Summary of the previous works on bio-treatment of carbonaceous matter in DRGO by lignin-degrading enzymes.
Double refractory gold ore (DRGO) not only include ppt levels of gold grains locked in sulfide minerals but also a problematic amount of carbonaceous matter. This causes a significant recovery loss of gold during cyanidation because of the strong affinity of the Au(CN)2− with the carbonaceous matter. Combustion decreases the carbonaceous matter content, but also emits pollutant gases like CO2, SO2 and As2O3. Therefore, environmentally-friendly solutions have been explored by using biotechnology. Due to the very small amount of the above targets in the ore, it is challenging to show evidential changes in solid-phase before and after the biomineral processing of DRGO. This chapter introduces the mineralogical and chemical changes in the various solid residues produced during a sequential biotreatment, consisting of the liberation of gold from sulfides by an iron-oxidizer and decomposition of carbonaceous matter by lignin-degrading enzymes (lignin peroxidase, manganese peroxidase, laccase) secreted from a white rot-fungus, which successfully improved of gold recovery to over 90%. In addition, further development of biotechnology in the recovery of gold from DRGO is addressed.
- double refractory gold ore
- carbonaceous matter
- enzyme reaction
- QEMSCAN map
- biooxidation of sulfides
Carbonaceous refractory gold ores are classified as double refractory gold ores (DRGO) due to containing sulfide minerals and carbonaceous matter. In DRGO, the sulfide minerals (pyrite and arsenopyrite) tend to have a significant amount of gold enclosed in it compared to other minerals in the ore and the gold confined in sulfides is difficult to recovery due to the minerals’ stability during cyanidation, leading to poor recovery from sulfides. Furthermore, the gold that is successfully dissolved as Au(CN)2− in the cyanide leaching step, can be adsorbed by the organic carbon (preg-robbing), therefore, using cyanidation without DRGO pretreatment can lead to 30–70% gold recovery losses [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9]. DRGO is produced in various parts of the world such as Ghana, Brazil, USA, Canada, Kazakhstan, Russia, Malaysia, Indonesia and China , and the gold production from DRGO attains to about 1/100 of the total gold production in the world. DRGO also accounts for about one-third of available gold deposits .
DRGO is generally subjected to flotation to recovery a sulfide concentrate that is then sent for pretreatment prior to cyanidation. However, due to the poor separation of carbonaceous matter and sulfide minerals, the carbonaceous matter also reports in the flotation concentrate [10, 11, 12, 13]. Although, some recent studies have looked at pre-flotation as a means of improving the separation of carbonaceous matter and sulfides from DRGO [14, 15, 16, 17]. But, for most current industrial operations, the flotation concentrate contains both the carbonaceous matter and the sulfides and therefore, it is extremely difficult to treat. It is no exaggeration to say that there is a global need for technological development to improve the gold recovery from DRGO.
The pretreatment of carbonaceous matter and sulfides in DRGO to minimize preg-robbing and liberate gold has changed with time to become more environmentally friendly (Figure 1). Oxidation is one of the most prominent means to pre-treat DRGO and improves gold recovery [4, 10, 11, 12, 13, 18, 19]. In the past, thermal oxidation was used to decompose carbonaceous matter and convert sulfide minerals to iron oxides. However, the control of the roasting temperature is very important but difficult because at ≤500°C, there is incomplete sulfide oxidation, and also the removal of volatile matter and decarboxylation reaction in the carbonaceous matter at 100–300°C and 400–500°C, respectively [18, 20]. In such a case, there is an incomplete liberation of gold from sulfides, and the carbonaceous matter becomes a more activate adsorbent, resulting in a higher preg-robbing ability during cyanidation. Furthermore, harmful gases such as SOx and As2O3 are generated, making this process no longer as attractive, although recent advances in using gas-scrubbing techniques, the environmental concerns have been reduced . In fact, some works have tried to encourage the gas-scrubbing process by proposing methods like chlorination roasting in which, the solid gold is converted to AuCl3 gas and leaves the furnace along with other harmful gases [22, 23]. In this case, the recovery of the valuable gold necessitates the recovery of all the gases produced from the furnace and significantly decreasing the environmental impact of roasting while also increasing the cost of furnaces operation.
In place of thermal oxidation, biological (BIOX) and pressure oxidation have been applied to remove sulfides from DRGO, but these processes have a minimal effect on the carbonaceous matter [11, 12, 13, 19] (Figure 1). After the sulfide oxidation, the carbonaceous matter-containing residue can either undergo a treatment like roasting or blinding to minimize preg-robbing before gold recovery . The roasting of the BIOX or pressure oxidation residue come with the same problems as alluded to before while blinding of the carbonaceous matter leads to the transfer of blinding reagents like kerosene and diesel oil on to the activated carbon used for Au(CN)2− recovery from the carbon-in-leach (CIL) or carbon-in-pulp (CIP) process.
A newly alternative carbonaceous matter treatment is the use of lignin-degrading enzyme released by fungi and bacteria [10, 11, 12, 13, 25, 26, 27]. Although they are more prevalent in white-rot and brown-rot fungi, these enzymes have been isolated from some of the fungi responsible for the oxidation of lignin and a very complex polyaromatic polymer . These lignin-degrading enzymes include lignin peroxidase (LiP), manganese peroxidase (MnP), laccase (Lcc) and versatile peroxidase (VP) [29, 30, 31]. These enzymes accelerate the oxidative degradation of C=C and C=O bonds. These enzymes were selected for the present purpose because lignin is a precursor for the carbonaceous matter in DRGO, and it was expected that the lignin-degrading enzymes could successfully attack and oxidize this substance. The lignin-degrading enzyme treatment proceeds under very mild temperature and pH conditions and therefore has a low environmental impact [29, 30]. Additionally, the enzymes’ effectiveness of these enzymes can be improved by the inclusion of mediators like veratryl alcohol and ABST [32, 33]. Although, the environmental impact assessment is subject to change once a fuller understanding of the bioproducts of the process is known. Additionally, the oxidizing condition generated by these fungi also aids the dissolution of sulfides to liberate gold grains [34, 35, 36]. Several studies have shown that using lignin-degrading enzymes produced by fungi like
So that the present study reviews DRGO treatment, with particular focus on the carbonaceous matter treatment by lignin-degrading enzymes. It covers the application of these enzymes to surrogates for the carbonaceous matter to understand the enzyme-substrate interactions and finally move on to using these enzymes on the DRGO to improve gold recovery.
2. Utilization of lignin-degrading enzymes on a surrogate for carbonaceous matter in DRGO
White-rot fungus and brown-rot fungi are a class of microbes known for producing very valuable enzymes. In wood chemistry, a lot of research has focused on determining the properties, reactions, and enzymes at the molecular level [28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33]. A very popular white-rot fungus is
Invariably, authors considering the application of the lignin-degrading enzymes to carbonaceous matter in DRGO have started by working with surrogates in a simplified setup to get a better understanding of the oxidation mechanism and bioproduct. Some authors have used activated carbon , coal  and elemental carbon extracted from DRGO  as a model of the graphitic carbon in DRGO. The interaction between the lignin-degrading enzymes and the carbonaceous matter surrogate were facilitated by either growing the fungi in the presence of the carbonaceous matter or harvesting the spent culture liquid and using it for the treatment. It has generally been observed that the lignin-degrading enzymes attack the aromatic C=C bonds in the graphitic carbon and converted it to aliphatic C-C and oxygen-containing functional groups like carbonyl C=O and alcohol C-O. This was confirmed by FTIR and solid-state 13C-NMR spectra, showing the relative intensity of aromatic carbon C=C decreasing after the application of the lignin-degrading enzymes and the relative increase in aromatic carbon C-H and aliphatic carbon C-H (Figure 2).
Some consequences of the oxidation of the aromatic C=C, which serve as the backbone for these surrogate materials, is an increase in the surface roughness and a reduction in the specific surface area as shown in Figure 3. Several works have shown a reduction in the specific surface area by 76% for anthracite, 34.5% for carbonaceous matter extracted from DRGO and 38% for activated carbon [9, 38, 39]. All of these chemical and physical changes in the graphitic carbon resulting from the interactions with the lignin-degrading enzymes lead to a significant reduction in the Au(CN)2− uptake ability.
There is still some amount of work required to improve our understanding of the impact of the lignin-degrading enzymes on the carbonaceous matter. These include establishing a relationship between the amount of enzyme consumed to decompose the carbonaceous matter and a better characterization of the bioproducts of the treatment.
3. Utilization of lignin-degrading enzymes on DRGO
3.1 Decomposition of sulfide minerals
In DRGO, gold (Au(0)) is mainly confined in sulfide minerals, especially arsenopyrite (FeAsS) and pyrite (FeS2), which must be decomposed to liberate gold. Sulfide minerals in DRGO typically make up 10 ~ 20% after flotation [10, 11, 12, 13]. Most of the other major mineral components in are quartz and clay minerals, which do not participate in the oxidative decomposition of sulfide minerals. The standard BIOX treatment of sulfides utilizes chemoautotrophic bacteria
Some white-rot fungi have been shown to improve sulfide oxidation.
3.2 Sequential decomposition sulfides minerals and carbonaceous matter
DRGO often contains less than 7% of carbon content, and it is considered to have a more non-uniform structure compared to activated carbon, making it relatively easier to decompose . However, the susceptibility to carbonaceous matter to decomposition by lignin-degrading enzymes should vary depending on the ore. Raman spectroscopy was used to generate Figure 4, which shows the difference in graphiticity of carbonaceous matter from various gold ores. The C=C peak for continuous graphitic carbon near 1580 cm−1 (G-band) and the C=C peak for vibration adjacent to the graphite defect near 1320 cm−1 (D-band) was distinguished, and the relative intensity
The sequential treatment of DRGO has shown significant results, as seen in Table 1. Using lignin-degrading enzymes to treat DRGO began with work by Yen et al.,  who applied the fungi
|Authors||Gold grade (g/t)||Carbon content (%)||Fungus||Treatment conditions||Au recovery (%)|
|Before treatment||After treatment|
|Yen et al. ||—||—||Flotation concentrate||54.1–64.5||95.2|
|Ofori-Sarpong et al. ||30.2||3.6||Flotation concentrate, 30% pulp density, 21 days, pH 4||41 (78)*1||94|
|Ofori-Sarpong et al. ||30.2||3.6||Flotation concentrate, 30% pulp density, 3 days, pH 4||38||66|
|Liu et al. ||2.18||0.2||Artificial DRGO||44||62|
|Konadu et al. ||40.4||5.8||Flotation concentrate, 5% pulp density, 15 days, pH 4||24 (77)*1||92|
They attempted to further understand the effect of the
To this end, Konadu et al.  used the spent medium of
The changes in the mineral phases were observed by Quantitative Evaluation of Minerals using Scanning Electron Microscopy (QEMSCAN) [3, 43]. The sulfides (yellow color) were observed to be relatively liberated while the carbonaceous matter was associated with illite as seen in by the dark green color (Figure 5a). After the best sequential treatment condition (sulfide oxidation followed by carbonaceous matter treatment by spent medium, DAC) was applied, most of the sulfide minerals were decomposed and disappeared (Figure 5b). Additionally, a new mineral phase (C-Si-Al) containing currently unknown amounts of carbon, aluminum and silicon was observed. A backscatter image of two organic carbon-containing particles is shown in Figure 6. Figure 6a shows a particle in which the carbonaceous matter is associated with the illite in the original DRGO while Figure 6b shows a residue produced after the sequential treatment was applied (DAC). The sediment-like morphology of particle in Figure 6b indicated that it was most likely a product of the carbonaceous matter decomposition.
Raman spectra of the samples before and after each treatment showed a relative decrease in the D-band compared to the G-band (Figure 7a). This change was most significant after the spent medium treatment indicating that the lignin-degrading enzymes might have preferentially oxidized aromatic C=C carbon with some type of physical or chemical defects .
After the sequential treatment, the gold recovered before and after the spent medium treatment was unchanged at 77%, indicating that some of the by-products of this treatment were interfering with the recovery (DAC, Figure 8). Therefore, 1 M NaOH washing was incorporated into the sequential treatment to remove what was identified by 3D fluorescence spectroscopy as humic-like substances interfering during the gold recovery process, which lead to the observed changes in the Raman spectra and increase in gold recovery to 92% (Figure 7b) . Thus, it was proposed that sediment-like C-Si-Al phase could have been produced by an electrostatic aggregation of clay minerals like illite and the humic-like substances. Under the condition of pH 4.0, where the enzyme treatment is performed, the surface of illite is negatively charged (isoelectric point 3.0) (Figure 9). While the humic-like substances have a large, irregular structure, and thus, the acid dissociation constant does not have a uniform value and has a width of 2.9–5.5. At pH 4.0, if the humic-like substances have a positive charge, then it might direct form an agglomerate with the negatively charged illite. However, if charged negative, then some of the cations in the solution like Fe3+ might be involved in the agglomeration of C-Si-Al.
Based on the above, a sequence for DRGO bio-processing was proposed in Figure 10. After crushing and flotation, the biooxidation of the sulfide mineral should be performed under strongly acidic conditions to liberate the gold. Afterwards, the spent medium collected from a separate culturing bioreactor for P. chrysosporium will be applied to the residue from the sulfide biooxidation tank. This is to decompose the carbonaceous matter in the sample. The residue will then be sent for alkaline washing to remove the humic-like substances and break apart the C-Si-Al agglomerates before cyanidation to recover gold.
These steps need to be reviewed according to the content and localization of gold in the gold ore, the aromaticity of carbon, and the concentration of soluble iron components in the system. From the Raman spectroscopy analysis of the solid residue, after the spent medium treatment and alkaline washing, the lignin-degrading enzymes are more effective at decomposing defective graphite, and alkaline washing is more effective in converting graphitic carbon to defective form. Now it is known that it is advantageous for DRGO, which has a high aromatic attribute, to be first alkali-treated before biotreatment.
In the future, the treatment process for various types of carbonaceous gold ore will be organized and targeted for development by utilizing the characteristics of bio-treatment and chemical treatment and will contribute to the production of gold. Additional investigations will be conducted into utilizing less harmful gold lixiviants like amino acids to compared their efficacy against the cyanide system for DRGO processing (Figure 1) [44, 45]. Such research, in addition to using lignin-degrading enzymes for biooxidation, will greatly contribute to decreasing the environmental impact of processing DRGO.
The authors acknowledge Dr. Kwadwo Osseo-Asare and Dr. Grace Ofori-Sarpong for inspiring this work and providing the fungus,
This work was funded by JSPS KAKENHI JP18K19045, JP 19KK0135, JSPS-NRF Bilateral Program JPJSBP 120196505, and Core-to-Core Program JPJSCCB 20200003.