Open access peer-reviewed Monograph


By Vera Lipton

Published: January 22nd 2020

DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.91710

Downloaded: 331


AttributionHighlighting the creator/publisher of some data to acknowledge their efforts, conferring reputation.
Big dataVery large data sets that may be analysed computationally to reveal patterns, trends and associations.
CitationProviding a link or reference to the data itself, in order to communicate provenance or drive discovery.
Clinical summary reportIntegrated full report of an individual study of any therapeutic, prophylactic or diagnostic agent conducted on patients.
DataReinterpretable representation of information in a formalised manner suitable for communication, interpretation or processing (open archival information system definition).
DatabaseA collection of factual information held in electronic form.
Data breachThe loss, theft or other unauthorised access to data containing sensitive personal information that results in the potential compromise of the confidentiality or integrity of the data.
Data sharing planA brief description of how research data collected in research projects will be distributed and shared with others having a valid purpose for access to the data.
Data linkingA method of exposing and connecting data on the Web from different sources.
Data matchingBringing together data from different sources, comparing it and possibly combining it, provided a common link can be found to interconnect at least one field in the datasets.
Data miningAutomated analytical techniques that work by copying existing electronic information—for instance, articles in scientific journals and other works, and analysing the data they contain for patterns, trends and other useful information.
Data noiseAlso called noisy data, these are unwanted fields or information (such as duplicate entries) that degrades the quality of data signals.
Data objectAn identifiable data item with data elements, metadata and an identifier (definition from the FAIR principles).
Data reuseAny subsequent use of the original data by someone other than the originator(s).
Data signalAs opposed to data noise, this refers to meaningful data patterns that can be gleaned from data. The strength of the data signal increases by removing noise.
Data sharingThe practice of making data from scientific research available for secondary uses.
Data sharing planA brief description of how research data collected in research projects will be distributed and shared with others having a valid purpose for access to the data.
Data useThe first data use is by an individual or research team that originally gathered or collated the data. If the data originator(s) use(s) the same dataset for any later purpose, relating to the original project or not, that also counts as a ‘data use’. See also ‘data reuse’.
Gold open accessProviding free and permanent access to the final version of an article immediately after publication, and for everyone.
Green open accessAlso referred to as self-archiving, is the practice of placing a version of an author’s manuscript into a repository, making it freely accessible for everyone.
InformationAny type of knowledge that can be exchanged. In an exchange, information is represented by data.
Informed consentThe process in which a patient learns about and understands the purpose, benefits and potential risks of a medical or surgical intervention, including clinical trials, and then agrees to receive the treatment or participate in the trial.
MetadataStructured information that describes, explains, locates, or otherwise makes it easier to retrieve, use, or manage an information resource. (National Information Standards Organisation).
Open accessRefers to free, unrestricted online access to research outputs such as journal articles and books. OA content is open to all, with no access fees.
Open dataData that can be freely used, shared and built-on by anyone, anywhere, for any purpose (Open Knowledge Foundation).
Open scienceTransparent and accessible scientific knowledge, whether as publications or data, that is freely shared and developed through collaborative networks.
Patient level dataThe individual data separately recorded for each participant in a clinical study.
Raw data (or source data)Unprocessed data sourced directly from research subjects or harvested by scientific equipment. In the context of clinical trials, raw data are observations about individual participants used by the investigators.
ReproducibilityIn general terms, reproducibility involves replicating research experiments or verifying the research results by reusing the original data and following the same data methods. There is no shared understanding of this term among scientists.
Semantic dataData tagged with metadata and can be used to derive the relationships between data.
Sponsored researchA research project commissioned by a private sector entity from a publicly funded research organisation.
Underlying dataResearch data underlying the findings published in scientific publications.



© 2020 The Author(s). Licensee IntechOpen. This chapter is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction for non-commercial purposes, provided the original is properly cited.

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Vera Lipton (January 22nd 2020). Glossary, Open Scientific Data - Why Choosing and Reusing the RIGHT DATA Matters, Vera J. Lipton, IntechOpen, DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.91710. Available from:

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