Research indexed in ACM digital library and IEEE Explore pertaining to 5G.
The goal of this chapter is to give researchers, practitioners, and students a pedestal to get a comprehensive look at the new technology of communication named 5G. The chapter will present an introduction that shows the importance of 5G to the different uses of the Internet. Then, the chapter will present two essential aspects: (1) 5G research in academia and real world and (2) timeline of Gs. Then, the chapter will discuss three aspects of 5G which are, namely, (1) Regulations, (2) security, and (3) the 5 enabling Technologies. Then, the chapter will discuss the real-life case of South Korea mobile carrier.
- millimeter waves
- small cells
- massive multi-input multi-output (MIMO)
- full duplex
The Internet is nonpareil like running water and electricity; it is a basic need in today’s world. The influence of Internet on real life reached: Economics, politics, and social. Hence, it created an alternate reality for all factors in life: e-business, e-politics, social networks, e-learning, e-culture, security, Data Science, and Big Data.
In economics, the Internet created new type of trade, i.e., e-business and new products. Some of the e-business models ranged from e-payment, new tax rules, new currency, and borderless trading. New products are different products other than the physical and non-physical products. Non-physical products include movies, music, games, and computer programs. Internet created new trades that did not exist before ranging from delivery services of physical products like delivering food, cloths, etc. to delivering non-physical products like services. According to some reports, “online retail sales worldwide will exceed US$3.4 Trillion”  while costs of the first year of online retailing ranges from $644 to $31,000 according to eCorner . Others  stated that online spending is expected to reach 8.8% of total retail price increasing from 7.4% in 2016. Also, Gorlamandala  stated that UK has the highest retail e-commerce sales with 15.6% followed by China with 11.5%. Cross-border is an issue reported by Gorlamandala  listing China with $245 million and Australia, Indonesia, Singapore, France, and Mexico as countries where e-commerce sale is in noticeable numbers. Another report by Deloitte  stated that Amazon.com ranked fourth as top 10 retailers in 2017 with $118.573 million retail revenues with a growth of 25.3 and 36.8% retail revenue from foreign operations. Amazon in the report  jumped two places to number 4. The report stated “Amazon is a consistent performer in the Fastest 50, having featured in the Fastest 50 since FY2004”  and stated “The increase in unit sales was mainly a result of Amazon’s efforts to reduce prices for customers, shipping offers, increased in-stock inventory availability, and more product variety” [3, 4]. Even Walmart is competing with Amazon over online retailing. Walmart credited the increase in sales to integrate online system with traditional sales stating “Walmart has credited its efforts to integrate its store and digital businesses so that they feed off each other.” . Walmart online sales have risen to 63% . Furthermore, according to Wahba , Walmart has acquired Flipkart.com with $16 billion deal, also teaming up with Google and Microsoft and Rakuten, JD.com.
All the previous indicates that Internet is becoming an essential part of life and the number of Internet users is increasing rapidly. In addition, according to GSMA , there are 5,177,676,750 unique mobile subscribers in the world with 9,418,683,350 mobile connections. The backbone of the Internet is communication. The communication technology must meet the demand for communication. End users need more communication speed and reliability. Hence, there is a need to develop communication technology. As such, the development of 5G mobile communication technology is a promising one.
5G is the fifth generation of mobile technology that promises increased speed and lower latency, higher capacity, and higher reliability capacity . 5G will be reflected in a number of today’s technologies such as smart cities, connected infrastructure, wearable computers, autonomous driving, seamless virtual and augmented reality, artificial intelligence, remote robots, drones, and Internet of Machines and Things (IoMT) [12, 13]. Yet to implement 5G technologies: there are three challenges that the implementation faces: Spectrum, infrastructure, and regulations. In the next two sections, the chapter will present two essential aspects: (1) 5G research in academia and real world and (2) timeline of Gs.
2. 5G research in academia and need of real world
The topic of 5G was discussed in (14,271) research paper in conferences indexed in ACM and IEEE. Furthermore, (4542) research paper was published in journals indexed in ACM and IEEE in the past 2 years discussed topics pertaining to 5G as shown in Table 1. Almost 27% of the publication was published in 2019. Furthermore, one can notice that there is a race in publication pertaining to 5G from the huge number of publications (20,196). Also, one can notice that IEEE is superseding ACM in the publications pertaining to G5.
|ACM indexed research||IEEE indexed research|
3. Timeline of Gs
Communication technology progressed according to generations. The first generation analog communication started in the late 1970s and had a speed of 2.4 kpbs used for cellular telephones. Total access communication system (TACS), extended total access communication system (ETACS), and nordic mobile telephone (NMT) technologies were used in 1G. The main use was wireless phone call with high rate of phone drops and unclear voice.
The second generation used global system for mobile communication (GSM), general packet radio services (GPRS), and enhanced data rates for GSM evolution (
The third generation had four flavors: 3G, 3.5G, 3.75G, and 3.9G LTE. The speed reached 384 kbps and allowed Internet on the telephone and stream videos. 3G used universal mobile telecommunications system (
The fourth generation 4G and 4.5G LTE reached 1 Gbps and 100 Mbps using multiple-input, multiple-output orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (
The fifth generation is promising millions of simultaneous connections, nearly 0 response time, massive MIMO, three times faster than 4G, and 0.001 ms response time. In short, 5G promises to be 1000 times faster than 4G. The applications of 5G are IoT, smart cities, games, autonomous cars, remote robots, drones, healthcare, and global positioning systems (GPS). Quantum cryptography for 5G security  is required to answer for breach of privacy in IoT. IoT, a term coined by Kevin Ashton rather than the well-known terms “embedded Internet” or “pervasive computing,” will be more affected by 5G technology. Examples of objects that fall within the scope of IoT include connected security systems, thermostats, cars, electronic appliances (microwaves, fridges, washing machines, dryers, and coffee makers), lights in household and commercial environments, alarm clocks, speaker systems, and vending machines. In the next sections, the chapter will discuss the three aspects of 5G: (1) Regulations, (2) security, and technology.
4. Frequency regulations
Regulation development is required for 5G to operate. Many countries have regulations and standards for the frequency use. Hence, for 5G frequency usage, a country must develop its own regulations and standards. In the USA, according to WIA , only 28 states passed legislations for small cell, 3 states introduced, and the rest enacted. Laws and regulations regarding the use of frequencies need time. Hence, many countries were caught unprepared for such shift. On the other hand, countries like South Korea (2019), China, and India (2018) were already deploying the technology.
5. Security: the Prague proposal
Security is a major issue in 5G technology. The Prague proposal is none binding agreement among 32 countries from Europe, North America, and Asia-Pacific that agree on a set of security guidelines in 5G network. The countries like South Korea, Japan, Australia, New Zealand, the US, Israel, and the UK stated that security of 5G networks is “crucial for national security, economic security, and other national interests and global stability” and stresses the importance of the development of “adequate national strategies, sound policies, a comprehensive legal framework and dedicated personnel, who is trained and educated appropriately” .
6. The 5G enabling technologies
There are two realms that enable 5G: the physical realm and technology realm. The first realm is the physical realm as shown in Figure 2. The physical realm vision is to increase data traffic measured as bits per second per squared kilometer, also called
The second realm is made of technologies
To understand millimeter waves, one must go back in history to 1860s and 1870s when a Scottish scientist named James Clerk Maxwell developed a scientific theory that explained electromagnetic waves. The theory of Maxwell stated that electrical field and magnetic field can be coupled together to form electromagnetic waves. “Heinrich Hertz, a German physicist, applied Maxwell’s theories to the production and reception of radio waves. The unit of frequency of a radio wave—one cycle per second—is named the hertz, in honor of Heinrich Hertz” .
Because of the nature of the previously explained millimeter waves, small cells are needed. “
MIMO is the technology used by 4G and stands for multiple-input multiple-output. While 4G base stations have a dozen ports for antennas that handle all cellular traffic: eight for transmitters and four for receivers, 5G can handle hundreds  and is duped as
7. Current situation—South Korea
Currently, 5G is facing many challenges to be implemented; the following is the case of South Korean mobile carrier. On the 20th of March 2019, South Korean mobile carrier (SK Telecom) announced using quantum cryptograph technology for the security of 5G network. SK applied quantum number generator (QRNG) technology of ID QUANTIQUE (IDQ) for 5G subscribers to prevent hacking and eaves dropping. SK invested $65 million into IDQ and plans to expand the use QNRG. Furthermore, SK wants to apply quantum key distribution (QKD) technology in April/2019 [14, 25].
There are many publications and published research (20,196) that pertain to 5G technology. This chapter gives researchers, practitioners, and students a pedestal to get a comprehensive look at the new technology of communication named 5G. The chapter first gives an introduction about the increasing need for 5G technology. Then, it shows the amount of research conducted and indexed in ACM and IEEE. Next, the chapter shows the development of telecommunication technology from first to fourth generation. The chapter discusses three important aspects of 5G: Regulations, security, and the five enabling technologies. The five enabling technologies included two realms: physical realm and technology realm. The physical realm included discussion of capacity, cell density, spectral efficiency, and available spectrum. On the other hand, the second realm is made of technologies: