulis (Roxb.) Wallich (raithei) fruits, crushed fruits of Prunus domestica L. (Japan theite), fruits of Ficus hirta Vahl. (sazutheipui) and the decoction of the bark of D. pentagyna Roxb. (kaihzawl) are known to be effective against certain types of cancer [14]. The anticancer activity of the roots of Ageratum conyzoides (Linn.,) (vaihlenhlo), leaves of B. lanceolaria Linn. (buar ze), stem and bark of D. pentagyna Roxb. (kaihzawl), Aloe barbadensis (L.) (awle lei), Artocarpus heterophyllus (Lam.) (lamkhuang), Azadirachta indica (A. Juss) (nim thing), C. papaya (L.) (thing fanghma), C. colebrookianum (Walp.) (phuihnam), C. longa (L.) (aieng), E. officinalis (L.) (sunhlu), Mimosa indica (L.) (hlo nuar) and M. charantia (L.) (changkha/changkha rek) have also been reported [31]. Roots of Ageratum conizoides Linn. (vaihlenhlo), leaves of B. lanceolaria Linn. (buar ze) and G. conyza sp., stem bark of D. pentagyna Roxb (kaihzawl), and D. indica Linn. (kawrthindeng) were also found to possess anticancer property [45]. The decoction of the whole plant of Scurrula parasitica L. (thlikthliekbawm) and the decoction of the leaves of Rhynchotechum ellipticum (Wall. Ex D. Dietr.) A. DC. (tiarrep) are recommended for the treatment of cancer [18].

A study also suggested that D. pentagyna (kaihzawl) used in the traditional medicine of the Mizos, has antitumor activity against murine ascites Dalton’s lymphoma [46]. In another study, the ethanolic extract of A. marmelos (L.) Correa (bel thei) showed protection against cardiotoxicity [47]. Allium hookeri (mizo purun), Eryngium foetidium (bahkhawr/bachikhawm), Mikania micrantha (japan hlo), and Alpinia galanga (ai chal) were found to exhibit cytotoxicity against HeLa cells in a dose dependent manner. The IC50 were found to be 138.5, 199.7, 49.02, and 209.4 μg/mL, respectively [48]. The root extract of A. conyzoides (vaihlenhlo), stem bark of D. pentagyna (kaihzawl), fruit of Solanum khasianum and leaves of Lonicera macrantha (leihruisen), Senecio scandens (saiek hlo), Croton caudatus (ran lung damdawi/kam sa hulh/vawkze), Mussaenda macrophylla (vakep) and B. lanceolaria (buarze) were found to have anticancer activity against cancer cells such as MCF-7, HeLa, and Dalton’s lymphoma cells. Out of these, extracts of D. pentagyna and S. khasianum were found to be a potent source of anticancer compound [49]. The methanolic extracts of the leaves of Callicarpa arborea Roxb. (hnahkiah) and Byttneria aspera Colebr. (zawng luang hrui/zawng hnuang hrui) were found to have anticancer activity against human cancer cell lines such as colon cancer cell lines (HT-29), breast cancer cell line (MCF-7), cervical cancer cell line (HeLa), leukemia cell line (MOLT-4) and ovarian cancer cell line (OVCAR-3) [50]. The aqueous extract of C. caudatus Geisel (ran lung damdawi/kam sa hulh/vawkze) was found to have in vivo anticancer activity against Dalton’s lymphoma (% increase in life span 92.5%) and an in vitro anticancer activity with IC50 of 28.36 μg/ml [49]. The chloroform extract of C. arborea (hnahkiah) showed promising anti-proliferative and cytotoxic activity against A549, Type II human adenocarcinoma cell line [51]. The leaf, bark and fruit extract of Rhus javanica L., were also found to possess anticancer activity against HeLa cell line [52].

2.6 Malaria

Different varieties of plants are used for treating malaria based on traditional practices. The leaf infusion of Acacia concina DC (khangthur), Andrographis paniculata Nees. (hnahkhapui), decoction of the leaves and roots of Adhatoda vasica Nees. (kawldawi), decoction of the bark of Alstonia scholaris R.Br. (thuamriat), and decoction of the leaves of Artemisia nilagirika Clarke (sai) have been reported for their use as an antimalarial agent [13]. Also, Clerodendrum serratum (L.) Moon (Ram phuihnam) [17], Acacia concinna (Willd.) DC. (Khang-thur), Acer oblongum Wall. ex DC. (Thing-phing-phi-hlip), crushed juice or decoction of the stem bark of Alstonia scholaris L. R. Br. (thuamriat), decoction of the aerial parts of A. paniculata (Burm. f.) Wall. ex Nees (hnah-kha-pui), decoction of the bark of Anogeissus acuminata Roxb. ex DC. Guill. (zai-rum), decoction of the roots or leaves of Artemisia vulgaris L. (sai), decoction of the rhizome of Begonia inflata C.B. Clarke (se-khup-thur), decoction of the leaves of Borginia ciliate (Haw.) Sternb. (kham- dam-dawi), infusion of the leaves or powdered roots of Canna indica L. (kung-pui-mu-thi), decoction of the roots of Cassia fistula L. (ngai-ngaw/phung-ril), decoction of the leaves and bark of Chickrassia tabularis Andr. Juss. (zawngtei), decoction of leaves or roots of Dichroa febrifuga Lour. (khaw-sik-dam-dawi or ui-te-pangang-hlo), leaf juice of Eryngium foetidum L. (bahkhawr), decoction of the roots of Kyllinga monocephala Rottb. (artelubawk), decoction of the leaves of Lantana camara L. (Shilong tlang-sam or til-duh-par), juice of the leaves of Mikania micrantha H.B.K. (Japan-hlo), decoction of the leaves of Musa paradisiaca L. var., Sylvestris sp. (changel), decoction of the roots of Passiflora nepalensis Wall. (nau-awi-mu-hrui), decoction of the whole plant of Phyllanthus fraternus Web. (mitthi-sun-hlu), decoction of the bark of Picrasma javantica Bl. (thing-dam-dawi or khaw-sik- dam-dawi-thing), leaf juice of Piper betle L. (panruang), decoction of the fruits of Piper longum L. (vako-hrui), decoction of the leaves, seed and roots of P. major L. (kelba-an), decoction of the bark of Prunus cerasoides D. Don. (tlaizawng), decoction of the roots, stem and leaves of Rotheca serrate L. Steane & Mabb. (lei-dam-suak), decoction of the flower, leaves and bark of Spathodea stipulata Wall. (zih-haw), Stereosrermum personatum (Hassk.) De. Chatt. (zihnghal), and a decoction of the young stem, bark and leaves of Vitex peduncularis Wall. (thing-khawi-lu-pa) [53] are used to treat malaria. In addition, the roots of Garcinia cowa (dang kha) [54], the decoction of the whole plant of P. major Linn. (kel ba an), bark of Pittosporum napaulense (DC.) Rehder & Wilson (thing pho arh) and the decoction of the roots of Passiflora nepalensis Wallich (Nauawimu hrui) are commonly used for the treatment of malaria [18].

2.7 Fungal infections

The juice of the fruits of Ficus auriculata Lour. (theibal), root of Gelsemium elegans Benth. (hnamtur), and Alocasia indica (saidawl/vandaw) have been reported for their use in the traditional medicine of the Mizos as an antifungal agent [14, 46, 55]. The leaf extract of Chickrassia tabularis Andr. Juss. (zawngtei), P. betle L. (panruang) and the paste of the leaves and bark of Spathodea stipulata Wall. (zih-haw) are well known antifungal agents [53]. The decoction of the roots of Asparagus racemosus Willd. (arkebawk) is often consumed for treating fungal infection [16].

The essential oil of Homalomena aromatica (anchiri) was found to be effective against three pathogenic fungi namely, Epidermophyton floccosum, Microsporum gypseum, and Trichophyton rubrum with Minimum Cidal Concentration (MCC) between 1.2 to 1.8 μl/ml [56]. The essential oil of C. longa (aieng) was found to exhibit antifungal activity against pathogenic fungi Trichophyton rubrum and T. mentagrophytes with Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of 2.1 mg/ml and 1.9 mg/ml respectively [57]. The essential oil extracted from the mature seeds of Trachyspermum ammi L. showed inhibition against Candida albicans and Aspergillus flavus with MIC of 0.086 mg/ml and 0.202 mg/ml respectively [58]. The ethanol and aqueous extracts of Callicarpa macrophylla Vahl. stem was found to have antifungal activity against six pathogenic fungi namely, Rhizopus oligosporus, Gibberella fujikoroi, C. albicans, Myrothecium verrucaria, Cryptococcus neoformans, A. niger, and Neurospora crassa [59]. Also, the methanol extract of the leaves of Bidens pilosa was also found to have inhibition activity against C. albicans at concentration of 10 mg/ml with 9.1 mm zone of growth inhibition [60].

2.8 Measles

The boiled leaves of Securinega virosa Roxb. (saisiak), Adhatoda vasica Nees. (kawldai) and the decoction of the leaves of Azadirachta indica used in the Mizo traditional medicine are reported to be effective against measles [61]. The decoction of the rhizome of Amomum subulatum Roxb. (ailaidum) [13] and Cucurma caesia (ailaidum) are often used for the treatment of measles [55]. The boiled leaves of Anacolosa crassipes Kurz (lushai nautur) and S. virosa (Roxb. ex Willd.) Baill. are used while bathing while the leaf juice of Phyllanthus airy-shawii Brunel & J.P.Roux. (mawsai) are applied on the infected skin [16]. Also, the fresh juice of Homalomena aromatica (anchiri) roots [35], paste of the leaves of Anogeissus acuminata Roxb. ex DC. Guill. (zairum), leaves of Lantana camara L. (shillong tlangsam) [53] and the decoction of the leaves of Rhus javanica L. (khawmhma) have been reported for their efficacy against measles [52].

2.9 Chicken pox

The boiled leaves of Securinega virosa Roxb. (saisiak) is often used while bathing to cure chicken pox, while the boiled leaves of Adhatoda vasica Nees. (kawldawi) and the raw fruits of Rhus semialata (khawmhma) are consumed for the treatment of chicken pox [61]. A decoction of the leaves of Embelia nagushia D. Don (thing) [13], paste of the leaves of Anogeissus acuminata Roxb. ex DC. Guill. (zairum), paste of the leaves of A. carambola L. (theiherawt) [53] and a decoction of the leaves of Embelia vestita Roxb. (tling) are also often used [14].

2.10 Jaundice

The fruit, leaves and roots of Chonemorpha fragrans (Moon.) (phungtheikelki) are taken raw or boiled to treat jaundice [61]. Also, the fruit juice of E. officinalis Gaertn. (sunhlu) [15], Jatropha curcas L. (kang damdawi/thing thau), M. charantia L. (changkha/vhangkha rek), O. indicum vent. (archangkawm), Terminalia chebula (re raw), Zingiber officinale Roscoe (sawhthing), D. pentagyna Roxb. (kaihzawl), C. colebrookianum Walp. (phuihnam), Catharanthus roseus L. (kumtluang), Cassia fistula L. (ngaingaw/phungril), Carica papaya L. (thingfanghma), Capsicum frutescens L. (hmarcha pui), Aeschynanthus sikkimensis Stapf, Adhatoda zeylanica Nees and Adhatoda vasica Nees (kawldawi) are used commonly for the treatment of jaundice [62]. The roots of Homalomena aromatica (anchiri) [56], the inner portion of the fruit of Passiflora spp (sapthei), infusion of the leaves of Acacia concina DC. (khangthur), decoction of the leaves of Amomum subulatum Roxb. (ailaidum), decoction of the leaves of G. conyza Cass. (buarze), root decoction of Lagerstroemia speciosa ŽL. Pers. (chawn-pui or thlado), root decoction of Laportea crenulata Gaud. (thakpui), juice of the leaves of M. charantia L. (changkha), and the stem juice of Musa superba Roxb. (tumbu or changel) have been reported to be effective against jaundice [13]. Also, Alocasia indica (Saidawl/Vandawl), C. papaya (thingfanghma), Cucurma caesia (ailaidum) and Passiflora edulis (sapthei) are frequently used for the treatment of jaundice [55]. The use of the whole plant of Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Wall. ex. Nees (hnahkhapui), boiled juice of Ardisia paniculata Roxb. (naunuar), fruits of Averrhoa sp. (theiherawt), boiled roots of Dendrocnide sinuata (Blume) Chew (thakpui), boiled fruit juice of D. indica L. (kawrthindeng), fruit of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. (midum pangpar/bangla par), crushed leaves of Inula cappa (Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don) DC. (buarthau), and the aerial parts and roots of Lagerstroemia speciosa (L.) Pers. (chawnpui/thlado) have also been reported to possess efficacy against jaundice [16]. In addition, the twigs of Mallotus roxburghianus Muell. (zawngtenawhlung), juice of the whole plant of Phyllanthus fraternus Webster. (mithisunhlu) [63], decoction of the leaves of Ficus semicordata var. conglomerate (Roxb.) Kurz. (theipui), Hedyotes scandens D. Don, (kelhnamtur/laikingtuibur), and a decoction of the whole plant of Phyllanthus fraternus Webs (mithisunhlu) have been described to be effective against jaundice [35]. The leaves of M. pudica (hlonuar) [38], boiled roots of Bridelia monoica (Lour.) Merr. (phaktel), decoction of the leaves of Ficus semicordata Buch. Ham. ex Sm. (theipui) [14], crushed leaves of Benicasia hisipida (Thumb.) Cogn. (maipawl), decoction of the troot stock of C. longa L. (aieng), decoction of the roots of Dendrocnida sinuate (Blume) (thanpui), decoction of the leaves of Euphorbia royleana Boiss. (chawng), juice of the tender shoot of Musa sp. (changel) and juice of the stem of Saccharum officinarum L. (fu) are also used for the treatment of jaundice [37]. Also, the leaves of Garcinia cowa (dang kha), decoction of the whole plant of M. pudica L. (hlonuar), infusion of the bark and leaves of V. peduncularis wall. Ex Schauer are used to treat jaundice [54, 64]. The decoction of the stem, leaves and roots of Rubus rosifolius Sm. Ex Baker (hmubelbing/chultheihmu) and the young fruits of P. granatum Linn. (theibuhfai/Darjeeling/manding) are also commonly used to cure jaundice [18].

2.11 Gastritis/stomach problem/ulcer

Certain medicinal plants are recommended and used for the treatment and alleviation of gastric problems. Aerial raw parts of Aloe barbadensis var. chinensis Haw. (Aloe vera), decoction of the bark of Aporosa octandra (Buch. Ham. ex D. Don) (chhawntual), Erythrina stricta Roxb. (fartuahpui), Lagerstroemia speciosa (L.) Pers. (thlado/chawnpui), decoction of the leaves of Artemisia indica Willd. (sai), and the bark of Baccaurea ramniflora Lour. (pangkai) are consumed half an hour before food to treat gastritis. The decoction of the bark of Berberis nepalensis (DC.) Spreng. (pualleng), D. pentagyna Roxb. (kaihzawl), Elaegnus caudate Schlecht. ex Momiyama (kel), Erythrina alba Cogn. & Marchal (fartuah par var) and Callicarpa arborea Roxb. (hnahkiah), raw leaves of B. lanceolaria Roxb. (buarze), juice of the pounded leaves of C. papaya L. (thingfanghma), and the juice of Citrus aurantifolia Christm. (nimbu) fruits are consumed in the morning, whereas, a decoction of the root stock of C. longa L. (aieng), root stocks of slices of Curcumorpha longiflora Wall. (ailaidum), decoction of the bark and leaves of Helicia robusta (Roxb.) R. Br. Ex Blume (pasaltakaza), Mallotus philippensis (Lam.) Muell. Arg. (thingkhei), crushed leaves of Lobelia angulate Forst. (choakthi), aerial parts of Mentha arvensis L. (pudina), juice of tender shoots of Musa sp. (changel), decoction of the roots of Osbeckia sikkimensis Craib. (builukham pa), decoction of the stem of Tinospora cordifolia (DC.) Miers. ex. Hook. (theisawntlung), and water poured into the fruit cavity of Zanonia indica L. (lalruanga dawi bur) are commonly used for treating gastric problems and ulcer [37]. The pounded tuberous roots of Smilax glabra Roxb. (tluangngil) is used for stomachache and the decoction of the leaves of Senecio scandens Buch.-Ham ex D. Don (saiekhlo), juice of the pounded leaves, roots and stem of Scoparia dulcis L. (perhpawng chaw/thlum dem dem) and the leaves of Saprosma ternatum (Wall.) Hook.f. (pelhvawm/thinglawhleng) are used for pain relief. The juice of the leaves of Prismatomeris tetrandra (Roxb.) K. Schum. (telenga mai suak), decoction of the whole plant of Picria felterrae Lour. (khatual), and a decoction of the bark and leaves of Picrasma quassiooides (thing damdawi/khawsik damdawi thing/thingpil kha) are consumed for treating stomach ulcer. Powdered adry fruits of Picrasma javanica Blume (thing damdawi/khawsik damdawi thing) is commonly used to treat stomach ache and the decoction of the bark and leaves of Acer oblongum Wall. Ex DC. (thing phingphihlip) and a decoction of the fruits of Aganope thyrsiflora (Benth.) (hulhu) are commonly used for various stomach problems [18].

2.12 Food poisoning/allergy

For food poisoning and allergies, different parts of plants such as roasted root stock of Zingiber officinale Rosc. (sawhthing) and the bark of Parkia roxburghii Roxb. (zawngtah) are chewed while the juice of the leaves of C. papaya L. (thingfanghma) is used to treat meat allergy [37]. Also, the leaves of Trachyspermum roxburghianum (DC) H Wolff (pardi) are consumed as a remedy for food allergy and the pounded fruits of Phyllanthus emblica L. (sunhlu), young leaves and seeds of Parkia timoriana (DC.) Merr. (zawngtah), and a decoction of the bark and leaves of Acer oblongum Wall. Ex DC. (thing phingphihlip) are used to treat food poisoning and allergies [18].

2.13 Cough

A decoction of the bark of Occimum tenuiflorum Linn. (keifang) and roasted root stock of Zingiber officinale Rosc. (sawhthing) are consumed to treat cough [37]. The whole plant of Drymaria cordata (L.) Willd. (changkalrit) is boiled and the steam is inhaled to treat sinusitis and cough [16]. Likewise, the bark of Terminalia crenulate Roth (tuairam), the roots of Sonchus arvensis L. (khuanglawi), and the leaves of Solanum tuberosum Linn. (alu) are used to treat chronic cough. Similarly, Senna occidentalis (L.) Link (rengan), tubers of Pueraria tuberosa (Willd.) DC. (zawng tur/thingba/bul ei) and juice of the pounded leaves of Achyranthes aspera Linn. (bu chhawl/ui hlo) are used to treat cough [18].

2.14 Sore throat

A decoction of the young leaves or root bark of Uncaria sessilifructus Roxb. (ralsamkuai), whole plant of Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl.) A. Gray (bawngpupar), seed of Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels (hmuipui/lenhmui), juice of Sonerila maculata Roxb. (thaksenhlo), and an infusion of the fruit pulp of Sapindus mukorossi Gaertn. (hlingsi) are consumed to treat sore throat [18]. Also, the roasted root stock of Zingiber officinale Rosc. (sawhthing), decoction of the bark of O. tenuiflorum Linn. (keifang) [37] and the fruit of Terminalia chebula Retz. (reraw) are consumed to get relief from cough [63].

2.15 Typhoid

The decoction of the leaves of V. peduncularis Wall. ex. Schauer. (thingkhawilu), O. tenuiflorum Linn. (tulsi) and Adina cordifolia Roxb. (lungkhup) are used as medication for typhoid [37].

2.16 Tonsilitis

The tender leaves of Uncaria sessilifructus Roxb. (ralsamkuai) are chewed in case of infection of the tonsils [37]. Also, an infusion of the flowers of Aeschynanthus sikkimensis (C.B. Clarke) Stapf. (bawltehlantai) and water from the boiled leaves of Costus speciosus (Koeing) Smith. (sumbul) is consumed for relief from tonsilitis [63]. In addition, a decoction of the bark of Sterculia villosa Roxb. (khaupui) and decoction of the leaves of Smilax glabra Roxb. (tluangngil) are also used. The decoction of the leaves of Sarcococca pruniformis Lindl. (pawhrual), infusion of the fruit pulp of Sapindus mukorossi Gaertn. (hlingsi) and the seeds of Abelmoschus manihot (L.) Medik. Var. pungens (uichhu me/uichhu hlo) are commonly eaten as a remedy [18].

2.17 Blood pressure

The fruits of Amomum dealbatum Roxb. (aidu), Aporosa octandra (Buch. Ham. ex D. Don) (Chhawntual) and juice of the leaf stalk of Semecarpus anacardium Linn. F. (vawmbal-pui) are consumed to control and lower blood pressure [14]. Also, the raw leaves of Catharanthus roseus Linn. (kumtluang) are often used as a remedy for high blood pressure (63). The flower bud of Trachycarpus martianus(Wall. Ex. Mart.) H. Wendl. (buarpui), bark and leaves of Terminalia arjuna (Roxb. Ex. DC) (changkurmam), the fruits of Solanum incanum Linn. (samtawk), Senna occidentalis (L.) Link (rengan), leaves of Senecio scandens Buch.-Ham ex D. Don (saiekhlo), roots of Rauvolfia serpentine (L.) Benth. Ex Kurz (thisensang damdawi/thingzungkha), decoction of the bark and leaves of Picrasma quassiooides (thing damdawi/khawsik damdawi thing/thingpil kha), infusion of the bitter bark of P. javanica Blume (thing damdawi/khawsik damdawi thing) and tea made from leaves of Passiflora quadrangularis L. (sapthei lian chi) are also commonly consumed to lower high blood pressure [18].

2.18 Antiemetic

The fruits of Annona squamosa L. (Theiarbawm) [14] and the crushed leaf juice of Pratia begonifolia Lindl. (choak thi) are used as a remedy for vomiting [63]. The fruit and leaves of Trichosanthes anguina L. (berul), seeds of Trachyspermum roxburghianum (DC) H Wolff (pardi), Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth. (Patchouli) and the roots and stem of Alangium chinense (Lour.) Harms (arsa rim nam) are often consumed as medication to prevent vomiting [18].

2.19 Antivenin

For venomous snake bites, mature leaves of Antidesma bunius (L.) Spreng. (tuaitit) and the crushed roots of Phyllanthus acidus (L.) Skeels. (kawlsunhlu) are frequently used [14]. T. indica L. (tengtere) seeds are attached to the biting area, while crushed juice of the leaves of Benicasia hisipida (Thumb.) Cogn. (maipawl) and juice of the tender shoots of Musa sp. (changel) are applied on the bitten area [37]. Also, the bark of stem and roots of Wrightia arborea (Dennst) Mabb. (hleng) and the stem of Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth. (Patchouli) are given as an antidote to snake bite. In addition, a decoction of the root, stem and leaves of Tinospora crispa (L.) Hook. F. & Thomson (hruivankai), flowers of Tagetes erecta L. (derhken), fruits of Solanum incanum Linn. (samtawk), crushed fruits of Solanum anguivi Lam. (samtawkte), juice of the leaves of S. dulcis L. (perhpawng chaw/thlum dem dem), roots of Rauvolfia serpentine (L.) Benth. Ex Kurz (thisensang damdawi/thingzungkha), stems of Pothos scandens Linn. (laiking tai rua), decoction of the tender leaves of Acacia pennata (L.) Willd. (khanghu) and leaves of A. pruinescens Kurz (khangpawl) have also been reported to be effective upon external application [18].

2.20 Toothache

For instant relief from toothache, certain plant parts and their fumes are used. Solanum sp. (bawngek hling) fruits are smoked, whereas, the stem of Paedaria foetida L. (vawihuihhrui), aerial parts of Centella asiatica (L.) Urb. (lambak) and the flower of Dendrobium sp. (nauban) are chewed to treat toothache [37]. Also, the whole plant of Solanum incanum Linn. (samtawk/bawkbawnkha) [18], leaves of Lepidagathis rigida Dalz. (vangvat tur) and infusion of the roots of Millettia pachycarpa Benth. (rulei) are used to treat tooth decay while the whole plant of Cynodon dactylon (Linn.) Pers. (phaitual) is inhaled [63]. Likewise, the leaves and flowers of Acmella paniculata (ankasate) are eaten raw to cure toothache [64]. The root bark of Tabernaemontana divaricate (L) R. Br. Ex Roem. & Schult. (pararsi/kelte bengbeh), seeds of Solanum viarum Dunal (at hlo hling/rulpuk), fruit of Solanum incanum Linn. (samtawk), juice of pounded leaves, roots and stem of S. dulcis L. (perhpawng chaw/thlum dem dem), paste of the bark of Psidium guajava Linn. (kawlthei/kawiam/charthei) are applied on the area of toothache. Also, warm water of the cooked leaves of P. major Linn. (kel ba an/tuikuk antam) is retained in the mouth to cure toothache. The fruit, stem and leaves of Physalis angulata L. var. angulata L. (kelasawirawphit/chalpang puak), decoction of the leaves of Osbeckia stellate Buch.-Ham.ex Ker Gawl. (builukham pa), decoction of the roots of Osbeckia crinite Benth. Ex C.B. Clarke (builukham) and the whole plant or flower head of A. oleracea (ansapui/ankasa kir) are chewed to cure toothache [18].

2.21 Kidney problems

A decoction of the aerial parts of Solanum nigrum L. (anhling), S. dulcis L. (perhpawngchaw), decoction of the bark of Saraca asoca Roxb. (mualhawih), leaves of Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck (serthlum), roots of Saccharum arundinaceum Retz. (rairuang) and Achyranthes bidentata Blume (vangvat tur/vangvat hlo) are used as a diuretic and to ease urination. A decoction of the roots of O. sikkimensis Craib. (builukham pa), aerial parts of Hedychium spicatum Koenig (kelhnamtur), Jasminum nervosum Lour., (maufimhlo), roots of Oryza sativa L. (buh) and roots of Smilax ovalifolia Roxb. Ex. D. Don (kaihapui) are used to treat urinary complaints and urinary tract infections. For the removal of kidney stones, a decoction of the aerial parts of Costus speciosus (Koenig) J.E. Sm (sumbul), infusion of the bark and leaves of V. peduncularis wall. Ex Schauer (thingkhawilu pa), water from boiled leaves of Solanum nigrum Linn. (anhling), and the juice of the pounded leaves, roots and stem of S. dulcis L. (perhpawng chaw/thlum dem dem) are commonly used. The root of Rotula aquatic Lour. (tuipuisuthlah/tuipuisuthlah) is also used for the removal of bladder stones [37, 18]. An infusion of the whole plant of Begonia inflata Cl. (sekhupthur hmul), decoction of the root and leaf of Desmos chinensis (Lour.) (zunin damdawi) and decoction of the root of O. crinite Benth. Ex C.B. Clarke (builukham) are used to treat painful urination [63].

Similarly, Ardisia macrocarpa Wall. (vahrit thei), bark of Myrica esculenta Buch. Ham. ex D. Don. (keifang), decoction of the leaves of Embelia vestita Roxb. (tling), fruits of Ardisia macrocarpa Wall. (vahrit thei) [14], raw aerial parts of C. asiatica (L.) Urb. (lambak), decoction of the bark of O. tenuiflorum Linn. (keifang) [37], steamed root extract of O. sikkimensis Craib. (builukham pa), infusion of the whole plant of Phyllanthus fraternus Webster. (mithi sunhlu), crushed leaves of Ricinus communis Linn. (mutih), crushed root of Sida acuta Burm. F. (khingkhih), decoction of the roots, stem and leaves of Cissus discolor Blume (sangharhmai), boiled whole plant of Hedyotes scandens Roxb. (laiking tuibur) [63], decoction of the whole plant of M. pudica L. (hlonuar), decoction of the bark of H. robusta (Roxb.) R. Br. Ex Blume. (pasaltakaza), decoction of the whole plant of Plantago asiatica L. (kelbaan) [63], decoction of the roots of Xanthium strumarium L (chabet), leaves of Tagetes erecta L. (derhken), seeds of Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels (hmuipui/lenhmui), leaves of Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) Hemsl. (hnahthlum), Siegesbeckia orientalis Linn. (ansapui suak), roots of S. acuta Burm.f. (khingkhih/valatha), leaves of Pseudognaphalium luteoalbum (L.) (kawhte mei bu), fruits of Actephila excelsa (Dolz) Mull.-Arg. (Telenga mai/pem hlek damdawi), and the leaves of Ageratina adenophora (Spreng.) R. M. King & H. Rob. (Bihar hlo/Nepal tlangsam/tlangsam suak/aieng rim nam) are consumed to cure various kidney and urinary troubles such as urinary insufficiency, and diseases of the urethra [18].

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3. Conclusions

Traditional medicine practices continue to thrive in rural India, particularly in the tribal dominant states. Studies that have evaluated their efficacy have revealed positive results, indicating that the traditionally used medicinal plants are capable of healing several ailments. Documenting these traditional practices is the first step towards scientifically evaluating both their efficacy and toxicity. Several medicinal plants that continue to be used in traditional medicine still await their scientific validation. Hence, similar studies to document these practices needs to be executed which will not only prevent an age-old tradition from becoming extinct but could also lead to the discovery of new drugs.

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Acknowledgments

The authors acknowledge the support rendered by Dr. K. Lalchhandama, Associate Professor and Head, Department of Zoology, Pachhunga University College in carrying out this study. The authors also wish to thank Dr. B. Lalruatfela, Assistant Professor, Lalbiakngheti Tlau, Lucy Lalawmpuii and Charles Lalnunfela from the Department of Zoology, Pachhunga University College, Aizawl, Mizoram for their support in gathering the information.

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Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

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Written By

Amar Deep Soren and Pawi Bawitlung Lalthanpuii

Submitted: 31 January 2021 Reviewed: 04 June 2021 Published: 23 June 2021