Open access peer-reviewed chapter

Ferroelectric, Piezoelectric and Dielectric Properties of Novel Polymer Nanocomposites

Written By

Maheswar Panda

Submitted: 21 October 2020 Reviewed: 12 February 2021 Published: 30 March 2021

DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.96593

From the Edited Volume

Multifunctional Ferroelectric Materials

Edited by Dipti Ranjan Sahu

Chapter metrics overview

514 Chapter Downloads

View Full Metrics


In this chapter, the Ferroelectric, Piezoelectric and Dielectric behavior of novel polymer/ceramic nano-composite (PCC) based on ferroelectric polymer [polyvinyledene fluoride (PVDF)] & nano Barium Titanate (n-BaTiO3) with different volume fractions of n-BaTiO3 (fBaTiO3), prepared through the novel cold pressing method has been discussed. The ferroelectric parameters of PCC are attributed to spherulites of PVDF, the increase of n-BaTiO3 and the ordered homogenous structure due to the novel cold pressing. The clustering of ceramic fillers is responsible for randomization of the structures of these composite ferroelectrics for some samples, leading to decrease of electrical polarisations. The piezoelectricity and piezoelectric coefficients of these composites ferroelectrics, increases with increase of ceramic filer content and remains constant beyond a certain ratio. However, the dielectric properties increase linearly as a function of ceramic content due to increase of interfaces/interfacial polarisations. The enhancement of effective dielectric constant (ɛeff) is attributed to the large interfacial polarization arising due to the charge storage at the spherulites of PVDF and at the polymer/filler interfaces of PCC and have been explained on the basis of sum effect with the help of the standard models. The achieved lower loss tangent (Tan δ) for the PCC as compared to the polymer/metal composites (PMC) is attributed to the highly insulating nature of PVDF & semiconducting n-BaTiO3. The thermal stability of the composites is also maintained due to the higher melting temperature (170°C) of PVDF. The cold pressed PCC based on PVDF are going to act as better polymer ferroelectric/dielectrics for memory and electrical energy storage applications.


  • Polymer ferroelectrics/dielectrics
  • spherulites
  • Ferroelectric polymers
  • Barium titanate
  • Dielectric constant
  • Loss Tangent
  • Polymer nanocomposites

1. Introduction

Polymer ferroelectrics (PF) and polymer dielectrics (PD) are considered recently to be the fascinating materials for their large inherent benefits of non-volatile memory/sensor/piezoelectric/dielectric/pyroelectric/magneto-electric applications [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17]. The conventional ferroelectric ceramic materials, e.g. BaTiO3, PZT, PbTiO3, etc. being used as memory elements/piezoelectric sensors/actuators/transducers, etc. are suffering from a large number of disadvantages, such as; brittleness, high cost and consume higher energy/longer time for their preparation. To overcome these problems, PF are undergoing development based on ferroelectric polymer as well as ferroelectric ceramics. Among the ceramic fillers, BaTiO3 is a very good ferroelectric material and comparably better as others have harmful lead content [16, 17]. Among the various polymers, very few polymers, such as polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), polyvinylidene fluoride trifluoroethylene [PVDF Tr(FE)] and Teflon show ferroelectric/piezoelectric behavior and have high dielectric constants [18, 19]. They are also of high breakdown strength, lightweight, flexible and having permanent dipolar polarization. Among the ferroelectric polymers, PVDF shows high piezo-electric coefficients, good ferroelectric behavior. Due to these advantages, PVDF is used as piezo-electric sensors/actuators/memory devices. But the major problem with PVDF is that, the magnitudes of ferroelectric parameters aren’t as good as the parameters, obtained from the conventional ceramics, which limit them from direct applications. Similarly the PD are having higher flexibility, non-toxicity, bio-compatibility, low cost, higher visco-elastic properties, etc. [20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31]. Due to their higher energy density/lower loss tangent (Tan δ) with higher breakdown field strength, they are going to be the emerging materials of future for electrostatic energy storage applications. The PD composed of polymers with conductor/ceramic nanoparticles are considered recently to be the demanded materials for electrical energy storage applications [20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36]. For energy storage applications, the maximum stored energy per unit volume is U=12Kε0Emax2, where K is the relative dielectric constant and Emax is the maximum electric field, which can be applied to the material (proportional to the breakdown field of the material). Over the last 20 years of research, the ferroelectric polymers e.g PVDF matrix also have been preferred due to it’s high static dielectric constant (~15)/higher visco-elastic properties/higher insulating nature as compared to other non-polar polymers. The preferred fillers are high dielectric constant ferroelectric ceramics in development of these PD. However, the development of the polymer-ceramic composites (PCC) have been slowed down, as the effective dielectric constant (εeff) for these composites were found be very low i.e. εeff ~ 100 at low frequencies due to the low dielectric constant of the polymers as well as due to the conventional hot molding process conditions. In preparing these PCC, ferroelectric ceramic, such as, PMN-PT, BaTiO3, PbTiO3, etc. with varying particle size are introduced into the PVDF matrix through hot molding and partially the approach becomes effective in order to get better PD [5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10]. For preparing PCC based on PVDF, the traditional mixed technique (solution casting followed by hot molding) is used, during which the spherulites of PVDF get lost [2, 33, 34], which lowers the value of εeff. Recently Panda et al. [23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 32, 33] has shown the importance of spherulites by following the cold pressing technique in preparing the PD based on PVDF, due to which the spherulites of PVDF are retained. The spherulites are responsible in the additional storage of electrical charge due to their additional interfaces, resulting higher interfacial polarization/higher value of εeff [2, 33, 34].

With the objective of achieving flexibility with low cost/easy processing and higher value of electrical parameters, for device applications, the traditional process condition (hot molding of the thick films prepared from solution casting) is changed to cold pressing developed by our group in which the spherulites of PVDF will be retained for the case of PCC. Hence, PCC of good ferroelectric/piezoelectric/dielectric properties, are developed from good ferroelectric ceramics/good ferroelectric polymers. Since in the PZT/PVDF composites, lead is a toxic component, hence the PCC based on PVDF/n-BaTiO3, with different volume fraction of n-BaTiO3 (fn-BaTiO3), were prepared with the help of cold pressing method. The prepared composites have shown the interesting ferroelectric/piezoelectric/dielectric/conductivity properties and finds suitability for various applications.


2. Experimental details

Polymer composite based on PVDF/n-BaTiO3 from 0.0 to 0.60 of volume fraction of nano filler n-BaTiO3 (fBaTiO3) were prepared by mechanical hand mixing with Agate mortar/Pestle for 2 hours. The final pellets under room temperature consolidation at a pressure of 30 MPa with the help of a Hydraulic press [2, 33] were prepared. The microstructure investigation on the samples was carried out with the help of FESEM. The ferroelectric hysteresis, i.e. the polarization versus electric field (P ~ E) measurement, is done with the help of a P ~ E hysteresis loop tracer. The piezoelectric coefficient (d33) for the samples is measured with the help of Piezo-electric measurement instrument. The electrical measurements were made on all the PCC in the frequency range of 50 Hz to 5 MHz and in the temperature range of room temperature to 100 ̊C. The dielectric results of the PCC have been understood by fitting with the help of the software Mathematica.


3. Results and discussion

3.1 Microstructure

The FESEM micrographs of pure PVDF are given in Figure 1a and b. Figure 1a and b shows the presence of spherulites (the spherical semi-crystalline regions of the polymer). The micrographs of PVDF/n-BaTiO3 composites with different fBaTiO3 = 0.2 and fBaTiO3 = 0.60 are shown (Figure 1cf). The ordered homogenous structures are also observable and is attributed to the recent novel method of cold pressing as evident from the sample with fBaTiO3 = 0.2 (Figure 1c and d). The spherulites present in the polymer are of diameter of the order of ~0.1 μm (Figure 1a and b). The n-BaTiO3 are also of the order of diameter of the spherulites as they are of size 100 nm, i.e. 0.1 μm, During cold pressing, the n-BaTiO3 clusters (Figure 1c and d) inside the polymer matrix, may have taken the typical shapes. For the sample with fBaTiO3 = 0.6 (Figure 1e and f), shows high level of heterogeneity, as lot of defects and dislocations has emerged in the structure and is responsible for giving a decrease in the ferroelectric & piezoelectric properties of the PF. Figure 1 reveal slight agglomeration of BaTiO3 nanoparticles in the nanocomposites. The average filler size in the nanocomposites are of ~100 nm. The nano-dispersion of filler in the polymer matrix is well observed. It is also obvious that a variety of interfaces have occurred into the composites, which will be always useful in the storage of electrical charge at the interfaces The large amount of n-BaTiO3 into the PCC will also be responsible for giving better ferroelectric/piezoelectric/dielectric properties [2, 34, 35, 36].

Figure 1.

FESEM micrographs of cold pressed PF (a) pure PVDF (lower resolution) (b) pure PVDF (higher resolution) (c) fBaTiO3 = 0.2 (lower resolution) (d) fBaTiO3 = 0.2 (higher resolution) (e) fBaTiO3 = 0.6 (lower resolution) (f) fBaTiO3 = 0.6 (higher resolution).

3.2 Ferroelectric properties

3.2.1 Ferroelectric hysteresis

The ferroelectric properties of the PF, prepared from PVDF/n- BaTiO3, the polarization versus electric field (P ~ E) of both the pure materials are given (Figure 2) at different voltages. Figure 2a shows narrow hysteresis loops for pure PVDF due the mixed phases [α, β, γ, δ & ε] as well as the electrical non-poling of the polymer PVDF.

Figure 2.

(color online) polarization (P) vs. applied electric field (E) hysteresis loop measured at a frequency of 1 Hz with different voltages for pure (a) PVDF (b) n-BaTiO3.

The polarization versus electric field (P-E hysteresis loop) of the PF under different voltages for various fBaTiO3 = 0.2 (Figure 3a), fBaTiO3 = 0.3 (Figure 3b) fBaTiO3 = 0.4 (Figure 3c) and fBaTiO3 = 0.5 (Figure 3d) are shown. All the samples show symmetrical P-E hysteresis loops. The loop area increases of with increasing the dc voltage from 5 kV to 10 kV. A comparison of P-E hysteresis loops, demonstrate that the samples with fBaTiO3 = 0.2 & 0.3 shows better ferroelectric hysteresis (higher hysteresis loop area) as compared to fBaTiO3 = 0.4 & 0.5. For precise assessment, the hysteresis loops at 8 kV for all the samples shows that the hysteresis loop area increases as a function of fBaTiO3, up to 0.30 (Figure 1ad). On the other hand, beyond fBaTiO3 = 0.30, the heterogeneity/disordered structure is accountable for the decrement of ferroelectric properties and that is also accredited to the clustering of n-BaTiO3 into the polymer medium (Figure 1e and f). It is also experiential that with rising the field, the saturation polarization (Ps), remnant polarization (Pr) and the coercive field (Ec) also increases as a function of fBaTiO3 and the finest result is obtained for the sample with fBaTiO3 = 0.3.

Figure 3.

(color online) polarization (P) vs. applied electric field (E) hysteresis loop measured at a frequency of 1 Hz with different fields for different fBaTiO3 (a) 0.20 (b) 0.30 (c) 0.40 (d) 0.50.

To have a thorough analysis and cross examination of the ferroelectric behavior of the PF, the P-E hysteresis loop of all the samples as a function of fBaTiO3 for different fields from 5 kV/cm to 8 kV/cm is shown in Figure 4. At all the fields, the ferroelectric behavior from the P-E hysteresis loops, are characterized by the change of Pr, Ps and Ec.

Figure 4.

(color online) polarization (P) vs. applied electric field (E) hysteresis loop measured at a frequency of 1 Hz with different fBaTiO3 for different fields (a) 5 kV/cm (b) 6 kV/cm (c) 7 kV/cm (d) 8 kV/cm.

The experimental observation is that with increasing of the fBaTiO3 in the PF, the Pr, Ps and Ec also increases. This obviously indicates that the addition of n-BaTiO3 enhances the ferroelectric nature of the polymer material. But when the amount of n-BaTiO3 filler content improved, there is trivial agglomeration of filler in the PVDF matrix. The agglomeration of n-BaTiO3 act as hindrances, which eliminate PVDF Polymer from flowing into the BaTiO3 agglomerates and the aggregated filler causes poor enhancement in ferroelectric nature (decrement in the ferroelectric polarization) as evident from Figure 4. Conversely the dielectric properties, such as the effective dielectric constant (εeff) and loss tangent (Tan δ) of all the PF becomes a linear dependence of fBaTiO3 (Figure 5), i.e. the static εeff enhances from 10 for pure PVDF to 400 for fBaTiO3 = 0.6, whereas the loss tangent increases from 0.09 for pure PVDF to 0.9 for fBaTiO3 = 0.6 [14]. The variation in the dielectric and ferroelectric behavior is credited to the different types of structures responsible for the two altered electrical properties respectively. The dielectric properties are connected with the more interfaces in the PF, hence εeff & Tan δ enhances linearly with fBaTiO3 and the ferroelectric properties are associated with the ordered structure of the PF.

Figure 5.

(color online) the variation of (a) ɛeff and (b) tan δ as a function of frequency at 300 K for the PF.

3.2.2 Ps ~ fBaTiO3 for different fields

Figure 6 give you an idea about the variation of Ps as a function of fBaTiO3 for all the PF, at changed electric fields from 5 kV/cm to 8 kV/cm. It is practical that on increasing the concentration of n-BaTiO3, and also on rising the electric fields, the value of Ps raises up to fBaTiO3 = 0.30, but for fBaTiO3 > 0.30, Ps decreases, due to the aggregation of n-BaTiO3 causing poor improvement of the ferroelectric properties. At 5 kV/cm, the value of Ps increases from 0.1 μC/cm2 for fBaTiO3 = 0.2 up to 0.24 μC/cm2 for fBaTiO3 = 0.30, but when fBaTiO3 > 0.30, Ps decreases to 0.24 μC/cm2.

Figure 6.

Ps ~ fBaTiO3 at different electric fields (a) 5 kV/cm (b) 6 kV/cm (c) 7 kV/cm (d) 8 kV/cm.

3.2.3 Pr ~ fBaTiO3 for different fields

The variation of Pr as a function of fBaTiO3 for all the PF (Figure 7), at different electric fields from 5 kV/cm to 8 kV/cm. It can be seen that on increasing the concentration of n-BaTiO3, Pr increases up to fBaTiO3 = 0.30, but for fBaTiO3 > 0.30, Pr decreases, i.e. a parallel behavior as observed in the case of variation of Ps ~ fBaTiO3, is also observed which is attributed to the same origin. At 8 kV/cm, Pr increases from 0.10 μC/cm2 for fBaTiO3 = 0.2 up to 0.20 μC/cm2 for fBaTiO3 = 0.30, but for fBaTiO3 > 0.30, Pr decreases and approaches to much less than 0.20 μC/cm2.

Figure 7.

Pr ~ fBaTiO3 at different electric fields (a) 5 kV/cm (b) 6 kV/cm (c) 7 kV/cm (d) 8 kV/cm.

3.2.4 Ec ~ fBaTiO3 for different fields

The variation of Ec as a function of fBaTiO3 for all the PF, at different electric fields from 5 kV/cm to 8 kV/cm is shown in Figure 8. The value of Ec is preserved higher up to fBaTiO3 = 0.30, but for fBaTiO3 > 0.30, Ec decreases, i.e. a similar conduct as observed in the case of variation of Ps ~ fBaTiO3, is also observed endorsed to the same origin. At 6 kV/cm, the value of Ec increases from 2.5 kV/cm for fBaTiO3 = 0.2 up to 3.5 kV/cm for fBaTiO3 = 0.30, but for fBaTiO3 > 0.30, Ec decreases and becomes much less than 3.5 kV/cm.

Figure 8.

Ec ~ fBaTiO3 at different electric fields (a) 5 kV/cm (b) 6 kV/cm (c) 7 kV/cm (d) 8 kV/cm.

3.3 Piezoelectric properties

Figure 9 gives the explanation of change in piezo- electric coefficient (d33) of the PF as a function of fBaTiO3. On increasing the concentration of n-BaTiO3, the piezoelectric nature of composite also increases and when the amount of n-BaTiO3 filler content increases much, the value of d33 becomes constant. The value of d33 increases from 2.10 pC/N for fBaTiO3 = 0.0 up to 2.20 pC/N for fBaTiO3 = 0.20 and remains constant, beyond fBaTiO3 = 0.20 up to fBaTiO3 = 1.0 because of the aggregated filler (n-BaTiO3) causes poor improvement in the peizo- electric nature of the PF.

Figure 9.

Variation of the piezoelectric coefficient (d33) as a function of fBaTiO3.

3.4 Dielectric properties

The variation of dielectric properties of the PCC as a function of frequency at 300 K are shown in Figure 10a and b, respectively. The value of ɛeff at 50 Hz for the 0.0 sample is 16 while this value increases up to 120 linearly up to the PCC with fBaTiO3 = 0.5 & after that it raises up to the value of 330 & 420 for the samples with fBaTiO3 = 0.55 & fBaTiO3 = 0.60 respectively. The higher value of ɛeff for the fBaTiO3 = 0.55 & fBaTiO3 = 0.60 are attributed to the large interfacial polarization arising due to the occurrence of spherulites and created large interface like structures(during cold pressing), while the spherulites are lost for the hot molded samples (Figure 11).

Figure 10.

(color online) the variation of (a) ɛeff and (b) tan δ as a function of frequency at 300 K for the PD, inset: Tan δ ~ frequency for some typical percolative PMC samples showing higher tan δ [33].

Figure 11.

The variation of dielectric constant (εr) with frequency for both cold and hot press PVDF, inset: The FESEM micrograph of the cold/hot molded PVDF showing the presence/loss of spherulites at temperature higher than the room temperature.

The static dielectric constant (εr) of the cold pressed pure PVDF is ~16 i.e. higher than the εr of hot molded pure PVDF (~10) due to the loss of spherulites (Inset, Figure 11) of the polymer. ɛeff decreases with increase of frequency due to the absence of contribution from interfacial polarization at higher frequencies, where only the involvement from dipolar and atomic polarization exists. A very low Tan δ for the PCC with fBaTiO3 = 0.6 (having highest ɛeff = 420 observed at 50 Hz) was approached to 0.9 at 50 Hz and that also decreases with increase of frequency and the tendency of decrement is also observed for all the PCC. Nevertheless, in the cold pressed PMC [33], the Tan δ was reported to be 10 at 50 Hz (Inset, Figure 10b) for the percolative sample, with ɛeff ~ 2000. The PMC at fc shows 10 times higher value of Tan δ in contrast to the result of PCC, although both type of polymer composites are prepared by the same cold pressing procedure. Figure 12 shows thebehaviour of ɛeff, σeff and Tan δ of the composites as a function of fBaTiO3 at different frequencies. The ɛeff rises linearly from 16 to 120 for fBaTiO3 rises from 0.0 to 0.50 at 100 Hz, due to the large interfacial polarization occurring due to the presence of spherulites. The interfaces formed at the PCC, increases ɛeff largely from 120 to 350 & 420 for fBaTiO3 = 0.55 & 0.60 respectively. The expression developed by Yamada et al. (which is a model for explaining the sum properties of the composite) was fitted to the dielectric data (Figure 12(b)) at 1 kHz frequency. The model is given by

Figure 12.

(color online) the variation of (a) ɛeff experimentally (b) fitting of ɛeff experimental data at 1KHz with Yamada model as a function of fBaTiO3 (c) σeff and (d) tan δ as a function of fBaTiO3 for various frequencies at 300 K.


where εeff is the effective dielectric constant of the composite, KPVDF and KBaTiO3 are the dielectric constants of the polymer matrix and the ceramic, respectively, fBaTiO3 is the volume fraction of the ceramic and ‘n’ is a parameter related to the geometry of ceramic particles [2]. KPVDF, KBaTiO3 and n found from the fitting of Eq. (1) to the dielectric data are 17, 1600 and 10, is in good agreement with the earlier literature [5].

The σeff & Tan δ increases with the increase of fBaTiO3 in the PCC slowly, suggesting the semiconducting nature of the BaTiO3 nano-ceramics. For fBaTiO3 =0.6, the σeff value varies within 10−8 Ω−1 cm−1 to 10−4 Ω−1 cm−1 for frequency varying between 50 Hz to 5 MHz, while the value of Tan δ is maintained in between 0.1 to 0.9. σeff & Tan δ are also found to be increasing with increase of frequency, suggesting conventional hopping conduction in the disordered PCC. Similarly, σeff value was found to be very low i.e. less than 10−4 Ω−1 for all the PCC and that value remains constant over the entire frequency range. The Tan δ raises slowly as a function of fBaTiO3 is found to be less than 0.9 even with the PCC having fBaTiO3 = 0.6.

The electrical parameters as a function of temperature of the PCC was confirmed by measuring and are given in Figure 13. For fBaTiO3 = 0.4 (Figure 13a) & fBaTiO3 = 0.50 (Figure 13b), the low frequency (50 Hz) value of ɛeff is sustained at a thermal stabilized value of 90 & 130 (with their corresponding decrement as a function of frequency) as a function of temperature from 40–100°C. The stabilization of ɛeff is ascribed due to the major effective contribution coming from the sum properties of the dielectric constant of both the components. Yet, for the samples with fBaTiO3 = 0.55 &0.6, the reached ɛeff ~ 350 & 420 value arises due to the sum properties of the dielectric constant of both the components as well as also due to the major contribution of the spherulites. Hence with the rise of temperature, the ɛeff decreases due to the deteriorating of the spherulites of the PCC (Figure 13c and d). Hence the spherulites are useful at room temperature in case of PCC for realizing high value of ɛeff with lower Tan δ.

Figure 13.

(color online) the variation of ɛeff as a function of frequencies for the temperature varying from 40 ̊C to 100 ̊C for varying fBaTiO3 (a) 0.40 (b) 0.50 (c) 0.55 (d)) 0.60.

3.5 Electrical conductivity

Ac conductivity (σac=ωε0εTanδ) as a function of frequency at different fBaTiO3 is shown in Figure 14. The σeff as a function of frequency was found to be the ac hoping conduction satisfying the Johnscher’s fractional power law. The plot shows dispersion of ac conductivity with frequency corresponding to fBaTiO3 ≤ 0.20, be in agreement with Eq. (2) i.e.

Figure 14.

(color online) the variation of (a) σeff experimentally and (b) σeff fitted with Johnscher’s power law, as a function of frequencies.


with the σdc part becoming zero and the value of k ~ 1. The non-presence of dc conductivity for the samples with fBaTiO3 ≤ 0.20, can be understand as the non-presence of percolating paths (being formed from the semiconducting BaTiO3 nano-ceramics in the PVDF matrix) due to insufficient fraction of BaTiO3. The long rage dc conduction starts to develop for fBaTiO3 = 0.3 to 0.5, but a good fit of Eq. (2) could not be resulted for them as the percolating paths were not sufficient. Interestingly, for fBaTiO3 ≥ 0.55, a mixed conductivity is found. The plateau due to the appearance of long range dc conductivity. At higher frequency the conductivity becomes more or less with fBaTiO3 dependent. This “hopping or critical frequency ωH.” at which the change in slope takes place can be observed to be increasing with the increase of fBaTiO3, since the length of dc plateau increases with increase of fBaTiO3 from 0.3 to 0.6. On the other hand, the value of ‘k’ lies well within the Johnscher’s universal regime [0,1] symptomatic of the validity of Johnscher’s power law universally.

3.6 Conclusions

The micro-structural, ferroelectric, piezoelectric, dielectric and conductivity properties of the polymer composites have been analyzed and are correlated. The properties strongly depend on the novel cold pressing preparation techniques and the dispersion of n-BaTiO3 filler particles into the PVDF matrix and also on the nano-sizes of ceramics. The addition of n-BaTiO3 enhances the ferroelectric, piezoelectric and dielectric properties of the composites. It is also found that this cold pressing method is more suitable to the PCC based on PVDF matrix (since very low value of Tanδ is observed). The spherulites present in PVDF matrix are always helpful in maintaining the dielectric constant and increasing the ɛeff of PCC. The enhancement of dielectric results are explained with the help of standard Yamada model. The mixed conductivity appears for the PD/PF and Jonschers universal fractional power law is well satisfied for all composites. The hoping conduction in these disordered materials have been confirmed in all PCC. The dynamics of charge carriers are filler/temperature dependent. These PD/PF should be explored for applications by focusing the research on achieving lowered Tan δ, which will increase the dielectric field strength/high energy density and better ferroelectric/piezoelectric properties may be expected for various multifunctional applications.


  1. 1. M. E. Lines, and A. M. Glass, Principles and Applications of Ferroelectrics and Related Materials, (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 2001), Vol. 680
  2. 2. M. Panda and A. Trivedi, Ferroelectric and Piezoelectric Properties of Cold Pressed Polyvinyledene fluoride/Barium Titanate Nano-composites, Ferroelectrics, 572, 246 (2020)
  3. 3. G. A. Kontos, A. L. Soulintzis, P. K. Karahaliou, G. C. Psarras, S. N. Georga, C. A. Krontiras, and M. N. Pisanias, Electrical relaxation dynamics in TiO2/ polymer matrix composites. Expr. Poly. Lett.1, 781 (2007)
  4. 4. U.Valiyaneerilakkal, and S. Varghese, Poly (vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene)/barium titanate nanocomposite for ferroelectric nonvolatile memory devices, AIP Advances3, 042131 (2013)
  5. 5. R. Sharma, I. P. Singh, A. K. Tripathi, and P. K. C. Pillai, Charge-field hysteresis of BaTiO3: PVDF Composites J. Mat. Sci.29, 995 (1994)
  6. 6. M. Kuhn, and H. Kliem; Monte Carlo Simulations of Ferroelectric Properties for PVDF and BaTiO3; Ferroelect.370, 207 (2008)
  7. 7. S. Baryshnikova, A. Milinskiya, and E. Stukovab, Dielectric properties of the ferroelectric composites [AgNa(NO2)2]0.9/[NaNO2]0.1 and [AgNa(NO2)2]0.9/[BaTiO3]0.1, Ferroelectr.536, 91 (2018)
  8. 8. X.F.Li, H.S.Zha, P.L.Zhang, and W.L.Zhong, Composite Films OF BaTiO, and PVDF, Ferroelectr.196, 39 (1997)
  9. 9. K. Prasad,A. Prasad,K. P. Chandra, and A. R. Kulkarni, Electrical Conduction in 0-3 BaTiO3/PVDF Composites, Integr Ferroelectr. 117, 55 (2010)
  10. 10. D. Olmos, G. Gonzalez-Gaitano, A. L. Kholkin, and J. Gonzalez-Benito, Flexible PVDF-BaTiO3 Nanocomposites as Potential Materials for Pressure Sensors; Ferroelect.447, 9 (2013)
  11. 11. B. Hilczer, J. Kulek, M. Polomska, M. D. Glinchuk,2 A. V. Ragulya, and A. Pietraszk, Dielectric and Pyroelectric Response of BaTiO3-PVDF Nanocomposites; Ferroelect.316, 31 (2005)
  12. 12. H.-I. Hsiang, K.-Y. Lin, F.-S. Yen, and C.-Y. Hwang, Effects of particle size of BaTiO3 powder on the dielectric properties of BaTiO3/polyvinylidene fluoride composites, J. Mater. Sci.36, 3809 (2001)
  13. 13. R. Gregorio, Jr., M. Cestari, and F. E. Bernardino, Dielectric behaviour of thin films of β-PVDF/PZT and β-PVDF/BaTiO3 composites, J. Mater. Sci.31, 2925 (1996)
  14. 14. H. Kim, F. Torres, D. Villagran, C. Stewart, Y.G. Lin, T. Liang, and B. Tseng, 3D Printing of BaTiO3/PVDF Composites with Electric In Situ Poling for Pressure Sensor Applications, Macromol. Mater. Eng.302 (11), 1700229 (2017)
  15. 15. S. K. Mandal, S. Singh, R. Debnath, and P. Dey, Lead free xNiFe2O4 – (1-x)ErMnO3 (x = 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5) multiferroicnanocomposites: Studies of magnetoelectric coupling, AC electrical and magnetodielectric properties, Ferroelect.536, 77 (2018)
  16. 16. S. K. Pradhan, A. Kumar, A. N. Sinha, P. Kour, R. Pandey, P. Kumar, and M. Kar, Study of ferroelectric properties on PVDF-PZT nanocomposite, Ferroelect.516, 18 (2017)
  17. 17. M. B. Suresh, T. H. Yeh, C. C. Yu, and C. C. Chou, Dielectric and Ferroelectric Properties of Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF)-Pb0.52Zr0.48TiO3 (PZT) Nano Composite Films, Ferroelect.381, 80 (2009)
  18. 18. H. S. Nalwa, Ferroelectric polymers, New York, Marcel Dekkar (1995)
  19. 19. R. M. Briber, F. Khoury, The morphology of poly(vinylidene fluoride) crystallized from blends of poly(vinylidene fluoride) and poly(ethyl acrylate), J. Polym. Sci: Polymer Physics31, 1253 (1993)
  20. 20. Q. Li, L. Chen, M. R. Gadinski, S. Zhang, G. Zhang, H. U. Li, E. Iagodkine, A. Haque, L. Q. Chen, T. N. Jackson, and Q. Wang, Flexible high-temperature dielectric materials from polymer nanocomposites, Nature523, 576-579 (2015)
  21. 21. V. K. Thakur, and M. R. Kessler, Polymer Nanocomposites: New Advanced Dielectric Materials for Energy Storage Applications, in Advanced Energy Materials (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, USA, 2014)
  22. 22. F. He, S. Lau, H. L. Chan, and J. T. Fan, High Dielectric Permittivity and Low Percolation Threshold in Nanocomposites Based on Poly(vinylidene fluoride) and Exfoliated Graphite Nanoplates, Adv. Mater.21, 710 (2009)
  23. 23. M. Panda, V. Srinivas, and A. K. Thakur, Role of polymer matrix in large enhancement of dielectric constant in polymer–metal composites, Appl. Phys. Lett.99, 0429051 (2011)
  24. 24. M. Panda, V. Srinivas, and A. K. Thakur, Surface and interfacial effect of filler particle on electrical properties of polyvinylidene fluoride/nickel composites, Appl. Phys. Lett.93, 2429081 (2008)
  25. 25. M. Panda, V. Srinivas, and A. K. Thakur, On the question of percolation threshold in polyvinylidene fluoride/nanocrystalline nickel composites, Appl. Phys. Lett.92, 1329051(2008)
  26. 26. M. Panda, V. Srinivas, and A. K. Thakur, Non-universal scaling behavior of polymer-metal composites across the percolation threshold, Res. in Phys.05, 136 (2015)
  27. 27. Ch. Venketesh, V. Srinivas, M. Panda, and V. V. Rao, Sol. Stat. Comm.150, 893 (2010)
  28. 28. M. Panda, V. Srinivas, and A. K. Thakur “Universal microstructure and Conductivity relaxation of Polymer-Conductor composites across the percolation threshold” Current Applied Physics, 14, 1596 (2014)
  29. 29. M. Panda, Evidence of a third kind of Johnscher’s like universal dielectric response, J. Adv. Dielect.8, 1850028 (2018)
  30. 30. M. Panda, and S. Soni, A Comparative Study of Visco-Elastic Properties of non-Polar and Polar Polymer DielectricsMaterials Today: Proceeding05, 2123 (2018)
  31. 31. Z.-M. Dang, H.-Y. Wang, and H.-P. Xu, Influence of silane coupling agent on morphology and dielectricproperty in BaTiO3/polyvinylidene fluoride composites, Appl. Phys. Lett.89, 112902 (2006)
  32. 32. M. Panda, A. Mishra, and P. Shukla, Effective enhancement of dielectric properties in cold-pressed polyvinyledene fluoride/barium titanate nanocomposites, SN Applied Sciences1, 230 (2019)
  33. 33. M. Panda, Major role of process conditions in tuning the percolation behavior of polyvinylidene fluoride-based polymer/metal composites, Appl. Phys. Lett.111, 0829011 (2017)
  34. 34. Y. Bai, Z. Y. Cheng, V. Bharati, H. S. Xu, and Q. M. Zhang, High-dielectric-constant ceramic-powder polymer composites, Appl. Phys. Lett.76, 3804 (2000)
  35. 35. C. K. Chiang and R. Popielarz, Polymer Composites with High Dielectric Constant, Ferroelect.275, 1 (2002)
  36. 36. L. Zhang, D. Xiao, and J. Ma, Dielectric Properties of PVDF/Ag/BaTiO3 Composites; Ferroelect.455, 77 (2013)

Written By

Maheswar Panda

Submitted: 21 October 2020 Reviewed: 12 February 2021 Published: 30 March 2021