Mangrove, or bakau as it is known in Indonesia, is one of the vegetations commonly found along the shallow coasts, estuaries, deltas and protected coastal areas and are still influenced by rising tides. After the Aceh tsunami disaster, mangrove restoration was intensively conducted in coastal areas all over Indonesia and was made into a special conservation program by the government. Mangrove is distinguishable by its big, wooden stilt roots, sharpening tip in the form of supporting leaves. The roots of the mangrove tree are morphologically distinguishable into heart root which grows into the ground and the stilt root which appear to grabs onto the surface of the ground. Mangrove forests serve several important ecological roles: they act as filters which turns saline water into fresh water, buffer from seawater intrusion, prevent erosion and abrasion, hold sediments to form new habitats, feeding ground, nursery ground, and spawning ground for a number of aquatic wildlife. Mangrove forest also possess economical functions such as as source of income, industrial ingredients for the locals and as source of new mangrove seedlings. Mangunhardjo Village, Urban Community of Mangunhardjo, Mangkang Area, Kecamatan of Tugu, Semarang City, Indonesia was an area dotted with brackish water pond. However, the area had been suffering from the effects of climate change, being inundated by overflow of river and seawater intrusion (rob). These disasters caused decline in the productivity of the ponds in the area. In an effort to combat the adverse effect of environmental change in the area, the locals of Mangunhardjo village decided to shift their livelihood by restoring the surrounding mangrove forest. Mangrove conservation at Mangunhardjo Village was conducted through activities of the program such as mangrove planting, mangrove-based food production, and mangrove waste management by applications of bioactivator bacteria for mangrove composting and production of mangrove-based natural dye for batik fabric. Mangrove-based natural dye for batik fabric from Rhizopora mucronata mangrove waste is a quite promising product and increases people’s income.
- natural dye
- Rhizopora mucronata
One of the most valuable and potential natural resources in coastal areas of Indonesia is the mangrove forest. With a coastal line exceeding 80,000 km, Indonesia possesses 4.2 million ha total area of mangrove forest . In 2014, the total coverage area of mangrove forest in Indonesia is 4,227,800 ha, which comprises approximately 25.79% global coverage area of mangrove forest . However, mangrove forests in Indonesia continue to be threatened albeit relatively more protected as private sectors, NGOs, and environmental protection communities strive to preserve what is left.
There have been efforts to restore ecological, socio-cultural and socio-economical functions of mangrove forest, particularly in the northern coast of Java Island. One of most common restoration efforts is the replanting of mangrove trees.
Mangunhardjo Village, Urban Community of Mangunhardjo, Mangkang Area, Kecamatan of Tugu, Central Java Province, Indonesia was an area which mostly consisted of brackish water ponds. This area had been impacted by climate change, which caused yearly flood from the overflow of Beringin River and seawater intrusion (rob), reducing the production capacity of the brackish water ponds. The community in this area was affected by this condition, considering the brackish water ponds were the main source of income for many people in the area, as presented in Figure 1. To cope with this adversity, many people in the Urban Community of Mangunhardjo shifted their livelihood.
Most of the brackish water fish farmers became motorcycle taxi drivers, fragrant oil sellers, drinking water refill providers, fish-based food producers, mangrove tree seeders, etc. Today, what was once brackish water pond area has been turned into a mangrove forest restoration site. The existence of mangrove in the area has met the criteria of mangrove ecosystem. The ecosystem is protected from waves and currents as to support conservation of coastal areas in Semarang . The shift in the socio-economic landscape of the community in Mangunhardjo Village came along with the progress of mangrove forest restoration. Once the restoration has shown viability, many in the community changed their focus on utilizing mangrove as a source of income. The restoration of the mangrove forest has had positive impact to the welfare of its surrounding community. In addition to enhancing the natural beauty and livability of the area and mitigating the negative impact of climate change, mangrove forest can provide a source of income to the surrounding community. Mangrove can provide economic benefit as the mangrove restoration project provide employment opportunity by sustainable planting and selling mangrove seedlings, producing and selling mangrove-based food, sourcing mangrove as basic materials for bioactivator in compost, and processing mangrove waste into natural textile dye.
2. Mangrove tree planting
Due to the decrease in productivity of brackish water pond, the community of Mangunhardjo, Semarang, took part in mangrove forest restoration project. This activity involved almost everyone from all ages in the community. In addition to plating the mangrove used to alleviate ecological stress through enhancing biodiversity by conservation activities, the local community also nurse seedlings to be sold all over the country. Today, ecosystem of mangrove forest and its diverse plant and animal life strives in Mangunhardjo village. Healthy mangrove ecosystem provide shelter and feeding ground for various marine life, such as fish, prawn and crab, which in turn provides additional source of income for the surrounding community.
3. Mangrove-based food
Mangrove fruit can be processed into snacks and food, such as chips, syrup, brownies, klepon, sticks and other kind of snacks. The species used in making food are Lindur (
4. Mangrove-based bacterial bioactivator for composting
Microorganisms associated with mangrove waste synthesize secondary metabolites similar to their host. These microbes are viable source of new compounds. Symbiont bacteria of mangrove waste are bacteria which thrive in association with mangrove waste. These associated bacteria contribute in the cycle of nutrition of its host and are decomposing agents for the waste. Compounds produced by symbiont bacteria has the potential to be used as precursors for the biosynthesis metabolism of immunity against pathogenic bacteria and other predators . Microbes are the most numerous of all the organisms living on water, and as symbiotes of other organisms . One way that bacteria contributes to its ecosystem is to act as a decomposer in breaking down organic materials such as dead leaves around mangrove plants. Due to bacterial activities, dead mangrove leaves are eventually broken down into nutrition. One of the processes in mangrove ecosystem which significantly contribute to the biodiversity in the water is decomposition, or specifically, the disintegration of mangrove leaves into nutrition. Disintegration is a step in the decomposition process, which in turn will produce important nutrients within the food chain, through the productivity of the surrounding waters . Decomposition bacteria are groups of bacteria with the capability of decomposing other dead microorganisms into its basic building blocks, all of which will return to the environment. These decomposition bacteria are categorized into saprophytic organisms, due to its ability to break down organic compounds in nature. Saprophytic bacteria break down dead plants or animals and remains or waste of other organisms [7, 8]. Mangrove waste is a supply of organic materials to mangrove ecosystems, which maintains the carrying capacity of the surrounding area .
Microbes isolated from plants with bioactive compounds have been known to have similar compound to its host and, in some cases, even indicate greater activity than that of its host . A study on symbiont microbes with bioactivator potential found four viable species, namely Pseudomonas sp., Flavobacterium sp., Acinetobacter sp., and Bacillus subtilis. The consortium of the 4 species can act as organic waste decomposer and restore the color and odor of fresh water . The symbiont bacteria from mangrove waste have seen application in bioactivator products which has been used by the community in Urban Community of Tembalang, Semarang, Central Java to process organic waste into compost, as presented in Figure 3 below.
5. Using mangrove waste as natural textile dye
The latest development in fashion industry sees a demand for breakthrough from designers and scholars to create textile materials and clothes that are creative, innovative and marketable. Batik, as one of the most sought after fashion products in Indonesia, are mostly made using synthetic dye. Synthetic dye has its advantages, namely its availability, range of colors and the practicality of its application. However, the use of synthetic dye pose health risk of consumers, and even greater threat to the environment. Due to its carcinogenic nature, the use of these dyes in fabric may trigger allergy reaction. The process by which these dyes is made also presents environmental hazards. Therefore, there is an opportunity to reintroduce natural dye as a safer, more environmentally friendly alternative. Batik clothes and fabric made using natural dye have high commercial value because of its artistry, unique colors and the sustainability by which they are made and sourced. The use of natural dye in batik also give impressions of ethnic-look and exclusiveness.
Batik has experience a rise in popularity among both the locals and foreigners in the last few decades. The increasing demand of batik products also creates increasing demand for and use of synthetic dye. This is due to the fact that synthetic dyes are marketed at a lower price point and have better color retention compared to natural dyes. However, as more and more consumers become more aware of environmental issues, fabrics with natural dyes becomes more popular in the market. Synthetic dye has been known to be carcinogenic, and the waste from its production poses danger for the environment.  mentioned that synthetic dye is mutagenic and non-degradable in nature. Orange II is one example of the most prevalent artificial dye in the industry. This artificial dye has been known to not easily broken down by natural means. The waste from production and use of synthetic dyes has also been known to contain high levels of heavy metals such as chromium, zinc, copper, etc. [15, 16] wrote that waste water from textile production activity was found to pose health hazard to the surrounding community in Palembang, due to its high content of corrosive chemicals, organic pollutants, and high levels of acidity in its waste. Pollutants from synthetic dye production and use contains high leves of heavy metals, and intermediate dyes which are mutagenic in nature . Not only does this damage the environment, it also pose health hazard to the community.
Compared to stock of sythetic dyes, the availability of natural dyes is more limited since artificial dyes are mass produced and have better distribution chain whereas natural dye often see limited production and must be sourced directly from its native area. Yet, not all sythetic dyes in Indonesian market is produced within the country.
6. The biology of
The tree of
The leaves of
7. Chemical composition of
Mangrove commonly contains compounds such as alkaloid, flavonoid, phenol, terpenoid, steroids, and saponins . Proximate analysis of
The leaves of
8. The use of
In Madagascar, the wood of
 stated that
Batik is a form of textile product that are generally used in the form of various crafts, tablecloths, sheets, and clothing. In 2009, UNESCO awarded Indonesian Batik as an Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity. The uniqueness of batik products are often found in their style, use, and design which are not only attractive to the local market, but also to the international market. In the period between January to June 2014, Batik became one of the commodity groups that had the highest export value in Central Java, compared to the other two commodities, namely textiles and textile goods. Textile and textile goods have the largest contribution of 36.84% of total export value or approximately US$189.01 million. This export value shows that textiles and textile products in Central Java have a huge potential as a contributor to the country’s foreign exchange.
10. Textile dye
Color becomes visible to the eye when there is absorption of a portion of the color spectrum in the visible area by molecules. The molecular structure is responsible for the presence of compounds that absorb visible light, which will be interpreted as colors. Molecules in plants consist of chains of carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen as main compounds and a few additional heteroatoms such as nitrogen. Molecules that absorb visible light are filled by chains of alternating and single carbon bonds that are alternating or conjugated. The longer the double bond, the more vivid the colors will appear. This bond can absorb visible light in certain areas, which provides coloration to the compounds .
Textile dyes, based on the materials from which they are sourced, are classified into two namely Natural Dyes (ZPA) and Synthetic Dyes (ZPS). ZPA is a dye obtained from natural ingredients, which generally comes from the extracts of plants or animals. ZPS is artificial dyes or syntheses made by chemical reactions using the basic ingredients of charcoal, coal, or petroleum which are the result of aromatic hydrocarbon derivatives such as benzene, naphthalene, and anthracene .
The intensity of the color produced in natural dyes depends on the type of coloring matter. Coloring matter is the substance that determines the hue of natural dyes and is an organic compound. The classification of natural dyes based on coloring matter is divided into four groups namely mordant dyes, direct dyes, acid/base dyes, and laver dyes. Mordant (natural) dyes in the coloring process must be combined with a metal oxide complex to form an insoluble dye. Natural dyes in mordant dyes have good color resistance potential, for example Moridin dyes from Noni roots. Direct dyes are retained to the fabric fibers based on hydrogen bonds, making the color retention low, for example Curcumin from turmeric. Acid/base dyes consist of a combination of acid and base groups, such as flavonoid pigments. The last group is laver dye. These dyes must go through the process of reduction–oxidation (redox) in the fabric dyeing process. In addition, laver dyes are also known as the oldest dyes in the world because they have the best color retention among the three other classes of natural dyes. One example of laver dyes is Indigo from torn leaves . Natural dyes that have been explored from plants and have been used in fabric coloring include sengon leaves (
11. Dye extract
In general, the results of extraction from leaves, bark, and propagules show brown color with different color density variations (Figure 4). The brown color indicates the presence of tannin . Previous studies have found that high levels of tannin produce a dense color on tea leaves . Several factors such as the extraction temperature below 100°C, the type of solvent (polar) used for extraction, particle size, and extraction time are things that need to be taken into account in producing quality tannins . Tannins are found in the bark, fruit (propagules), and leaves of
However, there is variation in tannin content in each part of the tree. The content of tannin
12. FTIR analysis and UV-Vis spectrophotometry
UV Vis spectropometry to extracts of
Subsequent testing to see the absorption pattern using an infrared spectrophotometer. Test results on the three types of dye extracts on leaves, bark and propagules showed a similar absorption pattern. Absorption in the range of wave numbers 3500 to 3000 cm−1 and 2000 to 1500 cm−1 indicates the presence of C-H groups. The C-O group is also indicated although it must be further analyzed in the fingerprint area. The C-O group forms an aromatic compound, which is part of the tannin together with the O-H and -CH2 groups . The solid-shaped extract of D70 shows a different absorption pattern. O-H, C-H, C=O ester, and C-O-C ether groups are indicated. The existence of these four types of functional groups shows that the flavonoid compound is indicated in D70 extract. This is supported by research conducted by  who found that the flavonoid compounds from the flavonone group had the OH functional group bound, aliphatic CH, C=O, C=C Aromatic, C-O and C-H aromatics.  revealed that flavonoids are building blocks of proanthocyanidin compounds which are condensed tannins. Flavan-3-ols polymer compounds consisting of (+)-catechin and (−)-epicathecin are the main constituents of the group of flavonoid compounds that fall into the category of condensed tannins. To support these findings, Total Phenol Content and Total Flavonoid Content were conducted.
13. Total phenol content and total flavonoid content
Determination of total phenol in D70 extract was carried out using the Folin–Ciocalteu reagent. This reagent is sensitive in reducing compounds such as polyphenols and in its reaction will show blue when measured by spectrophotometer . The test results showed that the phenol content were 2.4950 mg GAE/g. The presence of phenol in the extract can be an indication of tannin. In general tannins are high molecular weight polyphenol compounds, which naturally form complexes with protein . Testing of total flavonoids was also carried out and the results obtained were 0.6516 mg QE/g. Flavonoids are still included in polyphenol compounds and usually consist of flavones, flavonols, and condensed tannins, which are secondary metabolites of plants [53, 54].
14. Fabric with mangrove-based dye
Fabric dyeing using natural dyes of
The colors produced by the three types of dyes from
15. Color retention test
The results of the color retention test of dyed fabrics from parts of the
Tannin commonly used as dyes are found in
Mangroves can be used as natural dyes on batik cloth, because of their high availability and positive impact on the household economy of the local community.