Open access peer-reviewed chapter

Antibacterial Properties of Essential Oil in Some Indonesian Herbs

Written By

Hartati Soetjipto

Submitted: 20 November 2017 Reviewed: 27 April 2018 Published: 26 September 2018

DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.78033

From the Edited Volume

Potential of Essential Oils

Edited by Hany A. El-Shemy

Chapter metrics overview

1,390 Chapter Downloads

View Full Metrics


The antibacterial activity of essential oil of five Indonesian herbs has been studied. The essential oil produced from different parts of plants (lime, lemon, Surinam cherry, fennel, and toothache plants) were extracted by water steam or hydro distillation and then examined by GCMS. The antibacterial activities of the essential oils were determined by measuring MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration), whereas some bacterial strains were used in this study such as follows: Staphylococcus aureus FNCC 0047, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6051, B. cereus FNCC 0057, Escherichia coli IFO 0091, Pseudomonas cepacia FNCC 0063, and P. aeruginosa FNCC 0063, respectively. All the five samples used in this experiment have antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Gram-negative bacteria appear more resistant than Gram-positive bacteria. By using MIC measurement the Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria showed different sensitivities toward essential oils. Among the material study, the essential oil of Eugenia uniflora L (Surinam cherry) showed the highest antibacterial activity.


  • antibacterial
  • essential oil
  • Indonesian herbs
  • Eugenia uniflora
  • Spilanthes paniculata

1. Introduction

Essential oil has been used since ancient times as perfumery in ritual ceremony and folk medicine by native countries. Together with the time passed, essential oil utilizing has been developed not only in folk medicine but also in food industry as flavoring, cosmetics as fragrance, and additives [1]. These oil have many biological activities especially rich in mono and sesquiterpene which are known as antimicrobial. Indonesia has around 28,000 plant species and was predicted that more than 7000 species have potency as medicinal plants. Unfortunately just less than 300 species were used in pharmaceutical industry, whereas the rest still need the evidence [2]. One of the important compounds in Indonesian herbs is essential oil, a volatile oil from the plants composed of many phenolic compounds and responsible for strong antibacterial effect.

Essential oil is aromatic oily liquid obtained from different parts of the plants (root, bark, leaf, bud, flower, fruit, and seeds). This oil name bears the name of the plant species from which it is derived. This oil has a sharp smell that is produced as secondary metabolite and variable mixtures of terpenoid, monoterpene (C5), sesquiterpene (C15), and diterpene (C20). Another functional groups present in the molecule formed another molecules such as aldehydes, ketones, acids, lactones, etc. The amount of components varies from approximately 10–100, although usually the main part of the oil is composed of only a few components [3].

As a tropical country, Indonesia is rich with aromatic plants, and it is natural for this country to be one of the essential oil world supplier. Approximately 70 kinds of essential oil were trading in the international market and 40 kinds among them come from Indonesia [4]. There are a lot of methods to produce essential oil, and it can be obtained by expression, enfleurage, solvent extraction, and distillation (hydro distillation and steam distillation). Distillation is most commonly used for commercial production [5]. Plant materials cut in small pieces were placed in distillation apparatus and hydro distilled/steam distilled for 3–6 hours. The hot water or vapors contact with material and bring the essential oil inside the sample, and the next step solvent was evaporated. The system of distillation instrument will cool down and condense vapors to produce essential oil and water mixture. Distillate separation will give essential oil and water.

Although the essential oils have different aroma and big variation, but this oil shows similar physical properties as color and solubility in water, for example essential oil are immiscible with water but quite soluble in most organic solvents. These characters can be used as basic criterion of quality of essential oil.

The increasing demand of essential oil in the world was due to the potential of essential oil in pharmacological therapeutic.

The major problem in antimicrobial chemotherapy is the increasing occurrence of resistance to antibiotic. A lot of essential oils are known to exert antimicrobial activity, but the mechanism of action is often not entirely understood. The overuse of antibiotics is the most important factor contributing to the appearance of many kinds of resistant microbes [6, 7]. The aim of this study was to determine the antibacterial activity of five Indonesian herbs and to analyze the dominant component of each essential oil.

1.1. Antibacterial activity of essential oil

The bioactivity of essential oils has been known since ancient times. This compound has been known to have various bioactivities, including antibacterial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antifungal, antimutagenic, anticarcinogenic, and antioxidant, as well as other miscellaneous activities [8, 9].

Essential oil/volatile oil is produced from plant materials and showed an important role in plants by acting as protector of the plants from herbivores, microbial, and insects. On the other side, essential oil also has a role in the pollination and seed distribution because the strong smell of the oil attracts some insects to carry out both processes [10]. Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil was reported to possess potential psychostimulant activity [11]. The essential oil of leaves from E. uniflora, characterized by sesquiterpenes, has anti-Leishmania activity [12]. Essential oil of Mentha piperita leaves demonstrated good antiseptic, antibacterial, and antiviral properties [13, 14]. This oil contains a lot of secondary metabolites that can inhibit the growth of microbial and a rich source of biological active compounds [10]. Essential oils with aldehydes or phenols as major components (cinnamaldehyde, citral, carvacrol, eugenol, or thymol) are the most effective, followed by essential oil containing terpene alcohols [15]. Essential oil with ketones or esters (β-myrcene, α-thujone, or geranyl acetate) possesses a lower activity [16, 17]. Although the major components of essential oil are very important for their biological activity, the minor components play a significant role, as they can strengthen the effects of major components, though antagonistic, and additive effects have also been observed.

Antibacterial activity of essential oil depends on their chemical composition and the amount of each compound. The composition, structure, as well as functional groups of the oils play an important role in determining their antimicrobial activity [18, 19].

The mixture of various chemical substances that belong to different chemical families, including terpenes, aldehydes, alcohols, esters, phenolic, ethers, and ketones, gives the antibacterial activity [20, 21].

In general, essential oil is easier to attack Gram-positive bacteria than Gram-negative bacteria due to the differences of the strength of the cell membrane. The cell wall of Gram-positive bacteria is more simple than Gram-negative bacteria, because the big part of the cell wall is peptidoglycan, and so hydrophobic molecules are able to penetrate the cell. On the contrary, the cell wall of Gram-negative bacteria is more complex, and it has peptidoglycan layer thinner than Gram-Positive bacteria but the peptidoglycan linked to lipopolysaccharide. This is the reason that the cell wall of Gram-negative bacteria stronger than the other and relatively resistant to hydrophobic compounds [22].

Generally, the chemical characterization of many essential oils reveals the presence of only 2–3 major components at a fairly high concentration (20–70%) compared to other components present in trace amounts. Most essential oils are composed of terpenes, terpenoids, and other aromatic and aliphatic constituents with low molecular weights [23]. Essential oil contains a wide series of secondary metabolites that can inhibit or slow the growth of bacteria, yeasts, and molds. The essential oil and their components have a variety of targets, particularly the membrane and cytoplasm, and in certain situations, they completely alter the morphology of the cells [24, 25, 26].


2. Experiment

2.1. Material and methods

Five essential oils were used which are as follows: Lime oil (Citrus aurantifolia), Lemon oil (Citrus limon (L) Burm), Eugenia oil (Eugenia uniflora), Foeniculi oil (Foeniculum vulgare Mill), and Spilanthes oil (S. paniculata). Microorganisms were obtained from the Laboratory of Microbiology Faculty of Biology Universitas Kristen Satya Wacana. The strains used for the study were Staphylococcus aureus FNCC 0047, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6051, B. cereus FNCC 0057, Escherichia coli IFO0091, Pseudomonas cepacia FNCC 0063, and P. aeruginosa FNCC 0063, respectively.

All chemical reagents made by E-Merck, Germany, Nutrient Broth, Mueller-Hinton Agar and Tetracycline (PA, Oxoid, England), and paper disk (PA, Whatman, England).

Isolation and physicochemical analysis of essential oil were subjected to steam distillation using clevenger-type apparatus. GCMS analysis of essential oils was done in Laboratory of Organic Chemistry, Faculty of MIPA Universitas Gadjah Mada Yogyakarta.

2.1.1. Isolation of essential oil

The essential oils were obtained from the aerial part of plants, such as peel (C. aurantifolia), leaves (E. uniflora), and flowers (S. paniculata), with steam distillation and seeds (F. vulgare) with hydrodistillation method. The fresh material was collected from Salatiga area and was identified in Laboratory of Natural Product, Universitas Kristen Satya Wacana.

One kilogram of each plant part was cut into small pieces and subjected to steam distillation apparatus, which is completed with Clevenger apparatus for 6 hours. The next step, essential oils were isolated by extraction of the distillate used diethylether, and its percentage yield was calculated.

2.1.2. Direct bioautographic test

The essential oil was evaluated in vitro by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) method. Before using, the plates were activated at 105°C for 10 minutes. The plate of silica gel F254 4 × 10 cm (Merck) as a solid phase and toluene:ethylacetate (93:7) as a mobile phase were used. Afterward, plate was sprayed with bacterial suspension in Mueller-Hinton Broth (MHB), and plate was stored in a water-vapor chamber at 37°C in 24 hours. Iodonitrotetrazolium chloride 5 mg/ml was used to visualize the antibacterial spot [27]. This activity was used as an effort in the beginning for check and recheck after measurement antibacterial activity.

2.1.3. Determination of antibacterial activity

The antibacterial activity was detected by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of five essential oils. Bacteria was inoculated to nutrient broth (NB), incubated at 30°C for 24 hours. Inoculum was diluted by using physiological solution (NaCl 0.9%) to match 0.5 Mc Farland standard. The bacterial suspension was diluted and measured by UV–Vis Spectrophotometer to obtain Optical Density (OD) 0.4–0.5 at 550 nm [28].

A paper disk was dropped 20-μl essential oil in certain concentration and put the disk in a petri dish with medium content bacteria inside. The petri dish was incubated at 30°C for 24 hours. Inhibition area diameter (IAD) was measured as a middle line start from the clear spot around the disk. The lowest concentration which shows the clear spot around the paper disk is the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC).

2.1.4. Data analysis

Antibacterial activity data of each plant were analyzed by using randomized completely block design (RCBD) sub-sampling, five treatments, three subsamples, and five replications, whereas the blocks are the analysis time [29].

2.2. Result and discussion

2.2.1. Essential oil

The percentage yield (rendement) of essential oil obtained from samples less than 3% except Foeniculi oil (3%), and the smallest amount was Spilanthes oil around 0.1% (Table 1).

Scientific namePlant familyPart usedRendement (% weight)
Citrus aurantifolia Swingle (Lime) [30]Rutaceaepeel0.4
Citrus limon (L) Burm (Lemon) [30]Rutaceaepeel0.5
Eugenia uniflora L (Surinam cherry) [31]Myrtaceaeleaf0.5
Foeniculum vulgare Mill (Anise) [32]Apiaceaeseeds3.0
Spilanthes paniculata Wall (Legetan) [33]Compositaeflower0.1

Table 1.

Plants, families, part used and rendement.

Plant volatiles constitute about 1% of plant secondary metabolites and are mainly represented by terpenoids, phenylpropanoids/benzenoids, fatty acid derivatives, and amino acid derivatives [34]. A lot of monoterpenes demonstrated their potent aromas, and these compounds are known as essential oil composer. Essential oil containing monoterpenes is responsible for the fragrant and biological properties of aromatic and medicinal plants [35].

Essential oil obtained from samples was further analyzed by GCMS. A total of more than 20 compounds were found in each essential oil sample. Table 2 informed five dominant compounds of each essential oil.

NoScientific nameFive dominant compounds
1Citrus aurantifolia Swingle (Lime)limonena, 29.29%; β–pinene, 24.54%; Terpineol, 2.87%; α-terpineol, 2.84%; α–terpinolene, 1.93%
2Citrus limon (L) Burmlimonena, 43.40%; β–myrcene, 3.34%; α–terpinolene, 2.50%; geranyl acetate, 2.44%; 2-β pinene, 1.38%
3Eugenia uniflora L (Surinam cherry)spathulenol, 12.03%; dodecanol, 11.78%; dodekanal, 4.16%; β–elemen, 4.08%; caryophyllene, 2.97%
4Foeniculum vulgare Mill (Anise)estragole, 38.51%; trans–anetol, 29.67%; fenkon(1–1,2,3-trimethyl bicyclic) 2.2.1–2-heptanol, 22.70%; 1-limonena, 2.97%; alpha–pinena 2.18%
5Spilanthes paniculata Wall (toothache plant)trans-caryophyllene, 24.19%; β-ocimene, 16.38%; β–phellandrene, 10.79%; 1-pentadecene, 9.75%; germacrene, 8.08%

Table 2.

Five dominant chemical component of essential oil from five Indonesian herbs. Citrus aurantifolia Swingle (lime) and C. limon (L) Burm

According to the result of this study, the percentage yields of essential oil of the peel of lime and lemon were 0.4 and 0.5%, respectively. Limonene was major component of both Citrus oils, but limonene in lemon oil (43.40%) was higher than lime oil (29.29%). The presence of β–pinene in big amount (24.54%) in lime oil makes the aroma of lime oil quite different from lemon oil. Limonene is the main component of Citrus essential oil. The major compound in the lime essential oil is limonena (29.29%), followed by β–pinene (24.54%), terpineol (2.87%), α-terpineol (2.84%), and α–terpinolene (1.93%), whereas for the lemon oil, the major compound also was limonena (43.40%), and followed by β–myrcene (3.34%), α–terpinolene (2.50%), geranyl acetate (2.44%), and 2-β pinene (1.38%).

Ref. [36] found that limonene is the dominant compounds in lime essential oil (49.657%), and this compound was also observed at every stages of maturation, which indicates that limonene could be used as a functional index of ripeness. The peel of Sicilian lemon variety was reported to have d-limonene concentration around 70 and 0.84% of bisabolene [37]. Ref. [38] also found that monoterpenes are the dominant component (86–88.79%) of Citrus volkameriana peel oil, and Limonene concentration is able to reach almost 80% depending on the state of ripeness of the fruit.

Oil of lemon is one of the most important flavoring oils, used widely in all kind of beverages, soft drink, baked goods, such as cakes, pastries, gelatin dessert, ice cream, etc. This oil can also be applied in perfumes, toilet waters, eaux de cologne, and cosmetics [39]. In Malaysia, the oils from the fruits and the leaves are commercially used as flavors and fragrances, as well as in cooking, perfumery, and medical treatments, especially in aromatherapy [40]. This situation is not different within Indonesia. Citrus oil was used as fragrances and aromatherapy. Eugenia uniflora L. (Surinam cherry)

Eugenia uniflora L is one of Myrtaceae family, commonly known as Brazilian Cherry tree or “Dewandaru“ (Indonesian). It is an aromatic species, and its essential oil has pharmacological properties that are well characterized in the literature as antioxidant and antimicrobial [41]. The yield of Eugenia essential oil was obtained in this study was 0.5%, composed of 57 compounds, but the highest compounds are Spathulenol (12.03%) and dodecanol (11.78%), both of them almost in the same amount, then followed by dodekanal (4.16%), β–elemen (4.08%), and caryophyllene (2.97%). According to the report of [42], five dominant compounds of 16 compounds in the essential oil of E. uniflora: caryophyllene (8.812%), spathulenol (7.712%), isolongifolene (6.621%), viridiflorol (5781%), and alloaromadendrene (5.568%). Ref. [43] also found that the yield of EuEO was 0.3%, 32 components were identified in this oil by GC–MS, constituting 92.65% of the total mixture. EuEO was shown to be rich in oxygenated sesquiterpenes (62.55%) and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (29.37%). Curzerene was the major constituent (47.3%), followed by 𝛾-elemene (14.25%) and trans-𝛽-elemenone (10.4%), (E) caryophyllene (4.33%), and atractylone (2.38%). Spathulenol and viridiflorol are also found in this oil but only in small amount less than 0.2%. Different with [44] indicated atractylone (26.78%) and curzerene (17.96%) as major constituents of E. uniflora essential oil. The main constituent of essential oil of E. uniflora may vary but the dominant classes are sesquiterpenes. E. uniflora has known antihypertensive [45], antitumor [46], and antinociceptive properties [47], and it shows good performance against microorganism. The important issue is that this essential oil is also used in industrial perfumery [48]. Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (fennel)

Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (Adas in Indonesian, family Apiaceae) is commercially cultivated in some Indonesian area and also grow wild. The leaves contains essential oil, and it can be eaten as salad and give a warm feeling for the body, beside that the leaves also can be used for accelerate mother’s milk, while the seeds are used as an important ingredient in various folklore. In Indonesian herbs, the fennel seed oil is used as one of the components for baby oil massage. Essential oils of the seeds are very famous and are used as flavoring agents in food products for appetizing as digestive aid, liqueurs, bread, cheese, and an ingredient of cosmetics and pharmaceutical products. This seed was also used as classical decoction for nursing babies to prevent flatulence and colic spasms [49, 50, 51, 52].

In this work, the composition of essential oil of fennel seeds obtained by hydro distillation composed of 30 compounds and the highest amount is Estragole 38.51%, followed by trans–anetol 29.67%, fenkon(1–1,2,3-trimethyl bicyclic) 2.2.1–2-heptanol 22.70%, 1-limonena 2.97%, and alpha–pinena 2.18%. Ref. [48] report that GC-MS analyzed of fennel seed oil showed that 28 components were identified, and the major components were trans-anethol 68.53% and estragole 10.42%. According to [53], fennel volatile oil is a mixture of many different constituents, and the main ingredients are anethole (40–70%), fenchone (1–20%), and estragole (2–9%). Trans-anetol, estragole, fenkon, alfa-limonena, and pinena are monoterpenoids highly abundant in all the fennel oil [54]. The high concentration of trans–anethol 29.67% is responsible to antibacterial activity. Ref. [55, 56] reported that anethol and its isomers are responsible for antimicrobial activities of fennel oil. Due to antimicrobial activity possessed by essential oil, this oil can be used as antibiotic. Ref. [57] report that the main advantage of natural agents is that they do not enhance the antibiotic resistance, a phenomenon commonly happened in long termed use of synthetic antibiotics. Spilanthes paniculata wall (toothache plant)

S. paniculata belonging to the family Asteraceae is one of medicinal plant, found in tropical and subtropical countries. There are some species from Spilanthes, for example S. acmella Murr, S. calva D.C, S. mauritiana; these plants are rich source of therapeutic compounds. Spilanthol is a powerful compound for local anesthetic, which is contained in the whole aerial part of Spilanthes. Tincture of flowers of Spilanthes cures toothache and is useful for throat infection and paralysis of the tongue [58]. This compound is an alkyl amide, which is found in nonvolatile phase; on the contrary, essential oil is a volatile oil.

According to this study, the essential oil of fresh flower of S. paniculata Wall showed that Trans–caryophyllene 24.19% is the dominant compound, followed by β–ocimene 16.38%, β–felandrene 10.79%, 1-pentadecene 9.75%, and germacrene 8.08%. This result is quite different with essential oil of the same species from GaoLigong Mountains, China. The essential oil obtained by hydro distillation of S. paniculata obtained from Gaoligong Mountains, and China was analyzed by gas chromatography/spectrometry (GC/MS), simultaneously. Main constituents of the oil were found as E-y-cadinene (10.64%), β-caryophyllene (6.31%), thymol (5.55%), β-pinene (5.42%), 1,8-cineole (4.28%), p-cymene (3.56%), and bicyclogermacrene (3.17%). The essential oil was also screened for its antimicrobial properties against various pathogens [59].

A comparison of oil composition of this study with those reported from different places in the world show differences not only in the kind of the compounds but also the percentage content of some of the mayor and minor constituents.

2.2.2. Antimicrobial activity

Table 3 demonstrated the antimicrobial properties of the five essential oils (lime, lemon, Surinam cherry, fennel, and toothache plants). The strength of antibacterial activity was declared as minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC); Low (L) if the inhibitory area diameter (IAD) less than 0.7 cm, Medium (M) if the IAD 0.7–0.8 cm, and Strong (S) The IAD >0.8 cm [60].

MaterialMinimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) μg
B. cereus FNCC 0057B. subtilis ATCC 6051S. aureus FNCC 0047P. aeruginosa FNCC 0063P. cepacia FNCC 0063E. coli 0091 IFO
Citrus aurantifolia Swingle (Lime)1000(M)2000(M)-4.000(S)3000(M)-5000(S)
Citrus limon (L) Burm1000(M)-2000(S)1000(M)-3000(S)1000(M)-3000(S)
Eugenia uniflora L (Surinam cherry)200(M)-300(S)300(M)-600(S)
Foeniculum vulgare Mill (fennel)2500(S)2500(S)
Spilanthes paniculata Wall (toothache plant)1000(M)-1500(S)1000(M)-1500(S)3000(M)-4000(S)1000(M)-1500(S)

Table 3.

Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), the strength of essential oil antibacterial activity.

Note: —, no test; M, Medium (IAD 0.7–0.8 cm); S, strong (IAD > 0.8 cm).

According to Tables 2 and 3, essential oil of every plants used in this study had significant antibacterial activities against some of bacterial. The diameters of inhibitory area (IAD) or the diameters of growth inhibition zone were measured including the diameter of disk 6 mm.

The strength of antibacterial activity of the essential oil is presented inTable 3. Lime and lemon essential oil

Antibacterial activity for Medium level of Lime and lemon oil showed the similar antibacterial strength against Gram (+) bacteria (1000 μg), but for Gram (−) bacteria, the higher concentration was needed. The antibacterial activity of lemon oil was higher than the lime oil, because 3000 μg concentration of lemon oil gives strong level and lime oil need 5000 μg. The higher the concentration of the essential oil, the lower is the antibacterial activity obtained [61].

Both of essential oils (lime and lemon) showed the pale yellow color, bitter taste, and fresh piquant odor. But the odor of each essential oil (lime and lemon) is not exactly the same. The different of the odor between lime and lemon oil relates the profile of chemical compounds. Although limonene is the dominant compound of both essential oil, but the amount is different and followed by different compounds. Lime oil showed limonena (29.29%), β–pinene (24.54%), Terpineol (2.87%), α-terpineol (2.84%),α–terpinolene (1.93%), whereas lemon oil showed limonena (43.40%), β–myrcene (3.34%), α–terpinolene (2.50%), geranyl acetate (2.44%), and 2-β pinene (1.38%). Essential oil of lime and lemon can inhibit both Gram bacteria (positive and negative) [62]. The major components of lime essential oil proved to be β-pinene (12.6%), limonene (53.8%), γ-terpinene (16.5%), terpinolene (0.6%), α-terpineol (0.4%), and citral (2.5%), which are very likely responsible for the good antimicrobial activity, in particular on Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, and Staphylococcus epidermidis) [63]. These oils are rich with limonene and other compounds belonging cyclic monoterpene hydrocarbon family. The cyclic monoterpene hydrocarbon family is considered to accumulate in the microbial plasma membrane and thus causes a loss of membrane integrity and dissipation of the proton motive force [64]. Carvacrol and citral (another terpenes and terpenoids) also demonstrated the occurrence of sub-lethal injury in the outer and cytoplasmic membranes [65, 66], pointing out the membrane disruption as a mechanism of inactivation by these compounds. However, the precise targets of terpenes and terpenoids are not yet completely understood [67]. Eugenia uniflora L (Surinam cherry) essential oil

The essential oil was collected from leaf; the oil has yellowish white color, unidentified odor, and the aroma is quite difficult to express it. This oil also shows good antibacterial activity because in low concentration give medium to strong level MIC in 200–600 μg. The profile of essential oil composed of spathulenol (12.03%), dodecanol (11.78%), dodekanal (4.16%), β–elemen (4.08%), and caryophyllene (2.97%). The main constituent of this essential oil has big variation; there are no specific compounds in high amount. Antibacterial activity of the essential oil of E. uniflora showed the medium level at 200 μg and strong level at 300 μg against gram positive bacteria, whereas 300 μg for medium level and 600 μg for strong level against gram negative bacteria. Five major components of this oil have key role to show the antibacterial activity. Spathulenol, caryophyllene, alpha/beta pinene, humulene, and eugenol contributed to antibacterial activity of the essential oils [68, 69, 70]. It is also possible that the minor components might be involved in some type of synergism with the other active compounds [71]. Essential oil of several species of Eugenia also demonstrated antibacterial activity. Beta-Caryophyllene, spathulenol, 5-hydroxy calamenene, Bisabolene, caryophyllene, Farnesol, Selinene, Germacrene, and elemene β–elemen are important compounds in Eugenia oil [72]. Foeniculum vulgare Mill (fennel) essential oil

This essential oil of Foeniculum vulgare Mill obtained from the seeds is colorless to pale yellow with a powerful sweet odor, which is the characteristic aroma of anethol. This essential oil showed antibacterial activity in strong level at 2500 μg against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. The main compound in this essential oil obtained from this study is estragole (38.51%). Estragole is a phenylpropene, a plant secondary metabolite that has antibacterial activity. The high concentration of trans–anethol (29.67%), also responsible to antibacterial activity, anethol, and its isomers are responsible for antimicrobial activities of fennel oil [55, 73, 74].

The GC–MS analysis of essential oils of Foeniculum vulgare (fennel) showed the occurrence of trans-anethole, methylchavicol, limonene, and fenchone. This oil exhibited the lowest MIC values of 0.062 and 0.031%(v/v) against E. coli and S. typhimurium [75]. For augmenting wound healing, Limonene and fenchone were reported can increase collagen synthesis and decrease the number of inflammatory cells during wound healing and may be useful for treating skin wounds [76]. Spilanthes paniculata wall (toothache plant) essential oil

The essential oil was obtained from toothache plant leaf; the oil has a yellowish color. This essential oil showed antibacterial activity in medium level at 1000 μg and strong level at 1500 μg against Gram positive, whereas negative test bacteria except against P. aeruginosa FNCC 0063 (4000 μg). The presence of trans-caryophyllene in the oil makes it potentially useful for antifungal, antimycotic, and antimicrobial properties [77, 78].

Genus Spilanthes is one of the oil-rich genera belonging to the family Asteraceae, although only a few species have been explored for their essential oils [79]. The composition of the essential oil is very variable, suggesting the existence of a high number of chemotypes. From the flower heads of S. acmella, volatile constituents were characterized [80]. In the same plant, the presence of a mixture of C22 to C35 hydrocarbons was also reported [77, 81]. Seven components from the essential oil have been identified, including the sesquiterpene caryophyllene oxide, caryophyllene, limonene, and myrcene as significantly dominating compounds of the essential oil from the inflorescences of S. calva DC [82].

2.2.3. Discussion

All the essential oil samples used in this study indicated broad antibacterial spectrum because of its show antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and negative bacteria. These data conform with [83, 84] that essential oil exhibits antibacterial activity against a large number of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. It has been observed that the mode of action of essential oil is based on their ability to disrupt cell wall and cytoplasmic membrane, leading to lysis and leakage of intracellular compounds [3]. The disturbance of the cell membrane will disturb many vital processes such as energy conversion, nutrient processing, the synthesis of structural macromolecules, and the secretion of growth regulators [85]. Essential oils of various plants were reported to cause increased bacterial cell membrane permeability, leading to the leakage of cellular components and loss of ions [86, 87].

The strength of antibacterial activity of essential oil is able to be a basic potent to reduce antibiotic consuming, although many antibiotics are available for treating various bacterial pathogens. The increased multidrug resistance has led to the increased severity of diseases caused by bacterial [88]. The use of several antibacterial agents at higher doses may cause toxicity in human, so that the researcher needs to explore alternative new molecules against bacterial strains. Plant essential oils are potential candidates as antibiotic/antibacterial agents. The main advantage of natural agents is that they do not enhance the antibiotic resistance, a phenomenon commonly happened in long termed use of synthetic antibiotics [57].


3. Conclusions

In conclusion, all the five samples used in this experiment have antibacterial activity against gram positive and negative bacteria. Gram-negative bacteria appear more resistant than Gram-positive bacteria. Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria showed different sensitivities to essential oil. Among these samples antibacterial activity of E. uniflora is stronger than the others (300 μg and 600 μg, strong level against Gram-positive and negative bacteria, respectively). S. paniculata show the same response either to Gram-positive or Gram-negative bacteria (1500 μg), except for P. aeruginosa FNCC 0063 (4000 μg). Antibacterial activity of C. aurantifolia Swingle (Lime) is weaker than the other especially against E. coli (5000 μg). Five essential oils of aromatic Indonesian herbs in this study are potential candidates as antibiotic/antibacterial agents, can be applied as flavoring and preservative agents in cosmetic and food industry.


Conflict of interest

The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.


  1. 1. Singh IP, Kapoor S, Pandey SK, Singh UK, Singh RK. Studies of essential oils. Part 10: Antibacterial activity of volatile oils of some spices. Phytotherapy Research. 2002;16:680-668
  2. 2. Pramono E. Prospek dan potensi pengembangan komoditas agromedicine di Indonesia. In: Prosiding Simposium nasional II Tumbuhan Obat dan Aromatik APINMAP, Pusat Penelitian Biologi-LIPI, Bogor, Indonesia; 2002
  3. 3. Burt S. Essential oil: Their antibacterial properties and potential application in food-a review. International Journal of Food Microbiology. 2004;94:223-253
  4. 4. Usaha Penyulingan Minyak Daun Cengkeh [Internet]. Available from: [Accessed: January 02, 2018]
  5. 5. Thormar H, Christine FC, Katherine AH. Lipid and Essential Oils as Antimicrobial Agents. Published onlineDecember 2010. p. 14. DOI: 10.1002/9780470976623.ch9
  6. 6. Speranza B, Corbo MR. Essential oils for preserving perishable food: Possiblilities and limitation. In: Beviklacqua A, Corbo MR, Sinigaglia M, editors. Application of Alternatives Food Preservation Technologies to Enhance Food Safety and Stability. Sharjah: Bentham Publisher; 2010. pp. 35-57
  7. 7. Valero M, Salmeron MC. Antimicrobial activity of essential oil. International Journal of Food Microbiology. 2003;85:73-78
  8. 8. HAE S, El-Ghorab AH, Shibamoto T. Bioactivity of essential oils and their volatile aroma components. Journal of Essential Research. Published online. 20 Mar 2012;24(2). DOI: 10.1080/10412905.2012.659528
  9. 9. Bakkali F, Averbeck S, Idaomar M. Biological effects of essential oils–A review. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 2008;46:446-475
  10. 10. Burt SA, Reinders RD. Antibacterial activity of selected plant essential against Escherichia coli O157:H7. Letters in Applied Microbiology. 2003;36:162-167. DOI: 10.1046/j.1472-765X2003.01285.x
  11. 11. Rachad A, Alaoui K, Bouidida EH, Benjouad A, Cherrah Y. Psychostimulant activity of Rosmarinus officinalis essential oils. Journal of Natural Products. 2012;5:83-92
  12. 12. Rodrigues KA d F, Amorim LV, de Oliveira JMG, et al. Eugenia uniflora L. essential oil as a potential Anti-Leishmania agent: Effects on Leishmania amazonensis and possible mechanisms of action. Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2013;2013. Article ID 279726:10. DOI: 10.1155/2013/279726
  13. 13. Ratan R. Handbook of aromatherapy. A complete guide to essential and carrier oils, Their Application and Therapeitic Use for Holistic health and Wellbeing. 2nd ed. Vol. 37. Mumbai: Institute of Holistic Health Sciences; 2006. p. 43, 48
  14. 14. Thosar N, Silpi B, Bahadure RN, Monali R. Antimicrobial efficacy of five essenrtial oils againts oral pathogens: An in vitro study. European Journal of Dentistry. 2013, Sept;7(Suppl 1):71-77. DOI: 10.4103/1305-7456.119078
  15. 15. Bassolé IHN, Juliani HR. Essential oils in combination and their antimicrobial properties. Molecules. 2012;17:3989-4006. DOI: 10.3390/molecules17043989
  16. 16. Dormans HJD, Deans SG. Antimicrobial agents from plants: Antibacterial activity of plant volatile oils. Journal of Applied Microbiology. 2000;88:308-316. DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-2672.2000.00969.x
  17. 17. Barros JC, Conceição ML, Gomes Neto NJ, Costa ACV, Siqueira Júnior JP, Basílio Júnior ID, et al. Interference of Origanum vulgare L. essential oil on the growth and some physiological characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from foods. LWT- Food Science and Technology. 2009;42:1139-1143. DOI: 10.1016/j.lwt.2009.01.010
  18. 18. Omidbeygi M, Barzegar M, Hamidi Z, Naghdibadi H. Antifungal activity of thyme, summer savory and clove essential oils against aspergillus flavus in liquid medium and tomato paste. Food Control. 2007;18:1518-1523
  19. 19. Celikel N, Kavas G. Antimicrobial properties of some essential oils against some pathogenic microorganisms. Czech Journal of Food Sciences. 2008;26:174-181
  20. 20. Akhtar MS, Degaga B, Azam T. Antimicrobial activity of essential oils extracted from medicinal plants against the pathogenic microorganisms: A review. Biological Sciences and Pharmaceutical Research. 2014;2(1):1-7
  21. 21. Degenhardt J, Köllner TG, Gershenzon J. Monoterpene and sesquiterpene synthases and the origin of terpene skeletal diversity in plants. Phytochemistry. 2009;70(15-16):1621-1637. DOI: 10.1016/j.phytochem.2009.07.030
  22. 22. Nikaido H. Prevention of drug access to bacterial targets: Permeability barriers and active efflux. Science. 1994;264:382-388
  23. 23. Pandey AK, Singh P, Tripathi NN. Chemistry and bioactivities of essential oils of some Ocimum species: An overview. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine. 2014;4(9):682-694. DOI: 10.12980/apjtb.4.2014c77
  24. 24. Nazzaro F, Fratianni F, De Martino L, Coppola R, De Feo V. Effect of essential oils on pathogenic bacteria. Pharmaceuticals. 2013;6(12):1451-1474. DOI: 10.3390/ph6121451
  25. 25. Chorianopoulos NG, Giaouris ED, Skandamis PN, Haroutounian SA, Nychas GJE. Disinfectant test against monoculture and mixed-culture biofilms composed of technological, spoilage and pathogenic bacteria: Bactericidal effect of essential oil and hydrosol of Satureja thymbra and comparison with standard acid-base sanitizers. Journal of Applied Microbiology. 2008;104:1586-1599. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2672.2007.03694.x
  26. 26. De Martino L, de Feo V, Nazzaro F. Chemical composition and in vitro antimicrobial and mutagenic activities of seven lamiaceae essential oils. Molecules. 2009;14:4213-4230. DOI: 10.3390/molecules14104213
  27. 27. Hamburger MO, Cordell JA. A direct bioautographic TLC assay for compounds possessing antibacterial activity. Journal of Natural Products. 1987;50(1):19-22
  28. 28. Gundidza M. 1993 antifungal activity of the essential oil from Artemisia afra Jacq. Central African Journal of Medicine. 1993;39(7):140-142
  29. 29. Steel RGD, Torrie JH. Principles and Procedures Of Statistic Biometrical Approach. 2nd ed. Vol. 633. Japan, Mc Graw Hill International Book Cop; 1981
  30. 30. Bertahani L, Soetjipto H, Hastuti SP. Chemical Components and Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oil from Fruit Hull of Lime (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle L) and Lemon (Citrus limon (L) Burm.f.) [thesis]. Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science and Mathematics: Universitas Kristen Satya Wacana Salatiga; 2010
  31. 31. Setyowati R, Soetjipto H, Hastuti SP. Antibacterial Activity and Identification of Antibacterial Compounds of Essential Oil from Surinam Cherry (Eugenia uniflora L) Leaves [thesis]. Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science and Mathematics: Universitas Kristen Satya Wacana Salatiga; 2008
  32. 32. Satya CPH, Soetjipto H, Hastuti SP. Utilization of Essential Oil from Keffir lime peel (Citrus histryx DC) and Fennel seeds (Foeniculum vulgare Mill) as Antibacterial Compounds in Transparent Soap [thesis]. Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science and Mathematics: Universitas Kristen Satya Wacana Salatiga; 2008
  33. 33. Trianingsih E, Soetjipto H, Hastuti SP. Isolation and Characterization of Antibacterial Compounds of Chloroform Extract from Paracress Flowers (Spillanthes paniculata Wall) [thesis]. Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science and Mathematics: Universitas Kristen Satya Wacana Salatiga; 2006
  34. 34. Dudareva N, Negre F, Nagegowda DA, Orlova I. Plant volatiles: Recent advances and future perspectives. 18 Jan 2007;2007:417-440. Published online
  35. 35. Astani A, Paul S. Antiviral activity of monoterpenes beta-pinene and limonene against herpes simplex virus in vitro. Iranian Journal of Microbiology. 2014;6(3):149-155. PMCID: PMC 4393490
  36. 36. Gamarra FMC, Sakanaka LS, Tambourgi EB, Cabral FA. Influence on the quality of essential lemon ( Citrus aurantifolia) oil by distillation process. Brazillian Journal of Chemical Engineering. 2006;23(1):147-151
  37. 37. Benvenuti F, Gironi F, lamberti L. Supercritical deterpenation of lemon essential oil, experimental data and simulation of the semicontinuous extraction process. The Journal of Supercritical Fluids. 2001;20:29-44
  38. 38. Combariza MY, Blanco Tirado C, Stashenko E, Shibamoto T. Limonene concentration in lemon (Citrus volkameriana) peel oil as a function of ripeness. Journal of High Resolution Chromatography. 1994;17:643-646
  39. 39. Guenther E. In: Frittzsche Brothers INC, editor. The Essential Oils. Vol. III. Huntington, New York, USA: Robert E. Krieger Publishing Co., Inc.; 1955. p. 777
  40. 40. Othman SNA, Muhamad AH, Lutfun N, Nozarah Basar, Shajarahtunnur J, Satyajit DS. Essential Oil from the Malaysian Citrus (Rutaceae) Medicinal Plants. Medicines. 2016;3(2):13. 3020013
  41. 41. Victoria FN, Lenardaõ EJ, Savegnago L, et al. Essential oil of the leaves of Eugenia uniflora L.: Antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 2012;50(8):2668-2674
  42. 42. Becker NA, Liciane MV, Taiane MC, Rogerio AF, Gladis AR. Biological properties of Eugenia uniflora L. essential oil: Phytochemistry composition and antimicrobial activity against gram negative bacteria. Vittalle – Revista de Ciências da Saúde. 2017;29(1):22-30. ISSN 2177-7853
  43. 43. Lago JH, Souza ED, Mariane B, Pascon R, Vallim MA, Martins RC, Baroli AA, Carvalho BA, Soares MG, dos Santos RT, Sartorelli P. Chemical and biological evaluation of essential oils from two species of Myrtaceae - Eugenia uniflora L. and Plinia trunciflora (O. Berg) Kausel. Molecules. 2011;16(12):9827-9837. DOI: 10.3390/molecules16129827
  44. 44. Consolini AE, Baldini OAN, Amat AG. Pharmacological basis for the empirical use of Eugenia uniflora L. (Myrtaceae) as antihypertensive. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 1999;66(1):33-39
  45. 45. Ogunwande IA, Olawore NO, Ekundayo O, Walker TM, Schmidt JM, Setzer WN. Studies on the essential oils composition, antibacterial and cytotoxicity of Eugenia uniflora L. International Journal of Aromatherapy. 2005;15(3):147-152
  46. 46. Costa DP, Filho EGA, Silva LMA, et al. Influence of fruit biotypes on the chemical composition and antifungal activity of the essential oils of Eugenia uniflora leaves. Journal of the Brazilian Chemical Society. 2010;21(5):851-858
  47. 47. Gallucci S, Neto AP, Porto C, Barbizan D, Costa I, Marques K, Benevides P, Figueiredo R. Essential oil of Eugenia uniflora L.: An industrial perfumery approach. Journal of Essential Oil Research. 2010;22(2)
  48. 48. Oktay M, Gulcin I, Kufrevioglu OI. Determination of in vitro antioxidant activity of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) seed extracts. LWT-Food Science and Technology. 2003;36(2):263-271
  49. 49. Mimica-Dukić N, Kujundžić S, Soković M, Couladis M. Essential oil composition and antifungal activity of Foeniculum vulgare mill. Obtained by different distillation conditions. Phytotherapy Research. 2003;17(4):368-371
  50. 50. Perry R, Hunt K, Ernst E. Nutritional supplements and other complementary medicines for infantile colic: A systematic review. Pediatrics. 2011;127(4):720-733
  51. 51. Bruyas-Bertholon V, Lachaux A, Dubois JP, Fourneret P, Letrilliart L. Which treatments for infantile colics? La Presse Médicale. 2012;41(7-8):404-410
  52. 52. Wen-Rui diao, Qing Ping Hu, Hong Zhang, Jian-Guo Xu. Chemical composition, antibacterial activity and mechanisn of action of essential oil from seeds of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill). DOI: 10.1016/j.foodcont.2013.06.056.
  53. 53. Anubuhuti P, Singh R, Katiyar CK. Standardization of fennel ( F.vulgare) its oleoresin and marketed ayurvedic dosage forms. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Drug Research. 2011;3(3):265-269
  54. 54. Abdel Ati AS, Abeer YI, Saber FH, Elsayed AO, Faiza MH, Fawzia HAR, Mahmoud AS. Chemical composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of essential oils from organically cultivated fennel cultivars. Molecules. 2011;16(20):1366-1377. DOI: 10.3390/molecules160213669
  55. 55. Muckenstrum B, Foechterien D, Reduron JP, Danton P, Hildenbrand M. Phytochemical chemotaxonomic studies of Foeniculum vulgare. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology. 1997;25:353-358
  56. 56. Patra M, Shahi SK, Midgely G, Dikshit A. Utilization of essential oil as natural antifungal against nail infective fungi. Flavour and Fragrance Journal. 2002;17:91-94
  57. 57. Nenad V, Tanya M, Slobodan S, Slavica S. Antimicrobial activities of essential oil and methanol extract of Tenvicum montanum. Comple Alternat Medic eCAM. 2007;4:17-20
  58. 58. Ghani A, Asiatic Society of Bangladesh. Medicinal Plants of Bangladesh with Chemical Constituents and Uses. Dhaka: Asiatic Society of Bangladesh; 2003. p. 387
  59. 59. Zhu SM, Zhu L, Tian YJ, Yin YC. Composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Spilanthes paniculata growing wild on the Gaoligong Mountains, China. Asian Journal of Chemistry. 2012;24(2):607-610
  60. 60. El Gayyar M, Draughon FA, Golden DA, Mount JR. Antimicrobial activity essential oils plants againts selected pathogenic and sapprophytic microorganism. Journal of Food Protection. 2001;64(7):1019-1024
  61. 61. Soetjipto, Martono. Plant essential oils potency as natural antibiotic in Indonesian medicinal herb of “jamu”. IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering. 2017;172:012-022. DOI: 10.1088/1757-899X/172/1/012022
  62. 62. Frassinetti S, Caltavuturo L, Cini M, Della Croce CM, Maserti BE. Antibacterial and antioxidant activity of essential oil from citrus Spp research. Journal of Essential Oil. 2011;23(1). DOI: 10.1080/10412905.2011.9700427
  63. 63. Costa R, Carlo B, Angela F, Elisa G, Francesco O, Fredrica S. Antimicrobial activity and omposition of Citrus aurantifolia (Christm.) Swingle essential oil from Italian organic crops. Journal of Essential Research. 2014;26(6). DOI: 10.1080/10412905.2014.964428
  64. 64. Sikkema J, de Bont J, Poolman B. Interactions of cyclic hydrocarbons with biological membranes. The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 1994;269:8022-8028
  65. 65. Somolinos M, García D, Condón S, Mackey B, Pagán R. Inactivation of Escherichia coli by citral. Journal of Applied Microbiology. 2010;108:1928-1939
  66. 66. Ait-Ouazzou A, Cherrat L, Espina L, Lorán S, Rota C, et al. The antimicrobial activity of hydrophobic essential oil constituents acting alone or in combined processes of food preservation. Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies. 2011;12:320-329
  67. 67. Espina L, Gelaw TK, de Lamo-Castellví S, Pagán R, García-Gonzalo D. Mechanism of bacterial inactivation by (+)-limonene and its potential use in food preservation combined processes. Hozbor DF, editor. PLoS One. 2013;8(2):e56769. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0056769
  68. 68. Sartoratto A, Ana Lúcia MM, Camila D, Glyn Mara F, Marta Cristina TD, Vera Lúcia GR. Composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oils from aromatic plants used in Brazil. Brazilian Journal of Microbiology. 2004;35(4):1-6. DOI: 10.1590/S1517-83822004000300001
  69. 69. Bougatsos C, Olipa N, KBR D, Ioanna BC. Chemical composition and in vitro antimicrobial activity of the essential oils of two Helichrysum species from Tanzania. Z Naturforsch C. 2004 May-Jun;59(5-6):368-372. DOI: 10.1515/znc-2004-5-614
  70. 70. Pichette A, Pierre-Luc Larouche PL, Lebrun M, Legault J. Composition and antibacterial activity of Abies balsamea essential oil. Phytotherapy Research. 2006;20:371-373
  71. 71. Marino M, Bersani C, Comi G. Impedance measurements to study the antimicrobial activity of essential oils from Lamiaceae and Compositae. International Journal of Food Microbiology. 2001, 2001;67(3):187-195
  72. 72. da Silva JKR, Eloisa Helena A, Leilane HB, da Silva NCF, Alcy FR, Raquel CM, José Guilherme SM. Chemical composition of four essential oils of Eugenia from the Brazilian Amazon and their cytotoxic and antioxidant activity. Medicine. 2017;4:51. DOI: 10.3390/medicines4030051
  73. 73. Zahid MSH, Sharda PA, Atsushi H, Shinji Y. Anethol inhibits growth of recently emerged multidrug resistent toxigenic vibrio cholerae O1E1 tor variant strains in vitro. Journal of Veterinary Medical Science. 2015;77(5):535-540. DOI: 10.1292/jvms,14-0664
  74. 74. Shahat AA, Ibrahim AY, Hendawy SF, Omer EA, Hammouda FM, Abdel-Rahman FH, Saleh MA. Chemical composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of essential oils from organically cultivated fennel cultivars. Molecules. 2011;16:1366-1377. DOI: 10.3390/molecules16021366
  75. 75. Bisht DS, Menon KRK, Singhal MK. Comparative antimicrobial activity of essential oils of Cuminum cyminum L. and Foeniculum vulgare mill. Seeds against Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli. Journal of Essential Oil-Bearing Plants. 2014;17(4):617-622. DOI: 10.1080/0972060x.2014.956675
  76. 76. Keskin I, Gunal Y, Ayla S, Kolbasi B, Sakul A, Kilic U, Gok O, Koroglu K, Ozbek H. Effects of Foeniculum vulgare essential oil compounds, fenchone and limonene, on experi-mental wound healing. Biotechnic & Histochemistry. 2017;92(4):274-282. DOI: 10.1080/10520295.2017.1306882
  77. 77. Sabitha A, Rani, Murty US. Antifungal potential of flower head extract of Spillanthes acmella Linn. African Journal of Biomedical Research. 2006;9:87-89
  78. 78. Rai MK, Archarya D. Screening of some Asteraceous plants for antimycotic activity. Compositae Newsltter. 1999;34:37-43
  79. 79. Paulraj J, Govindarajan R, Palpu P. The genus Spilanthes Ethnopharmacology, Phytochemistry, and pharmacological properties: A review. Advances in Pharmacological Sciences. Hindawi Publishing Corporation; 2013:22. Article ID: 510298.
  80. 80. Baruah RN, Leclercq PA. Characterization of the essential oil from flower heads of Spilanthes acmella. Journal of Essential Oil Research. 1993;5(6):693-695
  81. 81. Baruah RN, Pathak MG. Hydrocarbons from the flower heads of Spilanthes acmella. Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plant Sciences. 1999;3:675
  82. 82. Begum J, Bhuiyan MNI, Chowdhury JU. Essential oil from inflorescence of Spilanthes calva D.C. Bangladesh Journal of Botany. 2008;37(2):217-218
  83. 83. Hong E-J, Na K-J, Choi I-G, Choi K-C, Jeung E-B. Antibacterial and antifungal effects of essential oils from coniferous trees. Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin. 2004;27(6):863-866
  84. 84. Rota C, Carramiñana JJ, Burillo J, Herrera A. In vitro antimicrobial activity of essential oils from aromatic plants against selected foodborne pathogens. Journal of Food Protection. 2004;67(6):1252-1256
  85. 85. Oussalah M, Caillet S, Lacroix M. Mechanism of action of Spanish oregano, Chinese cinnamon, and savory essential oils against cell membranes and walls of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes. Journal of Food Protection. 2006;69(5):1046-1055
  86. 86. Raut JS, Karuppayil SM. A status review on the medicinal properties of essential oils. Industrial Crops and Products. 2014;62:250-264. DOI: 10.1016/j.indcrop.2014.05.055
  87. 87. Saad NY, Muller CD, Lobstein A. Major bioactivities and mechanism of action of essential oils and their components. Flavour and Fragrance Journal. 2013;28(5):269-279. DOI: 10.1002/ffj.3165
  88. 88. de Carvalho Galvão LC, Fernandes Furletti V, Fernandes Bersan SM, et al. Antimicrobial activity of essential oils against Streptococcus mutans and their antiproliferative effects. Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2012(12). Article ID: 751435.

Written By

Hartati Soetjipto

Submitted: 20 November 2017 Reviewed: 27 April 2018 Published: 26 September 2018