Open access peer-reviewed chapter

Seed Propagation and Constituents of the Essential Oil of Stevia serrata Cav. from Guatemala

Written By

Juan Francisco Pérez-Sabino, Max Samuel Mérida-Reyes, José Vicente Martínez-Arévalo, Manuel Alejandro Muñoz-Wug, Bessie Evelyn Oliva-Hernández, Isabel Cristina Gaitán-Fernández, Daniel Luiz Reis Simas and Antonio Jorge Ribeiro da Silva

Submitted: November 27th, 2018 Reviewed: June 26th, 2019 Published: July 30th, 2019

DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.88221

Chapter metrics overview

710 Chapter Downloads

View Full Metrics


Stevia serrata Cav. (Eupatorieae, Asteraceae) grows in Central America and Mexico usually over 1500 m. In this study, essential oils of aerial parts from three populations of western Guatemala were obtained yielding 0.17–0.27% of oil by hydrodistillation. Chamazulene (42–62%) was the most abundant compound in the oil analyzed GC/MS, also presenting germacrene D (4.4–15.3%), caryophyllene oxide (3.2–11.8%), (E)-nerolidol (3.9–7.1%), spathulenol (2.3–7.9%), and (E)-caryophyllene (2.5–6.6%). Besides, a propagation trial was carried out on seeds of plants collected in Santa Lucía Utatlán, as the first step for the domestication of the plant, obtaining approximately 75% survival in the transplanting of the germinated seedlings. After the flowering of the individuals, a greenish essential oil was obtained from the roots yielding 0.2% of oil. This oil did not present chamazulene, but α-longipinene (23.5%), germacrene D (22.2%), santolina triene (12.6%), and (E)-caryophyllene (8.1%) as major components. As conclusion, it was confirmed that the aerial parts of the essential oil of S. serrata from western Guatemala presents a high content of chamazulene and that there is feasibility for the domestication of the plant through the germination of seeds.


  • α-longipinene
  • chamazulene
  • Guatemala
  • sesquiterpenes
  • Stevia serrata

1. Introduction

The high biodiversity of Guatemala, caused by the great variety of microclimates and the convergence of the flora of North and South America, presents plants that have developed a large number of secondary metabolites to fulfill functions of defense and interaction with the environment. Many of these metabolites have biological and pharmacological activities that are used by communities, through the use of plants for the treatment of different diseases [1]. In this way, many investigations have been carried out aimed at determining the composition and biological activity of the metabolites of different medicinal plants used in Guatemala [2, 3, 4, 5].

One of the biodiverse plants of Guatemala, which also grows in neighboring countries and for which no medicinal uses have been reported in Guatemala, is Stevia serrataCav. [6] whose essential oil presents chamazulene in high proportions. Chamazulene is a substance of intense blue color of high economic value, which has been shown to have a high anti-inflammatory activity [7].

The genus Steviabelongs to the Asteraceae family within the Eupatorieae tribe [8]. It is a New World genus distributed from the south of the United States to Argentina and the highlands of Brazil, passing through Mexico, the Central American countries, and the South American Andes [9, 10]. The records indicate that the genus is not represented in the Antilles or the Amazon. The members of the Steviagenus are found mainly at altitudes between 500 and 3500 m. Although they usually grow in semidry mountainous terrain, their habitats range from meadows, leafy forests, forested mountain slopes, coniferous forests, to subalpine vegetation [8].

The genus Steviaconsists of between 220 and 230 accepted species. Of these, only about 34 (15%) have some type of ethnobotanical record that relate uses with common names of the species. Of these 34 species, only the South American species Stevia rebaudiana(Bertoni) Bertoni presents records of outstanding use because its sweet leaves are used for imparting sweetness to beverages and foods [8, 12]. Due to this, S. rebaudianais of great economic importance internationally, given its intensive commercialization due to its use as a natural low calorie sweetener [8].

The sesquiterpenoids are by far the majority and characteristic constituents of the aerial parts and roots of the Steviagenus. The overwhelming majority of these compounds belong to the guaiane, longipinane, and germacrene groups [8]. Derivatives of longipinene have been isolated and elucidated mainly in roots of S. eupatoria, S. porphyria, and S. pilosain Mexico, in S. triflorafrom Venezuela, and in S. lucidaof Colombia [13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18]. Diterpene glycosides have been isolated from commercial extracts of S. rebaudianaleaves in Malaysia [19, 20]. The composition of the essential oil of plants of the genus Steviahas been determined in leaves of S. urticifoliain Brazil being the main components found the oxygenated sesquiterpene α-cadinol (8.6%) and the sesquiterpene hydrocarbon germacrene D (10.4%) [21].

On the other hand, the composition of the essential oil of S. rebaudianaleaves analyzed in Nigeria showed carvacrol (67.89%), caryophyllene oxide (23.50%), spathulenol (15.41%), cardinol (5.59%), α-pinene (3.75%), ibuprofen (1.79%), isopinocarveol (1.26%), and α-caryophyllene (1.15%) as the main components found [22].

Other types of compounds isolated in plants of this genus include four flavonoids isolated from the aerial parts of S. urticifoliain Brazil [23], two triterpenes isolated from the roots of S. viscidaand S. eupatoriafrom Mexico [24], the breviarolide and guaianolide isolated from the aerial parts of S. breviaristatafrom Argentina [25], and the stephalic acid isolated from the whole plant of S. polycephalafrom Mexico [26]. Nineteen hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives were successfully characterized in S. rebaudianaleaves: three monocaffeoylquinic acids (Mr354), seven dicaffeoylquinic acids (Mr516), one p-coumaroylquinic acid (Mr338), one feruloylquinic acid (Mr368), two caffeoyl-feruloylquinic acids (Mr530), three caffeoylshikimic acids (Mr336), and two tricaffeoylquinic acids (Mr678) [12].

Likewise, two new steviaamino acid sweeteners have been synthesized from natural stevioside: steviaglycine ethyl ester and steviaL-alanine methyl ester. The sweetness intensity rate of the new sweeteners was higher than sucrose, and they also had a clean sweetness without the unpleasant bitter aftertaste of stevioside [27]. Steviaproducts have been elaborated as an infusion with suitable organoleptic characteristics using a formulation of 80–85% of leaves + dried flowers of anise (Tagetes filifoliaLag.) and 15–20% of dried stevialeaves (S. rebaudiana) [28].

As for the S. serrataplant, it is distributed from southern Arizona, New Mexico and Texas to northern Oaxaca, and from Chiapas to Honduras, Colombia, Venezuela, and Ecuador. In Guatemala it is found in the departments of Chimaltenango, Guatemala, Huehuetenango, Quetzaltenango, El Quiché, Sacatepéquez, and Sololá [6, 11].

The species grows along pastures and roadsides in various habitats from Yucca-Opuntiascrub, sand pine woods, steep rock outcrops in Quercus-Acaciagrasslands, and pastured slopes, usually between 900 and 2800 m. The plants prefer sunny, stony, well-drained places but also grow in moist pastures and other flat areas [6, 11]. They grow as erect perennial herbs to 0.6–1 m, the stems single to many, puberulent to densely pilose. Leaves alternate, scattered and often crowded, sessile to subsessile, serrate toward the apex, 2.5–6.5 cm long, 0.2–1.5 cm wide, apex rounded to acute. Capitula 5–9 mm, phyllaries 3.5–6 mm long, 0.7–1 mm wide, puberulent with numerous glandular dots. Corollas white, 3–5 mm long, often gland-dotted, lobes 1–1.5 mm long, puberulent. Achenes are usually heteromorphic, 2.2–4.2 mm long, hispid. Pappus of the four adelphocarps with 3–5 awns equaling the corolla and alternating with 3–5 scales, 0.2–0.7 mm long [6, 11].

As for the chemistry of S. serrata, five new derivatives of longipinene have been isolated and elucidated from the roots of the plant in Mexico, these being 7β,9α-diangeloyloxy-8α-hydroxylongipinan-1-one; 8β,9α-diangeloyloxy-9α-hydroxylongipinan-1-one; 7β,9α-diangeloyloxy-8α-acetyloxylongipinan-1-one; 7β,9α-diangeloyloxy-8α-acetyloxylongipin-2-en-1-one; and 7β-angeloyloxy-8α-isobutyryloxylongipin-2-en-1-one [29]. Likewise, in Mexico, two new prochamazulene sesquiterpene lactones from the dried leaves of S. serratafrom Mexico were isolated and identified: steviserrolide A and steviserrolide B [30]. The presence of the R enantiomer of chamazulene carboxylic acid (Figure 1) of S. serratafrom Central America was determined [31].

Figure 1.

Chamazulene carboxylic acid.

Regarding studies of the essential oil of the plant, the distillation of 178 g of flowers of S. serratafrom Mexico provided 700 mg of the blue essential oil, which yielded 320 mg of chamazulene [32]. The compounds found in highest concentration in the essential oil of S. serratafrom Guatemala were the sesquiterpenes chamazulene (60.1%), (E)-nerolidol (7.3%), caryophyllene oxide (6.3%), and germacrene D (5.4%) [33], which are shown in Figure 2. Chamazulene is produced from prochamazulenic sesquiterpenlactones. Among these precursors, matricine (Figure 2) and the carboxylic acid of chamazulene, among others, have been identified, which are present in the plant and are transformed into chamazulene by the action of the temperature during the steam extraction process [31]. Other compounds isolated from the plant include the methyl-ripariochromene A from the dried leaves of S. serratacultivated in Japan [34].

Figure 2.

From left to right, structures of chamazulene, caryophyllene oxide, germacrene D, and matricine.

The plant, known in Mexico as “tlachichinole,” was used in decoction of the aerial parts for the washing of infected pimples [8], while the “donkey chili” or “sheep tail” is used as medicine to treat intestinal discomforts in Honduras [35]; the decoction of the “October flower” is used by the midwives to accelerate the contractions of the parturients during childbirth [36]. Oral administration of S. serrataessential oil from Guatemala produced a marked antinociceptive activity in mice in the formalin test [33].

The purpose of the study was to determine the composition of the essential oil of aerial parts of S. serratafrom different localities of the Guatemalan highlands, to evaluate the variability of the content of chamazulene. The capability of propagation of plants of S. serratawas also determined by a seed propagation trial. Finally, the composition of the essential oil of the roots of the propagated plants was determined to compare it with the composition of the oil extracted from aerial parts of the plant.


2. Methodology

2.1 Collection and preparation of plant material

Aerial parts of S. serratawere collected from populations in different localities (Table 1) during 2018. The plant material was dried in a solar dryer at a temperature between 30 and 35°C and immediately extracted. Figure 3 shows pictures of the population in Santa Cruz del Quiché, Quiché, and details of floral button of the plant.

Table 1.

Localities and dates of collection of individuals of S. serrata.

Figure 3.

Population ofS. serratain Santa Cruz del Quiché, Quiché, on the left and details ofS. serratain floral button stage on the right.

2.2 Seed germination

Seeds of S. serratawere collected in the surroundings of Santa Lucia Utatlán, Sololá (N 14° 46 40.4″ W 091° 14 41.5″/2430 m), in December 2015. Seeds were stored in trays inside a solar dryer at a temperature between 30 and 35°C for 2 months.

After drying, seeds were manually removed from the flower receptacles and subsequently placed for germination in peat moss previously moistened into plastic strainers (Figure 4).

Figure 4.

Germinated seeds ofS. serrataon the left, seedlings in peat moss in the middle, and transplanted plants on the right.

2.3 Transplantation of seedlings and root obtention

The seedlings obtained were transplanted to 4-gallon flowerpots containing potting soil. The plants were placed in direct sunlight and watered daily. After the seed production by the individuals grown in pots, their roots were removed, washed, and dried in a solar dryer. Then, the roots were pulverized in a forage mill for the extraction of the essential oil.

2.4 Extraction of essential oil

The oil from 50.0 g of aerial parts of S. serratawas extracted by hydrodistillation using a Clevenger-type apparatus for 2 h. It was then weighed with an analytical scale. The extraction of the essential oil of 100 g of powdered roots was carried out in the same Clevenger-type apparatus for 2 h. The essential oils of the aerial parts and of the roots were collected in pentane which was later removed in a rotatory evaporator at 40°C. All the extractions were made in triplicate, and the reported yield corresponds to the average of the three extractions.

2.5 Gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry analyses (GC/MS)

GC/MS analyses were performed using a chromatograph Shimadzu 2010 Plus system coupled with a Shimadzu QP-2010 Plus selective detector (MSD) and equipped with a DB5-MS capillary fused silica column (60 m, 0.25 mm I.D., 0.25 μm film thickness). The oven temperature program initiated at 60°C, then was raised by 3°C/min to 246°C, and then was held for 20 min. Other operating conditions were as follows: carrier gas, He (99.999%), with a flow rate of 1.03 mL/min; injector temperature, 220°C; split ratio of 1:50; and injection volume of 1 μL. Mass spectra were taken at 70 eV. The m/z values were recorded in the range of m/z 40–700 Da.


3. Results

Tables 2 and 3 present the results of yields and chemical composition of the essential oils of the three sampled populations of S. serrataand roots of plants obtained by seed propagation, respectively. Chamazulene was the major component of the essential oils of the aerial parts meanwhile α-longipinene was the compound found in major proportion in the essential oil of the roots.

Table 2.

Composition of the essential oil of the aerial parts of S. serratafrom three localities.

Table 3.

Composition of the essential oil of roots of propagated S. serrata.


4. Discussion

4.1 Essential oil of aerial parts of S. serrata

Table 2 shows the yield and composition results of the intense blue essential oil obtained from the aerial parts of individuals of S. serratacollected in three different populations distinct of the population sampled in a previous study of the chemical composition of oil of S. serratafrom Guatemala [33]. The three populations are located in the highlands of western Guatemala. Extraction yields were between 0.2 and 0.3% (w/w) (Table 3), corresponding the highest yield to the SS4 oil from Santa Cruz del Quiché. A probable explanation for the difference in yields among the sampled populations is that the production of essential oil depends on the phenological stage, so that there is a greater production of oil in the flowering stage and lower production in the fruiting stage.

Another probable explanation could be edaphic factors affecting the production of secondary metabolites in general, but only after new investigations could the relationship between these factors and the production of essential oil and other metabolites be determined.

Regarding the chemical composition analyzed by GC/MS, 22 compounds were identified in the SS3 (94.7% of the total area) and SS4 (97.6% of the total area) oils and 18 compounds in the SS5 oil (98.4% of the total area). A chromatogram of the essential oil of SS4 is shown in Figure 5. The most abundant compound was the chamazulene in area percentages between 42 and 62%, with the highest percentage corresponding to the SS5 essential oil. The mass spectrum of chamazulene from the essential oil of sample SS4 is shown in Figure 6. The other compounds found in high percentage in the oil were germacrene D (4.4–15.3%), caryophyllene oxide (3.2–11.8%), (E)-nerolidol (3.9–7.1%), spathulenol (2.3–7.9%) and (E)-caryophyllene (2.5–6.6%). The α-longipinene, frequently found in Steviagenus plants [8] that had not been reported in the essential oil of S. serrata, was found in the SS4 oil in 0.4%.

Figure 5.

Chromatogram of the essential oil ofS. serratafrom SS4 sample obtained by GC/MS.

Figure 6.

Spectrum of chamazulene corresponding to the essential oil of sample SS4.

The results confirm that essential oil of S. serratawith high content of chamazulene can be obtained from the different populations of the Guatemalan highlands. The authors consider that although the extraction yield in all the samples has been lower than 0.3%, the plant presents economic potential for its domestication for oil production in view of its high content of chamazulene and the presence in it of other components for which pharmacological activity has been reported. When comparing this source of essential oil with chamazulene content in the oil of Matricaria recutitaL. (Asteraceae), which is obtained only from the flowers of this species [31], S. serratais shown as a promising species because all aerial parts (leaves, stems, and flowers) produce essential oil with high chamazulene content.

It is worth noting that the composition of the three oils is in congruence with the composition obtained by Simas et al. [33] of S. serratafrom a population in the department of Sololá, presenting the same major compounds with some percentage variations and the majority of compounds such as sesquiterpenoids.

4.2 Essential oil of roots of propagated plants of S. serrata

A seed propagation trial was carried out with seeds of plants of S. serratacollected from a population of Santa Lucía Utatlán, Sololá, from where the composition of essential oil with a high content of chamazulene had been previously reported [33]. The purpose of the trial was to evaluate the capability of propagation of the plants, generate new seeds, and extract and analyze the essential oil from the root. The interest in analyzing the root oil was due to the fact that in interviews with residents of the region, the authors had received information that previously the root of the plant had been used in traditional medicine for the treatment of stomach pain [33]. The seeds were germinated in peat moss, and then seedlings were transplanted to pots where they developed well with approximately 75% survival reaching 1 m height after 6 months. It is important to note that the cultivation experiment was carried out in Guatemala City, at an altitude of 1495 m, this being a lower altitude than in the region where the plant grows naturally.

After obtaining the seeds during a plant vegetative stage, the roots were collected from which an essential oil with a light green color was obtained with a yield of 0.2% (w/w), and 25 compounds representing 95.8% of the total chromatographic area were identified (Table 3). The chromatogram of the essential oil of the roots is shown in Figure 7. Due to the green coloration of the oil, it was supposed that the chamazulene was absent in the oil, which was confirmed after the analysis by GC/MS. The major components of the root oil corresponded to α-longipinene (23.5%), germacrene D (22.2%), santolina triene (12.6%), and (E)-caryophyllene (8.1%). The mass spectrum of α-longipinene is shown in Figure 8.

Figure 7.

Chromatogram of the essential oil of roots ofS. serrata.

Figure 8.

Mass spectrum of α-longipinene corresponding to the essential oil of roots ofS. serrata.

The common components between the root and the aerial parts oils were germacrene D and (E)-caryophyllene. The α-longipinene (Figure 9) was only found in one of the oils of the aerial parts in low percentage (0.4%), while the santolina triene (Figure 9) was not found in any of the oils of the aerial parts. As in the oil of aerial parts, sesquiterpenoids predominated in the root oil. Since the plant has been used in the past for the treatment of stomach pain, the authors consider it of value to carry out pharmacological activity tests with this oil in the near future.

Figure 9.

Structures of α-longipinene and santolina triene, major components of the essential oil of roots ofS. serrata.


5. Conclusions

It was found in this study that the essential oil of aerial parts of wild S. serratafrom different populations of the highlands of Guatemala showed high concentrations of chamazulene. In addition, the essential oil of roots of the plant was analyzed for the first time, which presented a composition very different from that of the aerial parts, as it did not present chamazulene and presented α-longipinene as the major component. It was also verified that the seeds of S. serratapresent a high viability and that the seedlings obtained from seeds also have a high percentage of survival. Therefore, S. serratacan be considered as a plant with high potential for domestication and cultivation for the production of essential oil with high content of chamazulene.



The present research was partially funded by the General Directorate of Research of the University of San Carlos of Guatemala, project, within the framework of the University Program of Interdisciplinary Research in Health. The authors would like to agree to CAPES, CNPq, and FAPERJ from Brazil.


Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest with respect to this publication.


  1. 1. MSPAS-USAC. In: Ministerio de Salud Pública y Asistencia Social, editor. Vademecum Nacional de Plantas Medicinales. Guatemala: Universidad de San Carlos de Guatemala; 2006
  2. 2. Cáceres A, Cruz SM, Gaitán I, Guerrero K, Alvarez LE, Marroquín MN. Antioxidant activity and quantitative composition of extracts of Piper species from Guatemala with potential use in natural product industry. Acta Horticulturae. 2012;964:77-84
  3. 3. Cruz SM, Cáceres A, Alvarez L, Morales J, Apel MA, Henriquez AT, et al. Chemical composition of essential oils ofPiper jacquemontianumand Piper variabile from Guatemala and bioactivity of the dichloromethane and methanol extracts. Brazilian Journal of Pharmacognosy. 2011;21(4):587-593
  4. 4. Holzmann I, Cechiquel V, Mora T, Cáceres A, Martínez V, Cruz SM, et al. Evaluation of behavioral and pharmacological effects of hydroalcoholic extract ofValeriana prionophyllaStandl. from Guatemala. Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2011;2011:1-9
  5. 5. Marroquín MN, Cruz SM, Cáceres A. Antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds in three species of Passifloraceae (Passiflora edulis,P. incarnata,P. ligularis) from Guatemala. Acta Horticulturae. 2012;964:93-98
  6. 6. Nash DL, Williams LO. Flora of Guatemala. Schlivek LM, editor. Fieldiana: Botany 1976;24(12):125-126
  7. 7. Jakovlev V, Isaac O, Flaskamp E. Pharmacologic studies on chamomile compounds. VI. Studies on the antiphlogistic effect of chamazulene and matricine. Planta Medica. 1983;49:67-73
  8. 8. Kinghorn A.Stevia: The genusStevia. London and New York: Taylor & Francis; 2002. p. 202
  9. 9. King RM, Robinson H. The Genera of the Eupatorieae (Asteraceae). Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden. Vol. 22. St. Louis: Missouri Botanical Garden; 1987
  10. 10. Robinson H, King RM. Eupatorieae—Systematic review. In: Heywood VH, Harborne JB, Turner BL, editors. The Biology and Chemistry of the Compositae. Vol. 1. New York: Academic Press; 1977. pp. 437-485
  11. 11. Pruski JF, Robinson H. Flora Mesoamericana. In: Davidse G, Sousa Sánchez M, Knapp S, Chiang Cabrera F, editors. Asteraceae Bercht. & J. Presl. 2015;5(2):554-555
  12. 12. Karaköse H, Jaiswal R, Kuhnert N. Characterization and quantification of hydroxycinnamate derivatives inStevia rebaudianaleaves by LC-MSn. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2011;59:10143-10150. DOI: 10.1021/jf202185m
  13. 13. Cerda-García-Rojas CM, Guerra-Ramírez D, Román-Marín LU, Hernández-Hernández JD, Joseph-Nathan P. DFT molecular modeling and NMR conformation analysis of a new longipinenetriolone diester. Journal of Molecular Structure. 2006;789:37-42
  14. 14. Sánchez-Arreola E, Cerda-García-Rojas CM, Román LU, Hernández JD, Joseph-Nathan P. Longipinene derivatives fromStevia porphyrea. Phytochemistry. 1999;52:473-477
  15. 15. Román LU, Morán G, Hernández JD, Cerda-García-Rojas CM, Joseph-Nathan P. Longipinane derivatives fromStevia viscida. Phytochemistry. 1995;38(6):1437-1439
  16. 16. Álvarez-García R, Torres-Valencia JM, Román LU, Hernández JD, Cerda-García-Rojas CM, Joseph-Nathan P. Absolute configuration of the α-methylbutyryl residue in longipinene derivatives fromStevia pilosa. Phytochemistry. 2005;66:639-642
  17. 17. Amaro JM, Adrián M, Cerda CM, Joseph-Nathan P. Longipinene derivatives fromStevia lucidaandS. triflora. Phytochemistry. 1988;27(5):1409-1412. DOI: 10.1016/0031-9422(88)80205-X
  18. 18. Guerra-Ramírez D, Cerda-García-Rojas C, Puentes AM, Joseph-Nathan P. Longipinene diesters fromStevia lucida. Phytochemistry. 1998;48(1):151-154. DOI: 10.1016/S0031-9422(97)00793-0
  19. 19. Prakash Chaturvedula VS, Prakash I. A new diterpene glycoside fromStevia rebaudiana. Molecules. 2011;16:2937-2943. DOI: 10.3390/molecules16042937
  20. 20. Prakash I, Prakash Chaturvedula VS. Additional minor diterpene glycosides fromStevia rebaudianaBertoni. Molecules. 2013;18:13510-13519. DOI: 10.3390/molecules181113510
  21. 21. Machado KN, Turatti ICC, Lopes NP, do Nascimento A. Essential oil composition ofStevia urticifoliagrowing in ouro preto-mg. Chemistry of Natural Compounds. 2015;51(5):985-986. DOI: 10.1007/s10600-015-1471-9
  22. 22. Muanda FN, Soulimani R, Diop B, Dicko A. Study on chemical composition and biological activities of essential oil and extracts fromStevia rebaudianaBertoni leaves. LWT-Food Science and Technology. 2011;44:1865-1872. DOI: 10.1016/j.lwt.2010.12.002
  23. 23. Machado KN, Tasco AJH, Salvador MJ, Rodrigues IV, Pessoa C, Sousa IJO, et al. Flavonoids, antioxidant, and antiproliferative activities ofStevia urticifolia. Chemistry of Natural Compounds. 2017;53(6):1167-1169. DOI: 10.1007/s10600-017-2228-4
  24. 24. Román LU, Guerra-Ramírez D, Morán G, Martínez I, Hernández JD, Cerda-García-Rojas CM, et al. Firstseco-C oleananes from nature. Organic Letters. 2004;6(2):173-176. DOI: 10.1021/ol036107j
  25. 25. Oberti JC, Gil RR, Sosa VE, Herz W. A guaianolide fromStevia breviaristata. Phytochemistry. 1986;25(6):1479-1480
  26. 26. Angeles E, Folting K, Grieco PA, Huffman JC, Miranda R, Salmón M. Isolation and structure of stephalic acid, a new clerodane diterpene fromStevia polycephala. Phytochemistry. 1982;21(7):1804-1806
  27. 27. Khattab SN, Massoud MI, El-Sayed Jad Y, Bekhit AA, El-Faham A. Production and physicochemical assessment of newsteviaamino acid sweeteners from the natural stevioside. Food Chemistry. 2015;173:979-985. DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.10.093
  28. 28. Millones C, Mori G, Bacalla J, Vásquez E, Tafur R. Obtención de un filtrante de anís de monte (Tagetes filifoliaLag.) edulcorado con hojas de estevia (Stevia rebaudianaBertoni). Scientia Agropecuaria. 2014;5:45-51. DOI: 10.17268/sci.agropecu.2014.01.05
  29. 29. Sánchez-Arreola E, Cerda-García-Rojas CM, Joseph-Nathan P, Román LU, Hernández JD. Longipinene derivatives fromStevia serrata. Phytochemistry. 1995;39(4):853-857
  30. 30. Calderón JS, Quijano L, Gómez F, Ríos T. Prochamazulene sesquiterpene lactones fromStevia serrata. Phytochemistry. 1989;28(12):3526-3527
  31. 31. Franke R, Schilcher H, editors. Chamomile Industrial Profiles: Medicinal and Aromatic Plants-Industrial Profiles. Boca Raton: CRC Press Taylor & Francis Group; 2005. p. 279
  32. 32. Román LU, Mora Y, Hernández JD.Stevia serrata, a source of chamazulene. Phytoterapia. 1990;61(1):84
  33. 33. Simas DL, Mérida-Reyes M, Muñoz-Wug M, Cordeiro M, Giorno TB, Taracena EA, et al. Chemical composition and evaluation of antinociceptive activity of essential oil ofStevia serrataCav. from Guatemala. Natural Product Research. 2017;33(4):577-579. DOI: 10.1080/14786419.2017.1399376
  34. 34. Kohda H, Yamazaki K, Tanaka O. Methylripariochromene a fromStevia serrata. Phytochemistry. 1976;15:847-848
  35. 35. Ticktin T, Dalle SP. Medicinal plant use in the practice of midwifery in rural Honduras. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2005;96:233-248
  36. 36. Vibrans H, Alipi AM, Pichardo JM. Malezas de México. 2009. Available from:

Written By

Juan Francisco Pérez-Sabino, Max Samuel Mérida-Reyes, José Vicente Martínez-Arévalo, Manuel Alejandro Muñoz-Wug, Bessie Evelyn Oliva-Hernández, Isabel Cristina Gaitán-Fernández, Daniel Luiz Reis Simas and Antonio Jorge Ribeiro da Silva

Submitted: November 27th, 2018 Reviewed: June 26th, 2019 Published: July 30th, 2019