Open access peer-reviewed chapter

Talent Management as a Core Source of Innovation and Social Development in Higher Education

Written By

Atheer Abdullah Mohammed, Abdul Hafeez-Baig and Raj Gururajan

Submitted: May 28th, 2018 Reviewed: September 7th, 2018 Published: November 27th, 2018

DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.81377

Chapter metrics overview

1,368 Chapter Downloads

View Full Metrics

Abstract

In the new millennium, talent management (TM) has become more important and has received attention from institutions that seek a foundation on the map institutions of excellence. Higher education institutions are represented by their possession of highly qualified employees who are able to show initiative, creativity and excellence in performance. Those individuals are the core resources of innovation and social development. It is apparent that there is a great competition among institutions in this modern technology era, driving an increase in knowledgeable employees along with vast market changes. Consequently, academic institutions have started to rethink their procedures and policies to achieve better attraction, development and retention of those employees. Therefore, this chapter aims to improve the theoretical and pragmatic comprehension of TM as an essential source of innovative and educational development. Through pragmatic use of elements of previous research approaches combined with a comprehensive qualitative study, this study concludes that higher education institutions are aware of innovation sources that are currently used in managing talent in their divisions and faculties. These were talent attraction, talent development, and talent retention. Both empirical research represented by the case study in the higher education sector and previous research confirm that the best practices of TM are considered as attraction, development and retention of talent.

Keywords

  • talent management
  • talent attraction
  • talent development
  • talent retention
  • higher education

1. Introduction

The new-millennium has witnessed the appearance of an infinite number of developments in strategic administration-thinking as a result of the “information technology revolution”, and the appearance of the term “knowledge economy”, which looks at the institution’s excellence not only in terms of quantitative or qualitative productivity, but also in terms of the quality of knowledge that exists in its human assets, represented as talent. Therefore, management as a contemporary science has changed its language to focus on mental abilities where talented individuals institute a strategic resource in an institution [1]. Talent is a primary source of competitive advantage for institutions [2, 3, 4, 5, 6]. As a result, there are many practical benefits for institutions that focus on talents [5, 6, 7, 8, 9]. For example, talent assists in increasing rankings and profits of higher education institutions [8, 9]. To explain, universities’ rankings are aligned with the talent of high-performing employees [8, 9, 10, 11, 12]. These talented individuals contribute significantly to a university’s performance by attracting new students, conducting high-quality teaching and learning, conducting high-level research and securing funds for further research [8, 9, 10, 11, 12].

Over the past two decades, there has been a dramatic increase in TM studies [13]. TM has become a common term since the McKinsey group first mentioned it in their 1997 report ‘The War for Talent [14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21]. Then, Michaels et al. [22] discussed TM in more detail in their book [19, 23, 24]. Since then, the topic has attracted enthusiastic interest from scholars in various fields and sectors [17, 21]. In the higher education sector as an industry, TM as a primary component of strategic human resource management can improve a university’s performance over the long term by advancing its strategy and enact it through its talented individuals [12, 25, 26]. Thus, TM is a key for institutional success by making it possible for institutional systems to achieve higher goals [27, 28, 29, 30]. Consequently, it is considered a core resource of innovation and social development [12, 21].

Nonetheless, new research in the strategic human resource area is urgently needed and rapidly expanding, as institutions have encountered significant challenges associated with TM [21, 26, 31]. These key challenges are faced by higher education institutions which need to give high-quality assurance in their technical expertise and activities [32, 33, 34, 35, 36] and their ability to be a leading exporter of international education [35, 36, 37, 38]. Bradley [12] has suggested that a key solution to meet these challenges in Australian higher education could be the application of TM programmes. Such programmes include processes such as attraction, development and retention of talent, which are keys to growth and success of higher education institutions within their industry [12, 26, 39, 40, 41].

The review of the chapter is covered into five sections. The introduction of the chapter is provided in Section 1. Next, the TM theory and a brief explanation of this concept are provided. It discusses the conceptual identity and intellectual frameworks of TM. Talent management practices (TMPs) are reviewed and addressed in Section 3. Here, the practices that are included in the review are attraction, development and retention of talent. Section 4 discusses the innovations of TM in higher education. Finally, Section 5 concludes this chapter.

Advertisement

2. Method

The authors adopted both theoretical and practical approaches. Theoretically, a systematic review that includes empirical and theoretical studies on TM which have been published between 2007 and 2017 in scholarly research has been adopted. A total of 35 academic works were involved in the review [42]. Practically, the authors carried out an empirical qualitative study in six Australian universities to understand the best processes that are currently used in managing talent in the higher education sector [43, 44]. It comprised qualitative multi-method studies including (i) a brainstorming session to develop sets of questions, (ii) a focus group session to define the scope of individual interviews and (iii) individual interviews to obtain an in-depth understanding on the subject [45, 46, 47]. Qualitative methods were enough to comprehend the best practices of innovation that are currently utilised in managing talent in the higher education environment. The sample consisted of 6 participants for brainstorming, 11 in the focus group session and 6 individual interviews.

Advertisement

3. The conception of talent management

In today’s business world, talents are considered strategic resources for meeting institutional demand for increased competitiveness [4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 41, 48, 49]. Prior to reviewing TM, it is essential to describe the term talent [21, 50]. Iles et al. [14], Barron [51], Blass [52], Li and Devos [53], Cannon and McGee [54], Tansley et al. [55], Festing and Schäfer [56] and Naim et al. [57] all introduce talent as high-performing employees who have been considered to have significantly contributed to the progress of an organisation and its future development. Others like Rudhumbu and Maphosa [39], Harstad [58] and Sparrow and Makram [59] consider these as employees who are capable to add value by increasing organisational production. Having experience, mastery, knowledge, the skills, ability and the potential for development are all considered by Silzer and Church [60], Gümüş et al. [61], Beardwell and Thompson [62], Silzer and Dowell [63] and D’Annunzio-Green [64] as indications of talent.

Similarly, Baublyte [65] and Macfarlane et al. [66] have defined talent as those who exhibit leadership qualities that play a pivotal function within the organisation and show superior behaviour. Some other characteristics ascribed to the talent of human capital are that it is beneficial, unique [67, 68] and a major institutional resource [69, 70]. According to Scaringella and Malaeb [31], Ross [71] and Butter et al. [72], talent is an innate ability to learn things in an effortless and skilful manner inherent in these intelligent and creative individuals. Other researchers, such as Murongazvombo [73], Chuai [74], Kravtsova [75], Kramer et al. [76] and Kaliannan et al. [77], have defined talent as an essential driver and success element for an institution both short and long term [21].

As a concept, in the higher education environment, TM as a primary component of the strategic human resource management can improve a university’s performance over the long term by understanding the strategy enacted through its talented individuals [12, 25, 26]. This is a key for institutional success by making it possible for institutional systems to achieve higher goals [27, 28, 29, 30]. In the literature, there are six common perspectives on TM, which are [21] (1) process, (2) strategic, (3) developmental, (4) cultural, (5) competitive and (6) human resource planning perspectives [53, 65, 78].

Advertisement

4. The process perspective

This was defined by Iles et al. [14], Blass [52] and Cappelli [79], for whom TM appears as a complex set of processes that operate in large institutions so that the institutions and individuals within them can meet current and future needs with overall benefits for the institution. In a similar vein, Dessler [80], Tansley et al. [81], Blackman and Kennedy [82] and Ali et al. [83] portray the TM process as needing full integration, in order to become a standard practice to attract individuals who have high potential for creative development and to retain them in order to generate a unique value to the institution. In other words, it is a specific method for attracting and retaining abilities and essential knowledge for the future [80, 81, 82, 83].

Advertisement

5. The strategic perspective

TM is a strategy to attract the right talent and provide workers with potential contributions via strategic workforce planning and high-quality development experiences that build institutional capabilities [59, 84]. In the same way, it is a strategic function for identifying talent gaps and managing succession planning, along with attracting [85], selecting, motivating, developing and maintaining highly qualified individuals [86, 87]. TM can be useful in empowering employees to understand their essential capabilities and to produce an effective climate which professionally empowers them to underpin, capture and develop these talents into individual productivity [59, 71]. Therefore, TM should inform the selection of high-performance incumbents to fill positions [88, 89].

Advertisement

6. The developmental perspective

TM is a strategic priority for business institutions and is perceived as a crucial driver in developing institutional performance [90, 91]. Similarly, Cannon and McGee [54], Silzer and Dowell [63] and Moczydłowska [92] explain TM as a set of procedures, programmes and activities applied to highly qualified employees who are characterised by high potential in their development in order to achieve an institution’s goals now and in the future. The reason for this is that, if an institution fails to provide talented development and training, it may lose available talent [93].

Advertisement

7. The competitive perspective

As perceived by Beamond et al. [94], Tomany [95] and Meyers and Van Woerkom [96], TM is an engine of sustainable competitive advantage, which is tricky to simulate, is rare and valuable and cannot be replaced by competitors. From the same perspective, Iles et al. [14], Al Haidari [50], Gelens et al. [68], Collings and Mellahi [88], Waheed et al. [97] and Yap [98] define it as activities, processes and development of skills which require individuals to achieve a sustainable competitive advantage and institutional success by providing competent and highly qualified individuals who are more capable than competitors in other institutions.

Advertisement

8. The human resource planning perspective

Cui et al. [17], Beardwell and Thompson [62], Cappelli [79], Nissler [99] and Lewis and Heckman [100] introduce TM as a tool of human resource planning to develop a plan to meet institutional human resource needs, in order to attract employees with the appropriate skills in the appropriate areas of work. This involves a number of procedures designed to attract, develop and retain extremely talented staff to meet institutional needs. In other words, TM anticipates the necessity for human resources and then builds a strategy to meet it.

Advertisement

9. The cultural perspective

According to this perspective, TM focuses on social and cultural contexts of available human resources within a range of qualities [101]. These qualities include innate ability, intelligence and creative skills [31, 71, 72, 102]. Proponents of this perspective propose that individuals are successful only when they have sufficient talent and believe that the success of institutional work will be followed by their own success [101, 103]. Table 1 shows a summary of perspectives on TM.

No.The studyCountrySector/industryMethodTMPs
Talent selectionTalent engagementTalent attraction (recruitment)Talent developmentLeadership developmentSuccession planningTalent acquisitionSupport and trainingTalent retentionCompensation and rewardTalent identificationSkills gap analysisWorkforce and talent planningPerformance managementCareer managementTalent evaluation
1[109]South AfricaICTQuantitative******
2[110]ThailandPrivateQualitative***
3[111]South AfricaHotelQuantitative*******
4[112]IndiaBusiness servicesQuantitative*****
5[113]Theoretical*****
6[114]IranManufacturingQuantitative*****
7[115]MalaysiaPrivateQualitative****
8[116]SwitzerlandPrivateQuantitative****
9[117]Czech RepublicPrivateQuantitative***
10[118]Several European countriesPrivateQualitative***
11[119]UgandaPrivateQuantitative***
12[75]Czech RepublicPrivateQualitative********
13[120]Sweden and RomaniaPrivateQuantitative****
14[95]United Kingdom (UK)PrivateMixed******
15[121]DenmarkManufacturingQualitative***
16[104]NorwayManufacturingQualitative********
17[122]PakistanPrivateQuantitative****
18[123]PakistanBankingQualitative***
19[70]Theoretical*******
20[124]GhanaBankingQuantitative*****
21[125]KenyaBankingQuantitative****
22[126]USAPrivateQuantitative*****
23[127]ChinaManufacturingQualitative***
24[50]Arab Gulf countriesBankingMixed***
25[128]Theoretical****
26[129]Theoretical****
27[80]Theoretical******
28[130]EgyptBankingQuantitative****
29[131]PakistanBankingQuantitative****
30[77]MalaysiaPrivateQualitative****
31[132]PortugalPrivateQualitative*****
32[133]Theoretical***
33[134]Theoretical**
34[135]South AfricaHigher educationQualitative***
35[26]MalaysiaHigher educationQualitative***
Total74242428242511722345
Percentage (%) of research studies2011.468.568.55.722.85.711.471.431.4205.75.78.544.414.2

Table 1.

The TMPs according to the opinions of authors and researchers.

Source: Prepared by the researcher based on the above sources.

To conclude this section, the scope of TM is restricted to the strategic perspective for three reasons. First of all, the strategic perspective includes all the perspectives above [104]. Secondly, this perspective outlines how an institution can efficiently implement TMPs [104, 105]. Finally, TM is a function of attraction, development and retention processes which contribute strategically to an institution’s success [105, 106, 107].

Advertisement

10. Talent management practices: a critical review

In the twenty-first century, TM has become more important and has received attention from institutions that seek a foothold in the institutional map of excellence. High-performing institutions are identifiable by their talented individuals who are able to show initiative, creativity and excellence in performance [27, 28, 29]. In higher education environments where high-performing organisations are identifiable by their talented individuals who are able to show initiative, creativity and excellence in performance. TMPs assist higher education institutions regarding such as the development of the talent pool, improvement of the productivity of individuals, support for effective planning and improvement of human resource management [40, 41]. Besides, attraction, development and retention of talent are strategically the keys to growth and success of higher education institutions [12]. The reason for this is that competitive advantage can be maintained by attracting, developing and retaining highly qualified individuals in key positions [3, 41, 49, 108]. Therefore, a majority of institutions have started to rethink their procedures and policies to achieve better acquisition and retention of individual talents. It is obvious that there is a strong competition between institutions in a technology-driven modern era, which has caused an increase in knowledge workers along with vast market changes [27, 28, 29]. In the scope of TM literature, several studies through the period 2007–2017 have shown in Table 1.

As shown in Table 1, it is obvious that many scholars have focused their empirical and theoretical attention on attraction, retention, and development of talent. Of all articles reviewed, talent retention is the dominant process with 25 articles (68.5%) of TMPs research have concentrated on, followed by both talent attraction and development with 68.5 per cent (24 articles), and talent attraction with 22 articles (73.3%). The least attention was paid to the TMPs of leadership development, talent acquisition, skills gap analysis, workforce and talent planning and performance management with two or three articles each.

Overall, as mentioned in the method section of this chapter, the authors carried out an empirical qualitative study in six Australian universities to understand the best processes that are currently used in managing talent in the higher education sector [43, 44]. This study explored the best TMPs of innovation in the aforementioned sector. (1) Talent attraction (social domain and institutional excellence), (2) talent development (performance management, coaching talent and leadership development) and (3) talent retention (benchmarking, job satisfaction, nonmonetary rewards, employee empowerment and employee motivation) were selected as best processes of TM in the higher education sector.

10.1 Talent attraction

In modern knowledge-based institutions, talent attraction is one of the most essential success elements [105, 136, 137]. Higher education institutions, for example, are strongly based on the attraction of experienced staff to fill key positions [9, 12, 36]. They primarily aim to attract talented candidates from the internal or external labour market [130]. However, there are some difficulties and challenges in attracting qualified staff to higher education institutions [9, 36]. These issues include safety and security, workloads [36] and conflicting opinions [9]. To meet these challenges, Beardwell and Thompson [62] highlight the following approaches that have been identified as effective for attracting talent:

  • The job-based approach: this includes writing a comprehensive description of a job which is filled by an employee, and then creates the desired person specification, which is based on that job description. However, this approach is inflexible because the changes that can occur in the main tasks or list of responsibilities of the main job are not taken into consideration.

  • The person-based approach: this focuses on identifying individual attitudes sought by an institution. It can be adopted in order to recruit individuals to fill a vacant job and participate in achieving the broader business targets of the institution.

  • The competency-based approach: this tries to recruit people by, for example, specifications, knowledge, experiences, skills and personal values that are attached to a job and used as a guide for an individual. However, this approach can encounter practical implementation difficulties and therefore may not achieve the institution’s goals.

Talent attraction can be divided into two sub-variables: (1) social domain and (2) institutional excellence. Throughout the chapter, the term ‘social domain’ is used to refer to support in difficult times, social innovation and work-life balance. An institution can attract more talented employees by providing them with social support in critical areas, for example, motherhood and monetary difficulties [138]. In regard to work-life balance, the last decade has seen a growing trend towards family-friendly workplaces [139]. Thompson [137] defines work-life balance as a personal perspective that is related to compatibility for talented employees inside and outside their workplace. Socialising with colleagues, lifestyle opportunities or appropriate locations are determinant factors for attracting new talented individuals, because they add work-life balance to institutions, which in turn contributes increasingly to their productivity [98, 136, 137, 139].

In the literature, the term ‘institutional excellence’ is generally understood to mean a strong tool and a key driver that assists institutions to achieve their strategic and operational aims [140, 141]. Excellent institutions adopt managerial attitudes that focus on total quality in all internal processes to attract high-quality individuals [53, 142]. As previously stated, the qualitative study explores a number of excellence-related factors that contribute to attracting new talents to higher education institutions. These factors include talent branding, the reputation of an institutions, institutional culture, institutional climate and work environment.

Talent branding as a key element of talent attraction enables institutions to manage talent of employees through an institutions’ identity, loyalty and culture, as a means of attracting high-potential individuals [53, 142, 143, 144, 145]. Institutional branding depends on the available resources for employees’ recruitment. In order to achieve financial and time goals, institutions have to consider particular resources in terms of where to obtain the profile required. In order to be excellent and successful in attracting talent, institutions need to follow appropriate strategies, adopt ethical principles in each phase of their current practices and build a strong and distinctive reputation in the labour market to be competitive [74, 123]. There are two different strategies for recruiting talent to an institution [53, 80, 146, 147]:

(1) Internal brands: An institution relies on its candidates. This will decrease the risks connected with the recruitment process and will save costs. An institution may know or can observe a candidate’s strengths and weaknesses as well as the fact that current employees are possibly more committed to the institution. In particular, avoiding external advertisements enables institutions to save costs of external channels. However, Dessler [80] argues that rejected applicants may become discontented, and it can also waste time since often the manager already knows whom they want to hire.

(2) External brands: Institutions cannot always get all the employees they need from their current staff and therefore need to tap into external sources to find candidates [53, 80]. However, online recruitment channels may encourage excessive numbers of applications to reach a limited audience (online job search), or the process is seen as too impersonal, discouraging some candidates [62, 80]. Therefore, institutions should develop a strong and distinguishable employer brand, which links institutional values to the employee management strategy and the institution’s brand [62, 121]. This can attract the best possible talent by promoting a unique combination of mental and practical benefits in the work place [62, 121].

Indeed, an institution that has excellence in its activities builds a good reputation, which then allows it to attract the best talents [125, 145, 148, 149]. This view is supported by Horseman [10] and Cruz-Castro et al. [150] who write that reputation and university ranking are key elements of institutional excellence to attract talented individuals. Furthermore, a desirable institutional climate is a determinant of attracting new talented employees [125, 137, 151]. Similarly, a supportive institutional culture with innovation can be an excellence-related factor for attracting qualified employees [140]. In regard to consideration of the work environment, this is a driving force for attracting talent [98, 125]. Working environment factors such as improved health, stress reduction, autonomy, job security and satisfaction within an institution are considered determining aspects for attracting talent to the institution [136, 137, 139, 151].

In summary, it has been demonstrated in this review that talent attraction is a basic factor of innovation and success in various sectors in general and in the higher education sector specifically, because of the key role that talent attraction plays in the functioning of higher education institutions. Thus, talent attraction in educational institutions is a function of social domain and institutional excellence.

10.2 Talent development

In a perfect business world, because of strong competition, institutions should develop their talented employees to enable them to become productive more rapidly [152]. Hence, the talent development process needs to be embedded within staffing progress and be regarded as a successful measure for institutions to improve the skills of their highly qualified individual staff members [40, 74, 142, 153]. Talent development is considered a critical resource of differentiation and sustainable competitive advantage [62, 153]. It is strategically important for an institution’s success [ 108, 153, 154]. For instance, the development of talent working within higher education institution also assists in retaining talented employees [153], which in turn assists in increasing university rankings and profits [8, 9]. University rankings are aligned with the talent of high-performing employees, and these talented individuals contribute significantly to a university’s performance by recruiting new students, conducting professional teaching, conducting high-level research and securing research funding [8, 9, 10, 11, 12].

The development process of talent involves three elements: (1) performance management, (2) coaching talent and (3) leadership development.

  1. Performance management—As one of the key processes of talent development, this assists in filling the gap between the current and planned performances of highly qualified employees [153, 154, 155, 156]. It evaluates the current performance of talents to assist them in identifying their competency level and then developing their capabilities [125, 130]. Through this process, training needs can be identified to develop talent [156, 157]. Institutions should offer their experienced staff appropriate development strategies to improve their strong points and hence improve their total performance, including particular competencies, strengthening their motivation and boosting their career development [40, 158, 159].

  2. Coaching talent—This is the second sub-variable of talent development. The existing literature on coaching talent is extensive and focuses on learning and development of talent [160, 161]. Even though coaching talent can be a significant tool for achieving high talent development through learning skills and creating knowledge, the difficulty in transforming these skills from outside an institution has been a disadvantage [142, 162]. Coaching talent through internal job rotation can develop individual knowledge and experience from different departments and divisions within an institution [163, 164, 165]. Training and mentoring programmes are valuable tools for developing talent [160, 166, 167]. These programmes can be offered online [130] and can also include face-to-face learning and teaching courses for academic staff [168] to gain required knowledge and skills [130, 168]. In addition, leading institutions provide their talented employees with career development opportunities [98, 104, 161, 169].

  3. Leadership development—This is a key process of talent development [153]. It assists institutions in achieving overall institutional sustainability [160, 169, 170]. Effective and developed leadership is a key element of institutional sustainability [171]. Institutional sustainability through leadership assists institutions to strategically generate intrinsic values and wellbeing for all stakeholders [171]. The leadership development process includes ‘coaching, multi-source feedback, stretch assignments, mentoring, international job assignments and formal development programmes’ [169], as well as succession planning [164, 172, 173]. In academic institutions, high-level leadership provides talented individuals with sufficient opportunities in regard to functional planning programmes [12, 154]. Conversely, a lack of formalised institutional leadership training could negatively affect employees from achieving their advancement potential [166]. Therefore, the leadership development process enables leaders to obtain the skills and competencies necessary to be effective through role assignment leadership programmes [169, 170].

In brief, it has been shown in this review that talent development is a critical source of innovation and sustainable competitive priority in various sectors in general and in the higher education sector specifically. It assists in retaining highly qualified employees and increasing university rankings and profits. Thus, talent development in academic institutions is a function of performance management, coaching talent and leadership development.

10.3 Talent retention

Talent retention becomes a progressively worthwhile process of building an institution’s ability to acquire and maintain a competitive advantage [118, 174, 175]. It is focused on retaining talent among an institution’s staff so they remain with an institution [130]. Due to fierce competition to attract talent among leading institutions in all sectors in general and particularly in the higher education sector, the retention of talented staff in higher education institutions is problematic [12, 166, 176, 177]. This is partly due to constant growth in the economy that makes job opportunities for academic talent almost unlimited [12, 177]. Retention of talented individuals is mainly aimed at enabling an institution to keep a high-value workforce and to build a unique source of competitive advantage, which can lead to institutional growth and success [124, 178]. Talent retention is constructed using five sub-variables: (1) benchmarking, (2) job satisfaction, (3) nonfinancial rewards, (4) employee empowerment and (5) employee motivation.

First of all, benchmarking can broadly be defined as a key tool for setting aims by utilising learning and external standards from other institutions, which can act as the best practice for performance [10]. This tool has received considerable attention within Australian institutions [179]. It is seen as a beneficial way of retaining talented staff within higher education institutions through assessing the current strategies of talent retention from the best performing institutions [10, 180]. There are several types of benchmarking within the higher education sector [10]: internal benchmarking compares performance to other divisions of the university, competitive benchmarking compares performance against a chosen group of peer universities, sector benchmarking is a comparison with all universities in the same country and strategic benchmarking involves a comparison with overseas universities. Competitive compensation is considered as an essential element of success towards retaining highly qualified individuals within an institution that seeks to achieve a competitive advantage [181, 182]. Thus, institutions should have a competitive benchmarking system, which is a determining factor for retaining their highly qualified staff [125, 142, 182]. The second sub-variable of talent retention is job satisfaction. It was not until the late 1930s that historians began to consider job satisfaction as worthy of scholarly attention [183]. Job satisfaction involves a positive emotional attitude in workplaces to assist higher education institutions to retain experienced staff and achieve a competitive advantage [11, 166, 184, 185, 186]. It can be understood in terms of work environments, work conditions, relationships with supervisors and career opportunities [177, 184, 186]. Existing high-quality working environments and conditions promote job satisfaction, which assists the improvement of performance at both individual and institutional levels [166, 177, 184]. Therefore, high job satisfaction of talented individuals in academic workplaces is a reflection of existing effective retention strategies [166, 177].

Thirdly, nonfinancial rewards can play a crucial role in assisting an institution in retaining its talented staff through increasing productive time and engagement among individuals and consequently improving their overall productivity [125, 158, 187, 188, 189]. Nonmonetary rewards improve retention rates of highly qualified employees working in higher education institutions [176]. Those rewards involve certification, genuine appreciation and recognition [158]. Likewise, Hina et al. [188] hold the view that nonfinancial rewards include personal growth, interesting work, participation, flexibility, acknowledgement, significance of a role and achievement. Nonfinancial rewards in higher education institutions constitute funding external education, promotion and participation [190]. Employee empowerment is the fourth element of the talent retention construct. A large and growing body of literature about ‘human relations movement’ has been developed since the 1990s [175, 191, 192]. Employee empowerment practices are an essential element of motivating and retaining highly qualified employees for a long time within an institution [83, 193, 194]. Employee empowerment in academic workplaces assists in retaining talented staff, both academic and professional [192, 193]. It improves the satisfaction levels of an institution’s employees through granting them self-efficacy in their workplaces [195, 196]. Successful institutions that seek to increase their productivity should empower employees through encouraging creative ideas and involvement in decision-making [175, 189, 194, 197]. Thus, employee empowerment is a process which values employees by providing them with sufficient responsibility and authority to manage their work professionally [194]. The fifth and final sub-variable of talent retention is employee motivation. Motivational and valued work, professional advancement and supportive learning environments are seen as the key to retaining talented employees [11, 123]. In higher education environments, employee motivation plays a key role in retaining valued staff [11, 166, 177, 198]. An institution should offer proper financial rewards to its employees to ensure employee motivation [159, 199]. Career advancement is a creation of opportunities for highly qualified individuals that could lead them to improve and develop their career paths [137, 152]. These created opportunities are essential for retaining talented individuals [98, 104, 161, 169].

In summary, it has been shown in this review that talent retention is a main area of interest within the field of TM. It is a key source for innovation and sustaining competitive advantage in various institutions in general and educational institutions specifically. Thus, talent retention is a function of benchmarking, job satisfaction, employee empowerment, employee motivation and nonfinancial rewards.

To conclude this section, a review of the TM literature identifies a number of processes in various sectors and institutions. The most common practices of TM are attraction, development and retention. This view is supported by the outcomes of the qualitative study that has been conducted in a case of the higher education sector in Queensland, Australia [43].

11. Discussion

TM is considered a form of investment because talented individuals are viewed as the core source of innovation and social development [12]. The practices of TM are positively associated with improving innovation of institutional performance [200, 201, 202]. These practices play an essential role in nurturing the appropriate conditions for channelling and motivating employees towards the improvement of innovation activities [202]. Consequently, when an organisation fails to redefine its staff value proposition, it will continually have issues in attracting, developing and retaining talent [39]. Thus, TM can provide considerable benefits to an institution [5, 6, 7, 8, 9]. For example, it improves the institution’s overall performance, its ethos, its competitiveness and talent retention, which in turn prevent risks to the institution [203]. TM assists development of the talent pool, improvement of the productivity of individuals, support for effective planning and improvement of human resources management [40, 41]. Furthermore, attraction, development and retention as key practices of TM are strategically the keys of innovation to growth and success of the higher education industry [12], as a competitive advantage can be maintained by attracting, developing and retaining highly qualified individuals in key positions [3, 41, 49, 108].

TM can affect and adjust the behaviours and abilities of individuals to innovate [202]. Talented individuals have become a competitive weapon and resource of innovation for institutions in obtaining a sustainable competitive advantage [204, 205, 206]. A majority of higher education organisations have realised that talented individuals are strategic assets because they play a key role in the success, innovation and growth of the higher education institutions over the long term [9, 12, 39, 40]. These individuals assist higher education organisations with cultural adaption through identifying the challenges of public perception and the development of active learning environments [26, 89, 207]. Highly qualified employees constitute a critical resource of creativity, innovation and therefore future revenues for institutions [12, 106]. In addition, increase in the strategic importance of human resources management for competitive advantage can be achieved by talented individuals [206, 208, 209]. As a result, innovation is a complicated task, which requires high professional ability in knowledge-intensive positions [202]. Hence, talented individuals play a significant role in an institution’s survival and innovation in a dynamic environment [201, 208, 210, 211].

This study provides a clear and inclusive outline of the extant scholarly research from the period 2007–2017. Reviews in this period provide an opportunity to learn from prior experiences in TM. Most importantly, this empirical research is one of the first few studies that extended the previous investigation of TMPs in various sectors to the higher education sector. Both empirical qualitative research represented by the case study in the higher education sector and previous research of TM confirm that the key practices of TM are considered as attraction, development and retention of talent. Looking to Table 1, it is apparent that the vast majority of research is outside the higher education sector; the few studies from within are in non-Australian contexts. This finding is supported by the previous studies. For example, Paisey and Paisey [25] find that TM studies in the higher education sector are limited. The majority of TM studies focus on theoretical frameworks with little focus on pragmatic studies [95, 212, 213, 214]. Furthermore, practical studies on TM are either quantitative or qualitative [20, 213]. On the other side, the findings of Table 1 is supported by the previous research that TMPs ‘can be grouped into five core groups: (i) recruitment, attraction and selection; (ii) training and development; (iii) retention; (iv) identification and (v) performance management of talent’ [21, 53, 116, 126, 213].

Observing at Table 1, many scholars have given empirical attention on retention, development and attraction of talent [121, 131, 205, 206, 213, 215, 216, 217, 218]. One of the key reasons behind this attention is that talent attraction, retention and development are strategically very essential in today’s ephemeral knowledge economy, as they firstly assist an institution to achieve strategic business goals and meet basic business requirements and they form the foundation for the implementation of business strategies [21, 97, 106, 165, 172, 218, 219, 220]. Secondly, institutions that establish their principal competence in talent attraction, talent development and talent retention guarantee their own steadiness and growth among other competitive institutions in the same business sector [21, 107, 108, 221]. Finally, attraction, development and retention of talent are essential for growth and success of higher education institutions over the long term by enacting their strategy through their highly qualified employees [12, 21, 39, 40]. In addition, Table 1 shows that the least attention was paid to the TMPs of acquisition, leadership development, skills gap analysis, workforce and talent planning with one or two articles each.

In general, the results of the three core themes of TM above are in line with Bradley [12], Kamal [26], Rudhumbu and Maphosa [39] and Wu et al. [40] who emphasise that attraction, development and retention of talent are strategically essential for educational success and growth. This view is supported by Waheed et al. [97], Kim et al. [106], Tatoglu et al. [165], Hejase et al. [172], Ford [218], Rothwell [219] and Rothwell et al. [220] who point out that ‘attraction, development, and retention of talent are strategically more important in today’s volatile knowledge economy; because they help an institution achieve strategic business aims, meet basic business requirements, and form the foundation to implement business strategy’ [21]. Similarly, van den Broek et al. [107], Mwangi et al. [108], Xue [127] and Kataike [221] state that an institution ‘that established its core competence in attraction, development, and retention of talent guarantees its own stability and success among other competitors in the industry’ [21].

Overall, although the findings of our case study are consistent with some of the prior studies, there are major variances. This study is one of the first studies that examine TMPs in Australian higher education. The consistency with the previous research was partially conceptual, theoretical or regarding methodological matters. In conclusion, this section has attempted to provide a discussion of both an empirical case study and literature relating to the innovations of TM in the higher education sector. TM is a strategic source for sustaining competitive advantage in all kinds of institutions. Therefore, talent is an essential management for innovative institutions [21, 222, 223, 224].

12. Conclusion

This chapter has attempted to provide a clear explanation of the literature relating to TM. It aims to improve the theoretical and practical understanding of TM research in the higher education sector. The principal conclusion of the empirical study is that higher education institutions are aware of innovation sources that are currently used in managing talent in their divisions and faculties. These were (1) talent attraction (social domain and organisational excellence), (2) talent development (performance management, coaching talent and leadership development) and (3) talent retention (benchmarking, employee motivation, employee empowerment, nonmonetary rewards and job satisfaction). As a result, those individuals contribute significantly to a university’s performance by attracting new students and securing funds for further research. These themes are positively associated with innovation speed of the higher education institutions. TM is an integrated management system that starts with the practices of attracting, developing and retaining talents. So that institutions can benefit from this in the form of products (commodities/services) that have difficult characteristics of imitation and competition. This is because of the expertise and knowledge possessed by their efficient human resources. Although the scholars and researchers differ in determining a unified concept of talent, the specialised literature produces two trends in its definition, some of which are traditionally based on high intelligence, while the modern trend is based on excellent performance, mental ability, technical and dynamic skills, creative thinking and leadership abilities. In addition, the review of literature included various views of talent, but all the scholars and researchers agree that talent is a valuable resource of innovation for all institutions. The literature also identified six common perspectives on TM. From the literature, the strategic perspective was identified as most relevant to achieving the research objectives.

The generalisability of these findings is limited to the Australian university sector in Queensland. This study recommends that there is further research to be done in the higher education area, especially in relation to talent using empirical methodologies. More specifically, mixed method research should be used to fill the gap in the TM literature. As the least attention was paid to the practices of leadership development, talent acquisition, skills gap analysis, workforce and talent planning, and performance management with two or three articles each. This requires more attention in the future research to fill the gap in the TM literature. It would be useful to investigate the current methodology and topic of this research in other countries in order to generalise the findings within the global context.

References

  1. 1. Allal-Chérif O, Makhlouf M. Using serious games to manage knowledge: The SECI model perspective. Journal of Business Research. 2016;69:1539-1543
  2. 2. Lawler EE III. Talent: Making People Your Competitive Advantage. San Francisco, USA: John Wiley & Sons; 2010
  3. 3. Gateau T, Simon L. Clown scouting and casting at the Cirque du Soleil: Designing boundary practices for talent development and knowledge creation. International Journal of Innovation Management. 2016;20(4):1-31
  4. 4. Daraei MR, Karimi O, Vahidi T. An analysis on the relation between strategic knowledge management and talent management strategy in profitability of the Southern Khorasan Electric Distribution Company (SKEDC). Global Journal of Management and Business. 2014;1(2):021-035
  5. 5. Jones R. Social capital: Bridging the link between talent management and knowledge management. In: Vaiman V, Vance C, Elgar E, editors. Smart Talent Management: Building Knowledge Assets for Competitive Advantage. Vol. 4. Aldershot, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing Limited; 2008. pp. 217-233
  6. 6. Shabane TS. The integration of talent management and knowledge management in the south African public service. Master of Commerce In Business Management. Pretoria, South Africa: University of South Africa; 2017
  7. 7. Urbancová H, Vnoučková L. Application of talent and knowledge management in the Czech and Slovak republics: First empirical approaches. Economic Annals. 2015;LX(205):105-137
  8. 8. Lynch K. Control by numbers: New managerialism and ranking in higher education. Critical Studies in Education. 2015;56(2):190-207
  9. 9. Hazelkorn E. Rankings and higher education: Reframing relationships within and between states. In Centre for Global Higher Education 2017. London: UCL Institute of Education; 2398-564X, May 2017. Available from: http://www.researchcghe.org/
  10. 10. Horseman N. Benchmarking and rankings. In: Strike T, editor. Higher Education Strategy and Planning: A Professional Guide. 1st ed. New York: Routledge; 2018. pp. 228-246
  11. 11. Refozar RFG, Buenviaje MG, Perez MP, Manongsong JL, Laguador JM. Extent of leader motivating language on faculty members’ job satisfaction from a higher education institution. Asia Pacific Journal of Education, Arts and Sciences. 2017;4(3):99-107
  12. 12. Bradley AP. Talent management for universities. Australian Universities Review. 2016;58(1):13-19
  13. 13. Cascio WF, Boudreau JW. The search for global competence: From international HR to talent management. Journal of World Business. 2016;51(1):103-114
  14. 14. Iles P, Chuai X, Preece D. Talent management and HRM in multinational companies in Beijing: Definitions, differences and drivers. Journal of World Business. 2010;45(2):179-189
  15. 15. Farndale E, Scullion H, Sparrow P. The role of the corporate HR function in global talent management. Journal of World Business. 2010;45(2):161-168
  16. 16. Ozuem W, Lancaster G, Sharma H. In search of balance between talent management and employee engagement in human resource management. In: Casademunt AML, Ed. Strategic Labor Relations Management in Modern Organizations. Hershey PA, USA: Business Science Reference; 2016. pp. 49-75
  17. 17. Cui W, Khan Z, Tarba SY. Strategic Talent Management in Service SMEs of China. Sheffield, United Kingdom: Wiley Periodicals; 2016
  18. 18. Swailes S. The cultural evolution of talent management: A memetic analysis. Human Resource Development Review. 2016;15(3):340-358
  19. 19. Martin A. Talent management: Preparing a “Ready” agile workforce. International Journal of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine. 2015;2(3):112-116
  20. 20. McDonnell A, Collings DG, Mellahi K, Schuler R. Talent management: A systematic review and future prospects. European Journal of International Management. 2017;11(1):86-128
  21. 21. Mohammed AA, Gururajan R, Hafeez-Baig A. Primarily investigating into the relationship between talent management and knowledge management in business environment. In: International Conference on Web Intelligence; Leipzig, Germany: ACM; 2017. pp. 1131-1137
  22. 22. Michaels E, Handfield-Jones H, Axelrod B. The War for Talent. 18th ed. Boston: Harvard Business School; 2001
  23. 23. Verma D, Ahmad A. Employer branding: The solution to create talented workforce. IUP Journal of Brand Management. 2016;13(1):42-57
  24. 24. Gallardo-Gallardo E, Arroyo Moliner L, Gallo P. Mapping collaboration networks in talent management research. Journal of Organizational Effectiveness: People and Performance. 2017;4(4):332-358
  25. 25. Paisey C, Paisey NJ. Talent management in academia: The effect of discipline and context on recruitment. Studies in Higher Education. 2018;43(7):1196-1214
  26. 26. Kamal M. Challenges in talent management in selected public universities. Imperial Journal of Interdisciplinary Research. 2017;3(5):583-587
  27. 27. Calo TJ. Talent management in the era of the aging workforce: The critical role of knowledge transfer. Public Personnel Management. 2008;37(4):403-416
  28. 28. Sweem SL. Leveraging Employee Engagement Through a Talent Management Strategy: Optimizing Human Capital Through Human Resources and Organization Development Strategy in a Field Study. Lisle, Illinois, USA: Doctor of philosophy in organization development, Benedictine University; 2009
  29. 29. Andersson D. An externalizable model of tactical mission control for knowledge transfer. International Journal of Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (IJISCRAM). 2014;6(3):16-37
  30. 30. Daneshfard K, Rajae Z, Bilondi ZM, Banihashem SA. The effect of organizational intelligence on talent management, using structural equations. International Journal of Humanities and Cultural Studies. 2016;3(2):464-476
  31. 31. Scaringella L, Malaeb RC. Contributions of talent people to knowledge management. The Journal of Applied Business Research. 2014;30(3):715-724
  32. 32. Shah M, Jarzabkowski L. The Australian higher education quality assurance framework: From improvement-led to compliance-driven. Perspectives: Policy and Practice in Higher Education. 2013;17(3):96-106
  33. 33. Lim FCB. Do too many rights make a wrong? A qualitative study of the experiences of a sample of Malaysian and Singapore private higher education providers in transnational quality assurance. Quality in Higher Education. 2010;16(3):211-222
  34. 34. Choon Boey Lim F. Education hub at a crossroads: The development of quality assurance as a competitive tool for Singapore's private tertiary education. Quality Assurance in Education. 2009;17(1):79-94
  35. 35. Chiou B. International Education, Student Migration and Government Policy: A Comparative Study of Australia and New Zealand. New Zealand: Doctor of Philosophy, Auckland University of Technology; 2014
  36. 36. Lynch K. Australian Universities’ Preparation And Support For Fly-In Fly-Out Academics. Australia: Doctor of Philosophy Doctor of Philosophy, College of Design and Social Context, RMIT University Melbourne; 2013
  37. 37. Harmon G. Australia as an higher education exporter. International Higher Education. 2015;(42):14-17
  38. 38. Carnegie GD, Tuck J. Understanding the ABC of university governance. Australian Journal of Public Administration. 2010;69(4):431-441
  39. 39. Rudhumbu N, Maphosa C. Implementation of talent management strategies in higher education: Evidence from Botswana. Journal of Human Ecology. 2015;19(1–2):21-32
  40. 40. Wu M-C, Nurhadi D, Zahro S. Integrating the talent management program as a new concept to develop a sustainable human resource at higher educational institutions. International Journal of Organizational Innovation (Online). 2016;8(4):146-161
  41. 41. Kasemsap K. Investigating the roles of neuroscience and knowledge management in higher education. In: Mukerji S, Tripathi P, editors. Handbook of Research on Administration, Policy, and Leadership in Higher Education. Hershey, PA, USA: IGI Global; 2017. pp. 112-140
  42. 42. Dresselhaus L. Global Talent Management and the Role of Social Networks. Enschede, Netherlands: Master Master of business administration, University of Twente; 2010
  43. 43. Mohammed AA, Hafeez-Baig A, Gururajan R. A qualitative research to explore processes that are utilised for managing talent: A case study in a Queensland Regional University. Australian Academy of Business and Economics Review. 2018;4(3):188-200
  44. 44. Mohammed AA, Gururajan R, Hafeez-Baig A. An exploratory qualitative research to address processes that are utilised for managing talent: A case study in a Queensland Regional University. Australasian Journal of Business, Social Science and Information Technology. 2018
  45. 45. Dilshad RM, Latif MI. Focus group interview as a tool for qualitative research: An analysis. Pakistan Journal of Social Sciences (PJSS). 2013;33(1):191-198
  46. 46. Torres RM, Carte L. Community participatory appraisal in migration research: Connecting neoliberalism, rural restructuring and mobility. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers. 2014;39(1):140-154
  47. 47. Gururajan R, Hafeez-Baig A, Clark K, Moller S, Sankaran P. Health text analysis: A Queensland Health case study. In: 2nd International Conference on Business Analytics and Intelligence (ICBAI 2014). Analytics Society of India; 2014. pp. 1-19
  48. 48. Obeidat BY, Abdallah AB. The relationships among human resource management practices, organizational commitment, and knowledge management processes: A structural equation modeling approach. International Journal of Business and Management. 2014;9(3):9-26
  49. 49. Waithiegeni Kibui A. Effect of talent management on employees retention in Kenya’s State corporations. Doctor of Philosophy in Human Resources Management. Fuchu, Japan: University of Agriculture and Technology; 2015
  50. 50. Al Haidari L. Exploring differentiated talent management from organisational and employee perspectives: Two studies from the GCC banking sector. Doctor of Human Resource Management and Organisational Psychology. London, UK: King’s College London; 2015
  51. 51. Barron M. Analyzing critical positions for talent needs. Organization Development Journal. 2007;25(4):115-118
  52. 52. Blass E. Talent Management: Maximising Talent for Business Performance. London: Chartered Management Institute, Public Affairs Department, (0-85946-426-1); November 2007
  53. 53. Li FF, Devos P. Talent management: Art or science?: The invisible mechanism between talent and talent factory. Master in Business Administration. Småland, Sweden: University of Kalmar; 2008
  54. 54. Cannon JA, McGee R. Talent Management and Succession Planning. 2nd ed. London: Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development; 2011
  55. 55. Tansley C, Kirk S, Tietze S. The currency of talent management—A reply to “talent management and the relevance of context: Towards a pluralistic approach”. Human Resource Management Review. 2013;23(4):337-340
  56. 56. Festing M, Schäfer L. Generational challenges to talent management: a framework for talent retention based on the psychological-contract perspective. Journal of World Business. 2014;49(2):262-271
  57. 57. Naim MF, Naim MF, Lenka U, Lenka U. Talent management: A burgeoning strategic focus in Indian IT industry. Industrial and Commercial Training. 2017;49(4):183-188
  58. 58. Harstad B. Organizational form and the market for talent. Journal of Labor Economics. 2007;25(3):581-611
  59. 59. Sparrow PR, Makram H. What is the value of talent management? Building value-driven processes within a talent management architecture. Human Resource Management Review. 2015;25(3):249-263
  60. 60. Silzer R, Church AH. The pearls and perils of identifying potential. Industrial and Organizational Psychology. 2009;2(4):377-412
  61. 61. Gümüş S, Apak S, Gümüş HG, Kurban Z. An application in human resources management for meeting differentiation and innovativeness requirements of business: Talent management. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences. 2013;99:794-808
  62. 62. Beardwell J, Thompson A. Human Resource Management: A Contemporary Approach. 7th ed. (no. Book, Whole). Boston: Pearson; 2014
  63. 63. Silzer RF, Dowell BE. Strategy-driven talent management a leadership imperative. Silzer RF, Dowell BE, eds., 1st ed. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass [Online]. 2010. Available from: http://ezproxy.usq.edu.au/login?url=http://library.books24x7.com/library.asp?^B&bookid=33657
  64. 64. D’Annunzio-Green N. Managing the talent management pipeline: Towards a greater understanding of senior managers' perspectives in the hospitality and tourism sector. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management. 2008;20(7):807-819
  65. 65. Baublyte D. Talent Management: Myth or Reality in Today's Smes : A Study into the Importance and Use of Talent Management Within Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises. Vantaa, Finland: Metropolia University of Applied Sciences; 2010
  66. 66. Macfarlane F, Duberley J, Fewtrell C, Powell M. Talent management for NHS managers: Human resources or resourceful humans? Public Money & Management. 2012;32(6):445-452
  67. 67. De Vos A, Dries N. Applying a talent management lens to career management: the role of human capital composition and continuity. The International Journal of Human Resource Management. 2013;24(9):1816-1831
  68. 68. Gelens J, Dries N, Hofmans J, Pepermans R. The role of perceived organizational justice in shaping the outcomes of talent management: A research agenda. Human Resource Management Review. 2013;23(4):341-353
  69. 69. Goldsmith M, Carter L. Best Practices in Talent Management: How the World's Leading Corporations Manage, Develop, and Retain Top Talent. New York: John Wiley & Sons; 2010
  70. 70. Armstrong M, Taylor S. Armstrong's Handbook of Human Resource Management Practice. 13th ed. London: Kogan Page Publishers; 2014
  71. 71. Ross S. How definitions of talent suppress talent management. Industrial and Commercial Training. 2013;45(3):166-170
  72. 72. Butter MC, Valenzuela ES, Quintana MGB. Intercultural talent management model: Virtual communities to promote collaborative learning in indigenous contexts. teachers’ and students’ perceptions. Computers in Human Behavior. 2015;51:1191-1197
  73. 73. Murongazvombo PK. Talent retention strategies in a competitive ICT industry: Case of twenty third century systems global (Zimbabwe), Master of Business Leadership. Bindura, Zimbabwe: Bindura University of Science Education; 2015
  74. 74. Chuai X. Is talent management just old wine in new bottles?: The case of multinational corporations in Beijing. PhD Doctor of Philosophy. UK: University of Teesside; 2008
  75. 75. Kravtsova VV. Talent management and implementation to middle sized companies, Phd Doctor of Philosophy, Faculty of Management and Economics. Zlin, Czech Republic: Tomas Bata University; 2012
  76. 76. Kramer F, et al., Computer-Supported knowledge management in SME: a combined qualitative analysis. In: Proceedings of the 50th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences; USA; 2017. p. 10: HICSS
  77. 77. Kaliannan M, Abraham M, Ponnusamy V. Effective talent management in Malaysian SMES: A proposed framework. The Journal of Developing Areas. 2016;50(5):393-401
  78. 78. Al-Awamleh RA. Developing future leaders: The contribution of talent management. Doctorate of Business Administration Doctor of philosophy in business administration. Missouri, USA: Greenleaf University; 2009
  79. 79. Cappelli P. Talent management for the twenty-first century. Harvard Business Review. 2008;86(3):74-81
  80. 80. Dessler G. Human Resource Management. 14th ed. (no. Book, Whole). Boston, U.S.A: Harlow: Pearson Education; 2015
  81. 81. Tansley C, Harris L, Stewart J, Turner P. Talent Management: Understanding the Dimensions. Change Agenda, London: Chartered Institute of Personal and Development (CIPD); 2006
  82. 82. Blackman D, Kennedy M. Talent management: Developing or preventing knowledge and capability. In: The Twelfth Annual Conference of the International Research Society for Public Management; Brisbane, Australia: Queensland University of Technology; 2008
  83. 83. Ali M, Lei S, Hussain ST. Relationship of external knowledge management and performance of chinese manufacturing firms: The mediating role of talent management. International Business Research. 2017;10(6):248-258
  84. 84. Lawler EE III. Talent: Making People Your Competitive Advantage. San Francisco, USA: Jossey-Bass; 2008
  85. 85. Winkler J. Talent Management: Einem Führungskräftemangel mit zielgerichtetem Personal management vorbeugen: Konzepte-Gestaltungsempfehlungen-Praxisbeispiele. Hamburg: Diplomica Verlag; 2009
  86. 86. Whelan E, Carcary M. Integrating talent and knowledge management: Where are the benefits? Journal of Knowledge Management. 2011;15(4):675-687
  87. 87. Cerdin J-L, Brewster C. Talent management and expatriation: Bridging two streams of research and practice. Journal of World Business. 2014;49(2):245-252
  88. 88. Collings DG, Mellahi K. Strategic talent management: A review and research agenda. Human Resource Management Review. 2009;19(4):304-313
  89. 89. Peet MR, Walsh K, Sober R, Rawak CS. Generative knowledge interviewing: A method for knowledge transfer and talent management at the University of Michigan. International Journal of Educational Advancement. 2010;10(2):71-85
  90. 90. Davies B, Davies BJ. Talent management in academies. International Journal of Educational Management. 2010;24(5):418-426
  91. 91. Ingram T. Relationships between talent management and organizational performance: The role of climate for creativity. Entrepreneurial Business and Economics Review. 2016;4(3):195-205
  92. 92. Moczydłowska J. Talent management: Theory and practice of management. The Polish Experience. International Journal of Business Economic Research. 2012;3(1):432-438
  93. 93. Torrington D, Hall L, Taylor S, Atkinson C, editors. Human Resource Management. 9th ed (no. Book, Whole). Harlow, England: Pearson; 2014
  94. 94. Beamond MT, Farndale E, Härtel CE. MNE translation of corporate talent management strategies to subsidiaries in emerging economies. Journal of World Business. 2016;51(1):1-12
  95. 95. Tomany A. Identification of the conditions required within an organisation for a talent management strategy to successfully be put in place, Doctor of Philosophy in Management and Technology. Cranfield, United Kingdom: Cranfield University; 2012
  96. 96. Meyers MC, Van Woerkom M. The influence of underlying philosophies on talent management: Theory, implications for practice, and research agenda. Journal of World Business. 2014;49(2):192-203
  97. 97. Waheed S, Zaim A, Zaim H. Talent management in four stages. USV Annals of Economics and Public Administration. 2013;12(1)(15):130-137
  98. 98. Yap YY. Relationship Between Employees Engagement, Career Development, Organisational Culture, Psychological Ownership And Staff’s Talent Management In Service Industry. Master master's, Faculty of Accountancy and Management. Petaling Jaya, Malaysia: Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman; 2016
  99. 99. Nissler M. Talent Management: A Summary of Quantifiable Surveys And Relevant Reports; 2010
  100. 100. Lewis RE, Heckman RJ. Talent management: A critical review. Human Resource Management Review. 2006;16(2):139-154
  101. 101. Storm LK. Talent development in scandinavian elite sport as seen from a cultural perspective, Doctor of Philosophy. Odense, Denmark: Department of Sport Science and Clinical Biomechanics, University of Southern Denmark; 2015
  102. 102. Dries N, Cotton RD, Bagdadli S, de Oliveira MZ. HR directors’ understanding of ‘talent’: A cross-cultural study. In: Global Talent Management. Cham, Switzerland: Springer; 2014. pp. 15-28
  103. 103. Blass E. Talent Management : Cases and Commentary. 1st ed. London: Palgrave Macmillan; 2009
  104. 104. Brunila A, Baedecke Yllner E. Talent management: retaining and managing technical specialists in a technical career, Master of Science. Stockholm, Sweden: Konstfack University; 2013
  105. 105. Bish A, Jorgensen F. Employee perceptions of the talent management message: Case analyses in Danish SMEs. In: Annual Meeting of the Academy of Management; Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane Australia15272, 5-9 August 2016; 2016. Vol. 76. Available from: http://eprints.qut.edu.au/98283/
  106. 106. Kim Y, Williams R, Rothwell WJ, Penaloza P. A strategic model for technical talent management: A model based on a qualitative case study. Performance Improvement Quarterly. 2014;26(4):93-121
  107. 107. van den Broek J, Boselie P, Paauwe J. Cooperative innovation through a talent management pool: A qualitative study on coopetition in healthcare. European Management Journal. 2018;36:135-144
  108. 108. Mwangi MG et al. Talent management and employee performance: Growing young colleges to well established organization. Developing Country Studies. 2014;4(17):111-118
  109. 109. Oehley A-M. The development and evaluation of a partial talent management competency model. Master of Arts. Stellenbosch, South Africa: Stellenbosch University; 2007
  110. 110. Puvitayaphan A. Talent Management Practices in selected companies listed on the stock exchange of Thailand (SET). Education Journal of Thailand. 2008;2(1):1-9
  111. 111. Grobler PA, Diedericks H. Talent management: An empirical study of selected South African hotel groups. Southern African Business Review. 2009;13(3):1-27
  112. 112. Tymon WG Jr, Stumpf SA, Doh JP. Exploring talent management in India: The neglected role of intrinsic rewards. Journal of World Business. 2010;45(2):109-121
  113. 113. Warren N. Hewitt Talent Survey 2008: Building The Talented Organisation: In Association With Talent Management Review. London; 2008
  114. 114. Hajikaimisari M, Ghalambor MA, Hajikarimi A. Talent management an effective key to manage knowledgeable workers to fabricate safer steel structure. International Journal of Simulation: Systems, Science and Technology. 2010;11(3):66-74
  115. 115. Abdul Hamid Z, Hashim J, Omar A, Kamil M, Akmal B. A study on the implementation of talent management practices at Malaysia companies. Asian Journal of Business and Management Sciences. 2011;1(4):147-162
  116. 116. Bethke-Langenegger P, Mahler P, Staffelbach B. Effectiveness of talent management strategies. European Journal of International Management. 2011;5(5):524-539
  117. 117. Horváthová P, Durdová I. Talent management and its use in the field of human resources management in the organization of the Czech Republic. International Journal of Social, Behavioral, Educational, Economic, Business and Industrial Engineering. 2011;5(5):794-809
  118. 118. Kabwe BC. The conceptualisation and operationalisation of talent management: The case of european internationally operating businesses. Ph.D. Doctor of Philosophy. Preston, UK: Lancashire Business School, University of Central Lancashire; 2011
  119. 119. Bahizi KJ. Talent Management, Organisation Culture and Employee Engagement: The Case of National Water and Sewerage Corporation, Masters of Human Resource Management. Kampala, Uganda: Makerere; 2012
  120. 120. Stan L. Talent management and the cultural influences on human resource management processes: A comparison on hrm practices between companies from Sweden and Romania. Master(management), Department of Business Administration Management. Sweden: University of Gothenburg; 2012
  121. 121. Andersen K. Strategic talent management in a communicative perspective master. Master of Arts in Corporate Communication, Business Communication. Denmark: Aarhus University; 2013
  122. 122. Iqbal S, Qureshi TM, Khan MA, Hijazi ST. Talent management is not an old wine in a new bottle. African Journal of Business Management. 2013;7(36):3609-3619
  123. 123. Anwar A, Nisar QA, Nadia Zubair Ahmad K, Sana A. Talent Management: Strategic Priority of Organizations. International Journal of Innovation and Applied Studies. 2014;9(3):1148
  124. 124. Koranteng FA. Assessing talent management as a tool for employee retention-A case study of Procredit Savings and Loans Limited Kumasi. Master of Business Adminstration, Master in Human Resource Management. Ashanti, Ghana: Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology; 2014
  125. 125. Lyria RK. Effect of talent management on organizational performance in companies listed in Nairobi securities exchange in Kenya. Doctor of Philosophy in Human Resource Management. Nairobi, Kenya: Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology; 2014
  126. 126. Oladapo V. The impact of talent management on retention. Journal of Business Studies Quarterly. 2014;5(3):19-36
  127. 127. Xue Y. Talent management practices of selected human resource professionals in middle to large-sized manufacturing multinational companies in China. Doctor of Philosophy in Workforce Education and Development. Pennsylvania, United States: The Pennsylvania State University; 2014
  128. 128. Jindal P, Shaikh M. A study of behavioral training as talent management strategy in organisations. Universal Journal of Management. 2015;3(1):1-6
  129. 129. Sonnenberg M, van Zijderveld V. Realizing the highest value of investments in talent management. In: Human Resource Management Practices. Cham: Springer; 2015. pp. 31-51
  130. 130. AlKerdawy MMA. The relationship between human resource management ambidexterity and talent management: The moderating role of electronic human resource management. International Business Research. 2016;9(6):80-94
  131. 131. Awan AG, Farhan HM. Talent management practices and their impact on job satisfaction of employees: A case study of banking sector in Pakistan. Science International Lahore. 2016;28(2):1949-1955
  132. 132. Ribeiro J, Machado C. Global talent management: Reality or utopia? A special glance through a portuguese multinational organization. In: Competencies and (Global) Talent Management. Cham: Springer; 2017. pp. 115-141
  133. 133. Shanbhag M, Dutt M, Bagwe S. Strategic talent management: A conceptual analysis of BCG model. Imperial Journal of Interdisciplinary Research. 2016;2(7):552-556
  134. 134. Sundarapandiyan N, Babu S. A study on talent management practices of ICT sector in India with reference to talent acquisition. Indian Journal of Applied Research. 2016;6(3):1-10
  135. 135. Erasmus B, Naidoo L, Joubert P. Talent Management Implementation at an open distance E-Learning higher educational institution: The views of senior line managers. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning. 2017;18(3):83-98
  136. 136. Kimathi CM. Strategic talent management and performance of imperial bank limited in Kenya. Master in Business Administration. Kenya: University of Nairobi; 2015
  137. 137. Thompson NC. Investigating talent attraction: Percieved attractiveness of non-financial reward elements by means of an experimental design. Master of Commerce in Organisational Psychology Master of organisational psychology Faculty of Commerce. Cape Town, South Africa: University of Cape Town; 2013
  138. 138. Nogueira Novaes Southgate A, Mondo TS. Perceptions of job satisfaction and distributive justice: A case of Brazilian F&B hotel employees. Turizam: Znanstveno-Stručni Časopis. 2017;65(1):87-101
  139. 139. Chandra V. Work–life balance: Eastern and western perspectives. The International Journal of Human Resource Management. 2012;23(5):1040-1056
  140. 140. Aladwan SA, Forrester P. The leadership criterion: Challenges in pursuing excellence in the Jordanian public sector. The TQM Journal. 2016;28(2):295-316
  141. 141. Rookhandeh N, Ahmadi K. Exploring the relationship between applying information technology and achieving organizational excellence in state banks. International Journal of Management, Accounting and Economics. 2016;3(2):105-122
  142. 142. Moayedi Z, Vaseghi M. The effect of talent management on organizational success. Scinzer Journal of Accounting and Management. 2016;2(3):16-20
  143. 143. He H, Li Y, Harris L. Social identity perspective on brand loyalty. Journal of Business Research. 2012;65(5):648-657
  144. 144. Viktoria Rampl L, Kenning P. Employer brand trust and affect: Linking brand personality to employer brand attractiveness. European Journal of Marketing. 2014;48(1/2):218-236
  145. 145. Suseno Y, Pinnington AH. The war for talent: Human capital challenges for professional service firms. Asia Pacific Business Review. 2017;23(2):205-229
  146. 146. Tiwari B, Lenka U. Building and branding talent hub: An outlook. Industrial and Commercial Training. 2015;47(4):208-213
  147. 147. Oduor OG. Talent attraction strategy and employees’ productivity in Private Sugar companies in Kakamega County, Kenya. International Journal of Multidisciplinary and Current Research. 2017;5:1174-1180
  148. 148. Irshad M, Zaman G, Kakakhel SJ. Does organization good image help to attract and retain talented employees: Employees perspective. Abasyn University Journal of Social Sciences. 2014;7(2):258-268
  149. 149. Matos F, Lopes A, Matos N. Talent attraction and reputation. In: Proceedings of the 4th European Conference on Intellectual Capital; Helsinki, Finland: Academic Publishing International Limited; 2012. pp. 286-293
  150. 150. Cruz-Castro L, Benitez-Amado A, Sanz-Menéndez L. The proof of the pudding: University responses to the European Research Council. Research Evaluation. 2016;25(4):358-370
  151. 151. Schlechter A, Hung A, Bussin M. Understanding talent attraction: The influence of financial rewards elements on perceived job attractiveness. SA Journal of Human Resource Management. 2014;12(1):1-13
  152. 152. Malmgren McGee D, Hedström L. Talent management-A study of attitudes among employees. Master of Science in Industrial Management and Economics, Department of Industrial Economics. Sweden: Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of management; 2016
  153. 153. Mohan MD, Muthaly S, Annakis J. Talent culture's role in talent development among academics: Insights from Malaysian government linked universities. Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government. 2015;21(1):46-71
  154. 154. Bhatia A. An investigation of key strategies, practices and challenges facing talent management in IT industry: An exploratory study in India and Ireland [master]. Dublin, Ireland: Master of Business Administration, Dublin Business School; 2015
  155. 155. Jyoti J, Rani R, Gandotra R. The impact of bundled high performance human resource practices on intention to leave: Mediating role of emotional exhaustion. International Journal of Educational Management. 2015;29(4):431-460
  156. 156. Al Ariss A, Cascio WF, Paauwe J. Talent management: Current theories and future research directions. Journal of World Business. 2014;49(2):173-179
  157. 157. Vnoučková L, Urbancová H, Smolová H. Identification and development of key talents through competency modelling in agriculture companies. Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis. 2016;64(4):1409-1419
  158. 158. Nyaribo OL. The effect of non-financial compensation on employee performance of micro-finance institutions: A case of Wakenya Pamoja Sacco, Kisii County, Kenya. Imperial Journal of Interdisciplinary Research. 2016;2(6):103-126
  159. 159. Lockwood NR. Talent management: Driver for organizational success HR content program. SHRM Research Quarterly. 2006;51(6):1-11
  160. 160. Prinsloo H. How south African businesses design and execute transformation initiatives: Implications for coaching. Masterof Business Executive Coaching, Faculty of Commerce, Law and Management. Johannesburg, South Africa: Wits Business School, University of the Witwatersrand; 2017
  161. 161. Joo B-KB, Sushko JS, McLean GN. Multiple faces of coaching: manager-as-coach, executive coaching, and formal mentoring. Organization Development Journal. 2012;30(1):19-38
  162. 162. Meyers MC, van Woerkom M, Dries N. Talent—Innate or acquired? theoretical considerations and their implications for talent management. Human Resource Management Review. 2013;23:305-321
  163. 163. Cooke FL, Saini DS, Wang J. Talent management in China and India: A comparison of management perceptions and human resource practices. Journal of World Business. 2014;49(2):225-235
  164. 164. Rothwell WJ. Effective Succession Planning: Ensuring Leadership Continuity and Building Talent From Within. 3rd ed. New York: AMACOM/American Management Association; 2005
  165. 165. Tatoglu E, Glaister AJ, Demirbag M. Talent management motives and practices in an emerging market: A comparison between MNEs and local firms. Journal of World Business. 2016;51(2):278-293
  166. 166. Walker SK. Retention strategies for reducing voluntary turnover in a higher education institution. Doctorate of Philosophy. Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA: College of Management and Technology, Walden University; 2017
  167. 167. Tafti MM, Tafti MM, Mahmoudsalehi M, Mahmoudsalehi M, Amiri M, Amiri M. Critical success factors, challenges and obstacles in talent management. Industrial and Commercial Training. 2017;49(1):15-21
  168. 168. Al Saifi SA. The nature of the relationships between social networks, interpersonal trust, management support, and knowledge sharing. Doctor of Philosophy in Management Systems. Hamilton, New Zealand: University of Waikato; 2014
  169. 169. Chami-Malaeb R, Garavan T. Talent and leadership development practices as drivers of intention to stay in Lebanese organisations: The mediating role of affective commitment. The International Journal of Human Resource Management. 2013;24(21):4046-4062
  170. 170. Dalakoura A. Examining the effects of leadership development on firm performance. Journal of Leadership Studies. 2010;4(1):59-70
  171. 171. Terblanche NNH, Albertyn RM, van Coller-Peter S. Designing a coaching intervention to support leaders promoted into senior positions. SA Journal of Human Resource Management. 2017;15:1-10
  172. 172. Hejase HJ, Hejase AJ, Mikdashi G, Bazeih ZF. Talent management challenges: An exploratory assessment from Lebanon. International Journal of Business Management and Economic Research. 2016;7(1):504-520
  173. 173. Mathew A. Talent management practices in select organizations in India. Global Business Review. 2015;16(1):137-150
  174. 174. Visuri L. Employee motivation In SMEs:-XXX culture group as a case company. Bachelor of International Business, Business Administration. Tampere, Finland: Tampere University of Applied Sciences; 2014
  175. 175. Smith TD. The effects of management on commitment in the retail industry. Doctor of Philosophy in Business Administration. Washington, USA: Walden University; 2017
  176. 176. Robyn A, Du Preez R. Intention to quit amongst Generation Y academics in higher education. SA Journal of Industrial Psychology. 2013;39(1):1-14
  177. 177. Salau OP. Work environments and retention outcomes of academic staff of state universities in Southern Nigeria. Doctor of Philosophy, Business Management. Ota, Nigeria: Covenant University; 2017
  178. 178. Alnaqbi W. The relationship between human resource practices and employee retention in public organisations: An exploratory study conducted in the United Arab Emirates. Doctor of Philosophy. Australia: Cowan University; 2011
  179. 179. Warmerdam A, Newnam S, Sheppard D, Griffin M, Stevenson M. Workplace road safety risk management: An investigation into Australian practices. Accident Analysis & Prevention. 2017;98:64-73
  180. 180. Dunkerly D, Wonh WS. Global Perspectives on Quality in Higher Education. New York: Routledge; 2017
  181. 181. Stahl G et al. Six principles of effective global talent management. Sloan Management Review. 2007;53(2):25-42
  182. 182. Bhattacharyya DK. Compensation and benefits program a mediating variable for talent retention: A study of two century-old Indian organizations. Compensation and Benefits Review. 2015;47(2):75-80
  183. 183. Kianto A, Vanhala M, Heilmann P. The impact of knowledge management on job satisfaction. Journal of Knowledge Management. 2016;20(4):621-636
  184. 184. Asrar-ul-Haq M, Kuchinke KP, Iqbal A. The relationship between corporate social responsibility, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment: Case of Pakistani higher education. Journal of Cleaner Production. 2017;142:2352-2363
  185. 185. de Lourdes Machado-Taylor M et al. Academic Job Satisfaction and Motivation: Perspectives from a Nation-Wide Study in Public Higher Education Institutions in Portugal. In: Machado-Taylor M d L, Soares VM, Teichler U, editors. Challenges and Options: The Academic Profession in Europe. Berlin, Germany: Springer; 2017. pp. 69-139
  186. 186. Lima AJP, Loob JTK, Leec PH. The impact of leadership on turnover intention: The mediating role of organizational commitment and job satisfaction. Journal of Applied Structural Equation Modeling. 2017;1(1):27-41
  187. 187. Uzonna UR. Impact of motivation on employees’ performance: A case study of Credit West Bank Cyprus. Journal of Economics and International Finance. 2013;5(5):199-211
  188. 188. Hina Q, Zamir S, Nudrat S. Impact of employee benefits on job satisfaction of teachers at higher level. Journal of Education and Practice. 2014;5(7):122-129
  189. 189. Bhatnagar J. Talent management strategy of employee engagement in Indian ITES employees: Key to retention. Employee relations. 2007;29(6):640-663
  190. 190. Belleflamme P, Jacqmin J. An economic appraisal of MOOC platforms: Business models and impacts on higher education. CESifo Economic Studies. 1 March 2016;62, 2016(1):148-169
  191. 191. Kim SY, Fernandez S. Employee empowerment and turnover intention in the US federal bureaucracy. The American Review of Public Administration. 2017;47(1):4-22
  192. 192. Chitorelidze S. Empowerment in Academia: Non-Academic Professional Staff's Perspectives on Employee Empowerment. Master of Arts. Columbia, USA: The Graduate School, University of Missouri; 2017
  193. 193. Tsai MC-H. An empirical study of the conceptualization of overall organizational justice and its relationship with psychological empowerment, organizational commitment and turnover intention in higher education. Doctor of Philosophy Doctor of philosophy. Washington, USA: College of Education, University of Washington; 2012
  194. 194. Sandhya K, Kumar DP. Employee retention by motivation. Indian Journal of Science and Technology. 2011;4(12):1778-1782
  195. 195. Saleem A, Nisar QA, Imran A. Organization citizenship behaviour, psychological empowerment and demographic characteristics: Teachers’ perspective. International Journal of Advanced and Applied Sciences. 2017;4(7):129-135
  196. 196. Twyman-Abrams B. Strategies to sustain positive leader-employee relationships to increase productivity. Doctor of Philosophy in Business Administration. Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA: College of management and technology, Walden University; 2017
  197. 197. Malik M, Wan D, Ahmad MI, Naseem MA, ur Rehman R. The role of LMX in employees job motivation, satisfaction, empowerment, stress and turnover: Cross country analysis. Journal of Applied Business Research. 2015;31(5):1897-2000
  198. 198. Gakure R, Kamau AW, Waititu A. Reward systems as determinant of talent management in public universities in Kenya. IOSR Journal Of Humanities And Social Science (IOSR-JHSS). 2013;18(2):41-47
  199. 199. Ogbogu CO. The effects of motivation on staff job performance: Evidences from the Lagos State Ministry of Environment, Nigeria. Journal of Sustainable Development. 2017;10(2):183-190
  200. 200. Alma MA, Al-Shalabi FS, Aljamal WH. Talent management and competitive advantage: The moderating effect of knowledge integration. International Journal of Computer Applications. 2013;66(11):19-27
  201. 201. Sart G. The impacts of strategic talent management assessments on improving innovation-oriented career decisions. The Anthropologist. 2014;18(3):657-665
  202. 202. Norhafizah AH. The effect of talent-and knowledge management on the performance of SMEs: Evidence from Malaysia. PhD Doctor of Philosophy. Canterbury, UK: University of Kent; 2016
  203. 203. Khdour N. The reality of talent management implementation: A case study on Royal Jordanian Airlines. International Journal of Business and Management. 2016;11(6):145-158
  204. 204. Chadee D, Raman R. External knowledge and performance of offshore IT service providers in India: The mediating role of talent management. Asia Pacific Journal of Human Resources. 2012;50(4):459-482
  205. 205. Ortlieb R, Sieben B. How to safeguard critical resources of professional and managerial staff: Exploration of a taxonomy of resource retention strategies. The International Journal of Human Resource Management. 2012;23(8):1688-1704
  206. 206. Thomas SJ. Exploring strategies for retaining information technology professionals: A case study. Doctor of Philosophy in Business Administration. Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA: Business Administration Faculty Walden University; 2015
  207. 207. D. o. E. a. Training, “Annual Report 2015–16,” The State of Queensland/ Department of Education and Training, Brisbane, Queensland-Australia2016, Available from: http://www.det.qld.gov.au/publications/annual-reports/15-16/index.html
  208. 208. Kong E, Chadee D, Raman R. Managing Indian IT professionals for global competitiveness: The role of human resource practices in developing knowledge and learning capabilities for innovation. Knowledge Management Research and Practice. 2013;11(4):334-345
  209. 209. Arnold LR. Strategies for reducing high turnover among information technology professionals. Doctoral Philosophy (Business Administration). USA: Business Administration Faculty, Walden University; 2016
  210. 210. Rong G, Grover V. Keeping up-to-date with information technology: Testing a model of technological knowledge renewal effectiveness for IT professionals. Information & Management. 2009;46(7):376-387
  211. 211. Borisova ON, Silayeva AA, Saburova LN, Belokhvostova NV, Sokolova AP. Talent management as an essential element in a corporate personnel development strategy. Academy of Strategic Management Journal. 2017;16(1):31-46
  212. 212. Gallardo-Gallardo E, Nijs S, Dries N, Gallo P. Towards an understanding of talent management as a phenomenon-driven field using bibliometric and content analysis. Human Resource Management Review. 2015;25(3):264-279
  213. 213. Gallardo-Gallardo E, Thunnissen M. Standing on the shoulders of giants? A critical review of empirical talent management research. Employee Relations. 2016;38(1):31-56
  214. 214. Thunnissen M. Talent management: For what, how and how well? An empirical exploration of talent management in practice. Employee Relations. 2016;38(1):57-72
  215. 215. Gallardo-Gallardo E. What do we actually mean by talent in business? Does it really matter? In: Eighth International Workshop on Human Resource Management; Barcelona University, Barcelona, Spain E11/258. 2011. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/2445/34400
  216. 216. Alicja M. Theory and Practice of Talent Management in an Organization (Cracow University Of Economics). Poland: Cracow University of Economics; 2007
  217. 217. Tarique I, Schuler RS. Global talent management: Literature review, integrative framework, and suggestions for further research. Journal of World Business. 2010;45(2):122-133
  218. 218. Ford DG. Talent management and its relationship to successful veteran transition into the civilian workplace: Practical integration strategies for the HRD professional. Advances in Developing Human Resources. 2017;19(1):36-53
  219. 219. Rothwell WJ. Invaluable knowledge securing your company's technical expertise, New York: AMACOM/American Management Association [Online]. 2011. Available from: http://ezproxy.usq.edu.au/login?url=http://library.books24x7.com/library.asp
  220. 220. Rothwell WJ, Zaballero AG, Park JG. Optimizing Talent in the Federal Workforce. Leasburg Pike, USA: Management Concepts Press; 2014. p. 304
  221. 221. Kataike S. Relationship between talent management and employee retention in commercial banks in Kenya, Master of Business Administration. Nairobi, Kenya: University of Nairobi; 2013
  222. 222. Orlova LV, Afonin YA, Voronin VV. Talent management and knowledge: theory, methodology, models. Review of European Studies. 2015;7(9):75-82
  223. 223. Suryawanshi SM. Knowledge management through effective human resource management. International Research Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies. 2017;3(4):1-4
  224. 224. Keat KK, Abdullah L. Mediation effects of knowledge management in the relationship between managing talent and private colleges performance. In: 3rd International Conference on Advanced Research in Business and Social Sciences 2017; Langkawi, Malaysia: Aseania Resort Langkawi; 2017, Vol. 2017, no. 29th, pp. 289-296

Written By

Atheer Abdullah Mohammed, Abdul Hafeez-Baig and Raj Gururajan

Submitted: May 28th, 2018 Reviewed: September 7th, 2018 Published: November 27th, 2018