Open access peer-reviewed chapter

Infrared Irradiation, an Excellent, Alternative Green Energy Source

Written By

Joel Martínez and René Miranda

Submitted: September 30th, 2018 Reviewed: December 23rd, 2018 Published: February 9th, 2019

DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.83805

Chapter metrics overview

1,040 Chapter Downloads

View Full Metrics


In this chapter, attending the request by the UNESCO, Decade to Educate in the Sustainability, a green-chemical approach is offered. Thus, the most recent advances using the infrared irradiation as alternative energy source are given; this is in order to activate an organic reaction in addition to conveniently perform the extractions of secondary metabolites. It is worth noting that this manuscript is an improved extent of a review previously reported by our group. The chapter is accomplished considering two sections, displaying a comprehensive overview: in a first instance, after a deep search in the literature, a broad compilation of suitable information is presented; in a second landscape, recent unpublished results from our and other laboratories are described.


  • infrared irradiation
  • green chemistry
  • sustainable development
  • reaction activation
  • natural product extraction

1. Introduction

Since the born (early 1990s) of the paradigm of the green chemistry (GC), it has acquired its up-to-date position as a scientific discipline preventing pollution and consequently contributing to the sustainable development (SD) [1]. In this sense, it is important to keep in mind the request of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) performed by the establishment of the Decade to Educate in the Sustainability (DES), 2005–2014, satisfactorily evaluated in November 2014 at Aichi, Nagoya, Japan. In this sense, the UNESCO desire to improve the quality of education (teaching researching and informing) at all levels, transforming the society by the reorientation of the education adopting the sustainable development aims [2, 3].

Consequently, many educational institutions in all levels, around the world, have assumed the GC protocol as an efficient pathway to contribute within the SD using and implementing innovative technologies.

In recent years, scientists around the world have implemented strategies to avoid the use of fossil resources; in this regard, it is convenient to note that between the GC-protocol, the six principles (energy requirements should be more recognized for their environmental and economic impacts, and they must be minimized) [4, 5] are well recognized [6] being important to highlight that several approaches to reduce the energetic consumption have been developed in order to diminish the dependence of fossil resources: the use of microwave irradiations (MW), ultrasound (US), mechanical milling (MM), photochemical (PC), electrochemical (EC), all of them well recognized by the GC [7]. More recently, infrared irradiation (IR) has emerged as another excellent activating source into the green chemistry efforts [1, 7].

The infrared irradiation has been already perceived by the scientific community for the convenient promotion of organic transformations, this in addition to its employment to perform efficient natural product extractions, among others process.

Regarding the last commentaries, it results appropriated to establish the goal of this chapter: provide after a profound search in the literature, the actual status concerned to the employment of the infrared irradiation as an alternative mode to activate chemical reactions in addition to demonstrate its invaluable use to perform conveniently the extraction of interesting secondary metabolites.

On the other hand, taking as supportive reference the electromagnetic spectrum, the infrared region is divided into three zones, Figure 1. The shortwave or near-infrared zone has band spans from 0.76 to 2 μm (NIR); the middle or medium infrared zone, with band spans from 2 to 4 μm (MIR); and the zone of long wave or far infrared with band spans from 4 to 1000 μm (FIR).

Figure 1.

Infrared irradiation zones.

It is worth noting that the NIR offers important advantages to carry out a reaction: due to its immediate response time, because it is efficiently used by convection, in addition to the longer life time of the tungsten-halogen filament [1, 8].


2. Infrared irradiation, actual use around the world

Considering the use of infrared irradiation, as an activating mode of reaction in complement to its employment to activate the extraction of secondary metabolites, in this chapter after a profound literature search, the obtained information was organized and presented in several sections. Each one of these sections was performed in order to highlight the actual status of the use of the infrared irradiation for the purposes previously commented. It is also important to note that the manuscript was created bearing in mind to attend the Decade to Educate in sustainable Development involving the green chemistry protocol.

Therefore, in the first place, the upgraded use of infrared irradiation around the world including both the early and the most recent studies in this field is showed.

2.1. Knoevenagel condensation

In Table 1, three aldol type reactions are shown, employing MIR as the activating mode, using a natural bentonitic clay—Tonsil Actisil FF (TAFF) [9] as a catalyst. The target molecules were produced with good yields, short reaction times, in the absence of solvent, and involving easiest workup.

Table 1.

Knoevenagel condensation reactions.

E = Entry, Ref = Reference.

2.2. Nucleophilic additions

Several nucleophilic additions to various carbonylic substrates are confined in Table 2; consequently different products were obtained: heterocycles, Schiff bases, and the addition of a set of sulfur derivatives or the indolyl moiety to perezone, a natural product and its synthetic analog, Entry 10; it is important to note that the obtained indolyl molecules showed good activity against breast cancer cells.

Table 2.

Nucleophilic addition reaction.

E = Entry, Ref = Reference.

In these processes, the MIR was employed to promote the reaction; in some cases, Co doped with ZnS nanoparticles or TAFF were used as catalyst. The reactions, in general, proceed with good to excellent yields. Also, a green procedure to obtain a set of five coumarins, was developed, comparing different activating modes, MW, NIR, US, MM, and mantle heating (MH), in the presence or absence of ethanol, Entry 9.

2.3. Related macrocycles-benzyl oligomers

Various related macrocycles or benzyl oligomers were produced in the presence of TAFF as catalyst, in absence of solvent, considering a comparative study between MIR and MW, both processes show similar yields, Table 3.

Table 3.

Formation of related benzylic oligomers and macrocycles.

E = Entry, Ref = Reference.

2.4. Multicomponent reaction

The multicomponent reaction implicates a very important and versatile strategy to generate an enormously number of reaction protocols to produce important molecules. In this sense, MIR and NIR have been usefully employed as activating reaction modes, to promote molecules related to the multicomponent protocols of Biginelli, Hantzsch Meldrum, and Kamal-Qureshi (Table 4). The target molecules were in general with convenient green approach: without solvent or the use of EtOH as solvent, employing a green catalyst. The reported procedures involved short reaction times and easy workup.

Table 4.

Multicomponent reaction.

E = Entry, Ref = Reference.

2.5. Redox procedures

Important practices, within organic chemistry, are the reduction-oxidation, procedures. Thus, into the green chemistry protocol, several attempts have been developed, particularly within photocatalysis field, for example Guo and coworkers present the photothermic reduction of graphene oxide employing MIR [38]. Another example, using NIR, is the photocatalytic decomposition of 2,4-dichlorophenol in aqueous solution with Cu2(OH)PO4 microcrystals [39], or the photo-oxidation of 1,3-diphenylisobenzofuran in aerated toluene [40]. Other oxidation processes are presented in Table 5, developed without solvent, excellent yields, and short time reaction.

Table 5.

Reduction-oxidation reactions.

E = Entry, Ref = Reference.

2.6. Miscellaneous reactions

An interesting set of miscellaneous reactions is commented in this separated section. In this sense, the production of peptides by mean N-phosphoamino acid and amino acid in aqueous solution and irradiated with MIR was reported [43]. Also, the alpha-alumina powders were described by mean Pechini synthesis using MIR [44]. In other studies, SnO2 nanoparticles were generated applying medium infrared irradiation [45]. The hexagonal form of boron nitride was employed to produce protective coatings using liquid polyborazylene as a boron source and was activated by MIR [46].

In a current research, the preparation of botanical samples enriched with organic matter by mean heating of focused far infrared light by dry ashing method is reported. In the dry process, the NIR was focused by reflection through the gold-plated layer; consequently, the energy efficiency was improved and a argon atmosphere was employed to avoid the loss of elements caused by sample combustion at high temperatures, 500°C, in short times of carbonization. It is important to note that this device shows several advantages as the instrument size is small compared with electric muffle furnace and has a fast heating rate the gold-plates improve the energetic efficiency; and in general, the ashing process is completed within 30 min, among others [47].

As a complement, in Table 6, several reactions are summarized as described in a previous report [1]. The included processes, in general involve short reaction times, good to excellent yields, the use of a catalyst and solventless conditions, and consequently a green approach is offered.

Table 6.

Miscellaneous reactions.

E = Entry, Ref = Reference.

Recently, several nucleophilic aromatic substitutions have been reported by Luna-Mora and coworkers; the authors inform about the preparation of N-(5-R1amino-2-nitrophenyl) acetamides and 5-R1amino-2-nitroanilines by means of a comparative study among MH, NIR, US, MW, and the combination of NIR-US here is concluded that the best process was when the NIR-US process is employed offering the best yields and short reaction times, Entry 5.

2.7. C–C bond formation

The C–C bond formation is a versatile tool to generate various compounds; some examples are presented in Table 7, the products were generated in good to excellent yields, using NIR as the activating mode of reaction, with short reaction times in the presence of a catalyst, with or without the presence of a base.

Table 7.

Formation of C–C bond.

E = Entry, Ref = Reference.

Related to Table 7, several interesting commentaries are performed:

Balam-Villareal in 2016 informed about the formation of C-C bond by means of a Mizoroki-Heck cross-coupling reaction, Entry 3, employing new sulfur-containing palladacycles as catalyst and aryl iodides with electron-donating and electron-withdrawing groups. Thus the NIR strategy, has similar behavior that the MH in relation to the yields obtained, but the time reaction was diminished by three times.

Another example, corresponding to C-C bond formation, implicates the use of arylhydrazones containing the benzothiazole moiety as a contribution to the Mizoroki-Heck reaction, employing palladium ligands, Entries 4 and 5. The authors report that the reaction was performed using near infrared irradiation. The products were obtained from good to excellent yields, reducing the reaction time. In the same report, it was reported the use of this arylhydrazones in the Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling reaction with NIR as alternative source, water as solvent, diminishing the time of reaction, and the products were obtained with good yields.

Continuing with the Suzuki-Miyaura reaction type, the use of imidazole-hydrazone as ligand was recently informed; the reaction was developed in short reaction times, improving the yields, all this result afforded by the use of NIR as the activating mode of reaction, with water as the solvent, offering a new ecological alternative to perform this kind of reaction, Entry 6.

2.8. Natural product extraction

Currently, it is well known that several methods are available to extract the secondary metabolites present in vegetable species, but recently, it was reported that the FIR can be also used [1] (Table 8).

E Vegetable specimen Extracted compounds Ref.
1 Oryza sativa L. p-Coumaric acid, 3-vinyl-1-oxybenzene, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, among others [55, 56]
2 Sesamum indicum L. p-Hydroxybenzoic acid, o-coumaric acid, vanillic acid, p-coumaric acid, isofeluric acid, sesamol, and tocopherol [57]
3 Arachis hypogaea L. 2-Methoxyphenol, 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzoic acid, among others [58]
4 Camellia sinensis var. sinensis Polyphenolic compounds, caffeine, (−)-epicatechin, among others [59, 60, 61]
5 Puerariae radix Polyphenols compounds, isoflavonoids compounds [62]
6 Morus alba L. p-Coumaric acid, benzoic acid, (+)-catechin, chlorogenic acid, among others [63]
7 Radix Salviae miltiorrhizae Danshensu, protocatechuic acid, protocatechuic aldehyde, among others [64]
8 Lycium barbarum Linn Quercetin, rutin, and gentisic acid [65]
9 Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch Liquiritin, glycyrrhetic acid, and glycyrrhizin [66]
10 Lycium chinensis Mill Mannitol, sucrose, glucose, and fructose [67]
11 Grape seeds Catechin, epicatechin, and procyanidin B2 [68]
12 Rhododendron mucronulatum Turcz Rutin, farrerol, syringic acid, vanillic acid, and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid [69]
13 Tagetes erecta L. p-Coumaric acid, gallic acid, among others [70]
14 Picrorhiza scrophulariiflora Pennell Picroside I and picroside II [71]
15 Hibiscus cannabinus L. Polyphenolic and flavonoids compounds, kaempferitrin, among others [72]
16 Glycine max M. Daidzein, and genistein [73]
17 Fagopyrum spp. Polyphenols and flavonoids [74]
18 Apricot Polyphenolic, flavonoids, and tannins compounds [75]
19 Habanero pepper Capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin [76]

Table 8.

Extraction of natural compounds.

E = Entry, Ref = Reference.

Interesting and recent information corresponds to a study by Cheaib and coworkers, Entry 18, reporting the extraction comparing the solid/liquid extraction with infrared-assisted extraction. In this study, the FIR pomace extract, from apricot, gave the highest polyphenolic content, flavonoid, and tannin yields. In addition, the inhibitory activity study against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria was performed, and the infrared pomace gave the highest activity in comparison with infrared kernel, solid-liquid pomace, and solid-liquid kernel.

More recently, Entry 19, Martínez and coworkers have reported the extraction of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin, from habanero pepper in a comparative study, the use of NIR as source of extraction with EtOH as solvent, showed the best yields, 43.88 and 29.44% for capsaicin, and dihydrocapsaicin, respectively. The effect of nonconventional energies was analyzed by means of SEM micrographs, resulting in an NIR-procedure with a higher number of intact particles in the cellular matrix, in comparison with nonirradiated material.


3. Unpublished results from our and other laboratories

The results showed in this section correspond to novel results, being important to note that they have been recently submitted for publication or are under writing.

A green contribution to produce SiO2–TiO2 catalyst is offered, using NIR in comparison with other nonconventional energy sources and mantle heating. According to the obtained results, the materials were produced in short time reaction employing water as solvent. The results, for NIR strategy, show that smaller crystal size (15.3 nm) and higher BET surface area were obtained (335.2 m2/g). In addition, the surface area obtained by mean NIR procedure, in comparison with other process, is due to that the water in the reaction was partially evaporated, affecting the hydrolysis process, but the pore and volume diameter was improved (4.33 nm and 0.363 cm3/g, respectively) in comparison with the MH mode(2.77 nm and 0.290 cm3/g) [77].

Related to natural product extraction, Miranda et al. have achieved a wide study about the extraction of perezone, from roots of both Acourtia adnata and Acourtia platyphylla comparing various modes: MH, NIR, MW, US, and supercritical CO2. It is appropriated to comment that the yield obtained from the extraction with NIR for 15 minutes was statically equal to the conventional thermal extraction, reflux during 3 h [78, 79].

Penieres-Carrillo and coworkers currently have developed the acylation of aromatic amines and alcohols, by a comparative study among MH, US, IR, and IR-US, with preliminary results; the best process has been the simultaneous use of IR-US, with high yields and shorter reaction times [80].


4. Conclusions

The request, “Decade to Educate in the Sustainability,” established by the UNESCO (2005–2014) satisfactorily evaluated in November 2014, at Aichi, Nagoya, Japan is attended in this chapter, in this sense by means of a green approach using the infrared irradiation as an alternative and efficient mode to activate an organic reaction in addition to conveniently performed extractions of secondary metabolites. Moreover, it is important to note that this green energy can be used in other areas as material engineering and other synthetic strategies as Suzuki-Miyaura or Mizoroki-Heck cross-coupling can use it to activate the reaction. Consequently, the infrared irradiation can extend their application to other organic transformations or disciplines.



We would like to thank the Laboratorio de Estudios sobre Quimica Verde, L-122, Departamento de Ciencias Quimicas, Facultad de Estudios Superiores Cuautitlan, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico for financial affordings. R. Miranda Acknowledges PAPIME-UNAM PE 209919 for financial support.


Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.


  1. 1. Escobedo R, Miranda R, Martínez J. Infrared irradiation: Toward green chemistry, a review. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2016;17:453. DOI: 10.3390/ijms17040453 and references therein.
  2. 2. Learning to Live Together Sustainably (SDG4.7): Trends and Progress. Available from: [Accessed: November 15, 2018]
  3. 3. Education for Sustainable Development. Available from: [Accessed: November 15, 2018]
  4. 4. Anastas PT, Warner JC. Green Chemistry: Theory and Practice. 1st ed. New York: Oxford University Press; 1998. 135 p
  5. 5. Lancaster M. Green Chemistry an Introductory Text. 1st ed. Cambridge: Royal Society Chemistry; 2007. pp. 5-19
  6. 6. Doble M, Kruthiventi AK. Green Chemistry and Engineering. 1st ed. Burlington: Academic Press; 2007. pp. 27-37
  7. 7. Erythropel HC, Zimmerman JB, de Winter TM, Petitjean L, Melnikov F, Lam CH, et al. The Green chemisTree: 20 years after taking root with the 12 principles. Green Chemistry. 2018;20:1929-1961. DOI: 10.1039/C8GC00482J
  8. 8. Shortwave Electric Infrared the Facts. Copyrigth© ITW BGK Finishing Systems 05/03. Available from: [Accessed: November 15, 2018]
  9. 9. Miranda R, Ríos H, Delgado M, Cogordán JA, Salmón J. Characterization of TAFF, a bentonitic clay and its application in the obtention of oligotoluene. Journal of Applied Catalyst. 2003;224:217-233
  10. 10. Delgado F, Tamariz J, Zepeda G, Landa M, Miranda R, García J. Knoevenagel condensation catalyzed by a Mexican bentonite using infrared irradiation. Synthetic Communications. 1995;25:753-759
  11. 11. Obrador E, Castro M, Tamaríz J, Zepeda G, Miranda R, Delgado F. Knoevenagel condensation in heterogeneous phase catalyzed by IR radiation and tonsil actisil FF. Synthetic Communications. 1998;28:4649-4663. DOI: 10.1080/00397919808004530
  12. 12. Alcerreca G, Sanabria R, Miranda R, Arroyo G, Tamariz J, Delgado F. Preparation of benzylidene barbituric acids promoted by infrared irradiation in absence of solvent. Synthetic Communications. 2000;30:1295-1301. DOI: 10.1080/00397910008087151
  13. 13. Penieres G, Miranda R, García J, Aceves J, Delgado F. Modification of the Fischer indole synthesis. Heterocyclic Communications. 1996;2:401-402
  14. 14. Penieres G, Soto V, Alvarez C, García O, García JG. A new strategy for the synthesis of N-substituted 2,5-dimethylpyrroles in heterogeneous medium. Heterocyclic Communications. 1998;4:31-32
  15. 15. Zhang C, Wang J, Li JH. Infrared heat aided solid state synthesis of pyrroles from 1,4-diketones and ammonium acetate. Journal of Heterocyclic Chemistry. 2012;49:204-207. DOI: 10.1002/jhet.744
  16. 16. Penieres CG, Bonifas AI, López CJG, García EJG, Alvarez TC. Synthesis of benzimidazoles in dry medium. Synthetic Communications. 2000;30:2191-2195. DOI: 10.1080/00397910008087397
  17. 17. Dandia A, Parewa V, Gupta SL, Rathore KS. Cobalt doped ZnS nanoparticles as a recyclable catalyst for solvent-free synthesis of heterocyclic privileged medicinal scaffolds under infrared irradiation. Journal of Molecular Catalysis A: Chemical. 2013;373:61-71. DOI: 10.1016/j.molcata.2013.02.010
  18. 18. Vázquez MA, Landa M, Reyes L, Miranda R, Tamariz J, Delgado F. Infrared irradiation: Effective promoter in the formation of N-benzylideneanilines in the absence of solvent. Synthetic Communications. 2004;34:2705-2718. DOI: 10.1081/SCC-200026190
  19. 19. Tong JY, Sun NB, Wu HK. Grinding synthesis of Schiff bases combined with infrared irradiation. Asian Journal of Chemistry. 2013;25:5399-5401. DOI: 10.14233/ajchem.2013.14382
  20. 20. Martínez J, Velasco-Bejarano B, Delgado F, Pozas R, Torres Domínguez HM, Trujillo Ferrara JG, et al. Eco-contribution to the chemistry of perezone, a comparative study, using different modes of activation and solventless conditions. Natural Product Communications. 2008;3:1465-1468
  21. 21. Martínez J, Sánchez L, Pérez FJ, Carranza V, Delgado F, Reyes L, et al. Uncatalysed production of coumarin-3-carboxylic acids: A green approach. Journal of Chemistry. 2016;2016:1-6. DOI: 10.1155/2016/4678107
  22. 22. Escobedo-González RG, Pérez H, Nicolás-Vázquez MI, Martínez J, Gómez G, Nava J, et al. Green production of indolylquinones, derivatives of perezone and related molecules, promising antineoplastic compounds. Journal of Chemistry. 2016;2016:1-10. DOI: 10.1155/2016/3870529
  23. 23. Miranda R, Valencia-Vázquez O, Maya-Vega CA, Nicolás-Vázquez I, Vargas-Rodriguez YM, Morales-Serna JA, et al. Synthesis of cycloveratrylene macrocycles and benzyl oligomers catalysed by bentonitic under microwave/infrared and solvent-free conditions. Molecules. 2013;18:12820-12844
  24. 24. Salmón M, Osnaya R, Gómez L, Arroyo G, Delgado F, Miranda R. Contribution to the Biginelli reaction, using a bentonitic clay as catalyst and solventless procedure. Journal of the Mexican Chemical Society. 2001;45:206-207
  25. 25. Osnaya R, Arroyo GA, Parada L, Delgado F, Trujillo J, Salmón M, et al. Biginelli vs Hantzsch esters study under infrared radiation and solventless conditions. ARKIVOC. 2003;2003:112-117
  26. 26. Gómez-Pliego R, Osnaya R, Zamora I, Velasco-Bejarano B, Arroyo G, Ramírez-San Juan E, et al. The Hantzsch ester production in a water-based biphasic medium, using infrared irradiation as the activating source. Journal of the Mexican Chemical Society. 2007;51:181-184
  27. 27. Martínez J, Romero-Vega S, Abeja-Cruz R, Álvarez-Toledano C, Miranda R. Green approach multicomponent production of boron containing Hantzsch and Biginelli esters. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2013;14:2903-2915. DOI: 10.3390/ijms14022903
  28. 28. Chandrachood P, Gadkari T, Deshpande N, Kashalkar R. Highly efficient methodology for aromatization of 1,4-dihydropyridines using silica-supported transition metal nitrates under infra-red radiations. Journal of the Iranian Chemical Society. 2012;9:47-51. DOI: 10.1007/s13738-011-0010-2
  29. 29. Noguez MO, Marcelino V, Rodríguez H, Martín O, Martínez JO, Arroyo GA, et al. Infrared assisted production of 3,4-dihydro-2(1H)-pyridones in solvent-free conditions. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2011;9:47-51. DOI: 10.3390/ijms12042641
  30. 30. Penieres-Carrillo G, García-Estrada JG, Gutiérrez-Ramírez JL, Alvarez-Toledano C. Infrared-assisted eco-friendly selective synthesis of diindolylmethanes. Green Chemistry. 2003;5:337-339. DOI: 10.1039/b211011c
  31. 31. Wang SX, Guo SB, Gao MZ, Li JT, Duan YF. Infrared irradiation synthesis of substituted 5-oxo-1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8-octahydroquinoline derivatives under solvent-free conditions. E-Journal of Chemistry. 2006;3:159-163
  32. 32. Sánchez A, Hernández F, Cruz PC, Alcaraz Y, Tamariz J, Delgado F, et al. Infrared irradiation- assisted multicomponent synthesis of 2-amino-3-cyano-4H-pyran derivatives. Journal of the Mexican Chemical Society. 2012;56:121-127
  33. 33. Flores-Conde MI, Reyes L, Herrera R, Rios H, Vazquez MA, Miranda R, et al. Highly region- and stereoselective Diels-Alder cycloadditions via two-step and multicomponent reactions promoted by infrared irradiation under solvent-free conditions. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2012;13:2590-2617. DOI: 10.3390/ijms13032590
  34. 34. Valdez-Rojas JE, Ríos-Guerra H, Ramírez-Sánchez AL, García-González G, Álvarez-Toledano C, López-Cortés JG, et al. A study of the Willgerodt-Kindler reaction to obtain thioamides and α-ketothioamides under solvent-less conditions. Canadian Journal of Chemistry. 2012;90:567-573. DOI: 10.1139/V2012-030
  35. 35. Velázquez AM, Torres LA, Díaz G, Ramírez A, Hernández R, Santillán H, et al. A novel one-pot, solvent-free Mannich synthesis of methylpiperidinyl phenols, methylphenylmorpholinyl phenols and methylthiophenylmorpholinyl phenols using infrared light irradiation. ARKIVOC. 2006;2006:150-161
  36. 36. Velázquez AM, Torres LA, González R, Valencia A, Díaz-Barriga S, Menconi I, et al. Synthesis of 4-methoxy-2-thiomorpholin-4-ylmethyl-1-phenol. Molbank. 2007;2007:M547
  37. 37. Ortega-Jiménez F, Penieres-Carrillo JG, Lagunas–Rivera S, López-Cortés JG, Álvarez-Toledano C, Ortega-Alfaro MC. Infrared irradiation assisted both the synthesis of (Z)-(aminomethyl)(aryl)phenylhydrazones via the Mannich coupling reaction and their application to the palladium-catalyzed heck reaction. RSC Advances. 2015;5:80911-80918. DOI: 10.1039/c5ra12715g
  38. 38. Guo H, Peng M, Zhu Z, Sun L. Preparation of reduced grapheme oxide by infrared irradiation induced photothermal reduction. Nanoscale. 2013;5:9040-9048. DOI: 10.1039/c3nr02805d
  39. 39. Wang G, Huang B, Ma X, Wang Z, Qin X, Zhang X, et al. Cu2(OH)PO4, a near-infrared-activated photocatalyst. Angewandte Chemie International Edition. 2013;52:4810-4813. DOI: 10.1002/anie.201301306
  40. 40. Ikeue T, Sonoda M, Kurahashi S, Tachibana H, Teraoka D, Sugimori T, et al. Annulated dinuclearpalladium (II) phthalocyanine complex as an effective photo-oxidation catalyst for near-infrared region light. Inorganic Chemistry Communications. 2010;13:1170-1172. DOI: 10.1016/j.inoche.2010.06.041
  41. 41. Gómez-Lara J, Gutierrez-Pérez R, Penieres-Carrillo G, López-Cortés JG, Escudero-Salas A, Álvarez-Toledano C. Reaction of hydroquinones with supported oxidizing reagents in solvent-free conditions. Synthetic Communications. 2000;30:2713-2720. DOI: 10.1080/00397910008086896
  42. 42. Li H, Liu R, Lian S, Liu Y, Huang H, Kang Z. Near-infrared light controlled photocatalytic activity of carbon quantum dots for highly selective oxidation reaction. Nanoscale. 2013;5:3289-3297. DOI: 10.1039/c3nr00092c
  43. 43. Deng CH, Li YM, Zhao YF. Formation of oligopeptides from N-phosphoamino acid by infrared radiation. Phosphorus, Sulfur, and Silicon and The Related Elements. 2000;163:203-210. DOI: 10.1080/10426500008046620
  44. 44. Hernández MT, González M. Synthesis of resins as α-alumina precursors by the Pechini method using microwave and infrared heating. Journal of the European Ceramic Society. 2002;22:2861-2868
  45. 45. Huang L, Wei HB, Ke FS, Cai JS, Fan XY, Sun SG. Infrared irradiation-assisted one-step synthesis of nanosized tin dioxide particles and particle size effect on lithium storage performance. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects. 2007;308:87-92. DOI: 10.1016/j.colsurfa.2007.05.034
  46. 46. Termoss H, Toury B, Pavan S, Brioude A, Bernard S, Cornu D, et al. Preparation of boron nitride-based coatings on metallic substrates via infrared irradiation of dip-coated polyborazylene. Journal of Materials Chemistry. 2009;19:2671-2674. DOI: 10.1039/b820327j
  47. 47. Zhang N, Li Z, Zheng J, Yang X, Shen K, Zhou T, et al. Multielemental analysis of botanical samples by ICP-OES and ICP-MS with focused infrared lightwave ashing for sample preparation. Microchemical Journal. 2017;134:68-77. DOI: 10.1016/j.microc.2017.05.006
  48. 48. Jiménez-Estrada M, García MO, Navarro AO, Eusebio JL, Álvarez CT, Penieres GC, et al. Allylic nitration of 3-sitosterol and cholesterol acetate: Preparation of 7-nitro derivatives. Steroids. 1997;62:500-503
  49. 49. Penieres G, Aceves JM, Flores A, Mendoza G, García O, Álvarez C. Comparative study of ε-caprolactam synthesis using different energy sources and natural clay as catalyst. Heterocyclic Communications. 1997;3:507-508
  50. 50. Luna-Mora RA, Torres-Reyes A, González-Cruz OA, Ortega-Jiménez F, Ríos-Guerra H, González-Carrillo JV, et al. Assessment of amination reactions via nucleophilic aromatic substitution using conventional and eco-friendly energies. Green Chemistry Letters and Reviews. 2018;11:371-378
  51. 51. Ortega-Jiménez F, Domínguez-Villa FX, Rosas-Sánchez A, Penieres-Carrillo G, López-Cortés JG, Ortega-Alfaro MC. An expedient approach to enhance Mizoroki-Heck coupling reaction by infrared irradiation using palladacycle compounds. Applied Organometallic Chemistry. 2015;29:556-560. DOI: 10.1002/aoc.3331
  52. 52. Balam-Villareal JA, Sandoval-Chávez CI, Ortega-Jiménez F, Toscano RA, Carréon-Castro MP, López-Cortés JG, et al. Infrared irradiation or microwave assisted cross-coupling reactions using sulfur-containing ferrocenyl-palladacycles. Journal of Organometallic Chemistry. 2016;818:7-14. DOI: 10.1016/j.jorganchem.2016.05.017
  53. 53. Ortega-Jiménez F, Penieres-Carrillo JG, López-Cortés JG, Ortega-Alfaro MC, Lagunas-Rivera S. Arylhydrazones derivatives containing a benzothiazole moiety, efficient ligands in the palladium-catalyzed Mizoroki-Heck and Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling reactions under IR irradiation. Chinese Journal of Chemistry. 2017;35:1881-1888. DOI: 10.1002/cjoc.201700390
  54. 54. Camacho-Espinoza M, Penieres-Carrillo JG, Rios Guerra H, Lagunas-Rivera S, Ortega-Jiménez F. An efficient and simple imidazole-hydrazone ligand for palladium-catalyzed Suzuki-Miyaura cross coupling reactions in water under infrared irradiation. Journal of Organometallic Chemistry. 2019;880:386-391. DOI: 10.1016/j.jorganchem.2018.11.016
  55. 55. Lee SC, Kim JH, Jeong SM, Kim DR, Ha JU, Nam KC, et al. Effect of far-infrared radiation on the antioxidant activity of rice hulls. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2003;51:4400-4403. DOI: 10.1021/jf0300285
  56. 56. Lee SC, Kim JH, Nam KC, Ahn DU. Antioxidant properties of the far infrared-treated rice hull extract in irradiated raw and cooked turkey breast. Journal of Food Science. 2003;68:1904-1909
  57. 57. Lee SC, Jeong SM, Kim SY, Nam KC, Ahn DU. Effect of far-infrared irradiation on the antioxidant activity of defatted sesame meal extracts. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2005;53:1495-1498. DOI: 10.1021/jf048620x
  58. 58. Lee SC, Jeong SM, Kim SY, Park HR, Nam KC, Ahn DU. Effect of far-infrared radiation and heat treatment on the antioxidant activity of water extract from peanut hulls. Food Chemistry. 2006;94:489-493. DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2004.12.001
  59. 59. Lee SC, Kim SY, Jeong SM, Park JH. Effect of far-infrared irradiation on catechins and nitrile scavenging activity of green tea. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2006;54:399-403. DOI: 10.1021/jf051866x
  60. 60. Kim SY, Jeong SM, Jo SC, Lee SC. Application of far-infrared irradiation in the manufacturing process of green tea. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2006;54:9943-9947. DOI: 10.1021/jf062524+
  61. 61. Park JH, Lee JM, Cho YJ, Kim CT, Kim CJ, Nam KC, et al. Effect of far-infrared heater on the physicochemical characteristics of green tea during processing. Journal of Food Biochemistry. 2009;33:149-162
  62. 62. Kim JW, Bae HC, Kim MC, Lee SC. Effect of far-infrared irradiation on the antioxidant activity of Puerariae radix extract. Journal of Food Biochemistry. 2008;32:85-95
  63. 63. Wanyo P, Siriamornpun S, Meeso N. Changes in phenolic compounds, antioxidant and physical properties of mulberry tea influenced by intensity of far-infrared radiation. American-Eurasian Journal of Agricultural & Environmental Sciences. 2009;6:470-479
  64. 64. Chen Y, Duan G, Xie M, Chen B, Li Y. Infrared-assisted extraction coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography for simultaneous determination of eight active compounds in Radix salviae miltiorrhizae. Journal of Separation Science. 2010;33:2888-2897. DOI: 10.1002/jssc.201100649
  65. 65. Duan H, Chen Y, Chen G. Far infrared-assisted extraction followed by capillary electrophoresis for the determination of bioactive constituents in the leaves of Lycium barbarum Linn. Journal of Chromatography. A. 2010;1217:4511-4516. DOI: 10.1016/j.chroma.2010.04.069
  66. 66. Lee JM, Lee SC. The effects of far-infrared irradiation on the antioxidant activity of licorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch) root. Journal of Food Biochemistry. 2010;34:172-181. DOI: 10.1111/j.1745-4514.2009.00272.x
  67. 67. Fu Y, Zhang L, Chen G. Determination of carbohydrates in Folium Lysium chinensis using capillary electrophoresis combined with far-infrared light irradiation-assisted extraction. Journal of Separation Science. 2011;34:3272-3278. DOI: 10.1002/jssc.201100649
  68. 68. Cai Y, Yu Y, Duan G, Li Y. Study on infrared-assisted extraction coupled with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for determination of catechin, epicatechin, and procyanidin B2 in grape seeds. Food Chemistry. 2011;127:1872-1877. DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2011.02.026
  69. 69. Fu Y, Zhang L, Chen G. Far infrared-assisted extraction followed by MEKC for the simultaneous determination of flavones and phenolic acids in the leaves of Rhododendron mucronulatum Turcz. Journal of Separation Science. 2012;35:468-475. DOI: 10.1002/jssc.201100816
  70. 70. Siriamornpun S, Kaisoon O, Meeso N. Changes in colour, antioxidant activities and carotenoids (lycopene, β-carotene, lutein) of marigold flower (Tagetes erecta L.) resulting from different drying processes. Journal of Functional Foods. 2012;4:757-766. DOI: 10.1016/j.jff.2012.05.002
  71. 71. Li F, Yu Y, Zhang H, Liu T, Li Y, Duan G. Infrared-assisted non-ionic surfactant extraction as a green analytical preparatory technique for the rapid extraction and pre-concentration of pricoside I and picroside II from Picrorhiza scrophulariiflora Pennell. Analytical Methods. 2013;5:3747-3753. DOI: 10.1039/c3ay40135a
  72. 72. Jin CW, Ghimeray AK, Wang L, Xu ML, Piao JP, Cho DH. Far infrared assisted Kenaf leaf tea preparation and its effect on phenolic compounds, antioxidant and ACE inhibitory activity. Journal of Medicinal Plant Research. 2013;7:1121-1128. DOI: 10.5897/JMPR11.1431
  73. 73. Ghimeray AK, Sharma P, Hu W, Jin CW, Park CH, Rho HS, et al. Far infrared assisted conversion of isoflavones and its effect on total phenolics and antioxidants activity in black soybean seed. Journal of Medicinal Plant Research. 2013;7:1129-1137. DOI: 10.5897/JMPR11.1507
  74. 74. Ghimeray AK, Sharma P, Phoutaxay P, Salitxay T, Woo SH, Park CH. Far infrared irradiation alters total polyphenol, total flavonoid, antioxidant property and quercetin production in tartary buckwheat sprout powder. Journal of Cereal Science. 2014;59:167-172. DOI: 10.1016/j.jcs.2013.12.007
  75. 75. Cheaib D, Darra NE, Rajha HN, Ghazzawi IE, Maroun RG, Louka N. Biological activity of apricot byproducts polyphenols using solid-liquid and infrared-assisted technology. Journal of Food Biochemistry. 2018;42:e12552. DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12552
  76. 76. Martínez J, Rosas J, Pérez J, Saavedra Z, Carranza V, Alonso P. Green approach to the extraction capsaicinoids from habanero pepper using near-infrared, microwave, ultrasound and Soxhlet methods, a comparative study. Natural Product Research. 2018. DOI: 10.1080/14786419.2018.1455038
  77. 77. Alonso P, Pérez Salas H, Miranda R, Zarraga R, Moctezuma E, Saavedra Z, et al. Green approach for the sol-gel production of SiO2-TiO2 mesoporous catalysts, comparing various activating reaction modes. Green Chemistry. 2018. Submitted
  78. 78. Miranda R et al. Green approach extraction of perezone from Acourtia adnata, unpublished results. Laboratorio de Estudios sobre Quimica Verde, L-122. Departamento de Ciencias Quimicas, Facultad de Estudios Superiores Cuautitlan, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico
  79. 79. Miranda R et al. Green approach extraction of perezone from Acourtia platyphilla, unpublished results. Laboratorio de Estudios sobre Quimica Verde, L-122. Departamento de Ciencias Quimicas, Facultad de Estudios Superiores Cuautitlan, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico
  80. 80. Luna–Mora RA, Ortega-Jiménez F, Ríos-Guerra H, García-Estrada JG, Pérez-Flores FJ, González-Carrillo J, et al. Simultaneous infrared-ultrasound irradiation in organic synthesis: Acylation of amines and alcohols. Journal of the Mexican Chemical Society. 2018. Submitted

Written By

Joel Martínez and René Miranda

Submitted: September 30th, 2018 Reviewed: December 23rd, 2018 Published: February 9th, 2019