Open access peer-reviewed chapter

Bioactive Compounds in Pigmented Maize

Written By

Arturo Navarro, Andrea Torres, Fernanda Fernández-Aulis and Carolina Peña

Submitted: 12 February 2018 Reviewed: 04 May 2018 Published: 05 November 2018

DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.78340

From the Edited Volume

Corn - Production and Human Health in Changing Climate

Edited by Amanullah and Shah Fahad

Chapter metrics overview

1,593 Chapter Downloads

View Full Metrics


Mexico is the center of origin of maize where there is a great variety of pigmented corns with health benefits. These properties are attributed to their high content of phenolic compounds. The most studied compounds are anthocyanins that no matter the variety of corn are mainly six: cyanidin, pelargonidin and peonidin-3-glucoside and their malonated derivatives. Among the pigmented corns, the purple has the most concentration of anthocyanins, these are found in the whole plant but in more quantity in the silk. The health benefits attach to anthocyanins are principally anti-obesity agent and anticancer activity. Regarding the phenolic acids reported in the pigmented corn plant, the most abundant acid in kernel is ferulic acid, in cob is syringic acid while in the silk is chlorogenic acid. This variation, in the phenolic acid profiles according to the organ, indicates the biological function that each of them plays in the plant; meanwhile in humans, they have important antioxidant effects. Flavonoids are the group less studied of bioactive compounds in pigmented corns; however, the concentrations of these compounds are high especially in purple silk; inside the flavonoids described are morin, kaempferol, naringin, maysin, rutin, quercetin and hyperoside; with antioxidant effects, as neuroprotective, apoptosis induction and others.


  • pigmented corn
  • anthocyanins
  • flavonoids
  • phenolic acids

1. Introduction

The oldest macroremains unambiguously identified as maize (Zea mays) were retrieved from preceramic strata of dry caves in two states of Mexico: Puebla (Tehuacan Valley) and Tamaulipas (Ocampo Caves). These were found with microremains of pepper (Capsicum) and squash (Cucurbit asp) and other species used by humans. Archeological strata, suggesting a rough date for this foods around 9000–7000 B.P. [1]. In different myths, leyends and codices prehispanics civilizations Olmecas, Mayan and Mexican showing the prominent position of corn. For example, one myth the Mexica gods of corn: Tell us that corn was created after the goddess Centéotl sank into the ground to make vegetables to feed the people. It was in the wake of that event that cotton, huazantle, chia, sweet potato and corn began to grow from the ground. The Mexican Indians called corn as “the plant of the gods” [2].

At this time, corn (Zea mays) is the most important cereal that is produced in the world, the white and yellow corns are more used, the world production of maize was 987 million metric tons (MMT) and the United States of America (USA) is the largest producer and Mexico is the sixth producing country [3].

In the world, corn is generally used for animal feed and biofuels. In Mexico, this cereal is used for making foods; maize grains are consumed fresh (elotes and esquites, boiled grains) or processed in the form of dough or cornmeal for the preparation of some foods: dishes (tortillas), corn flakes (salads and sweets totopos), starch (atoles and pinole), tamale dough (tamales), fermented foods (pozol and atoles), boiled or steamed corn (pozole), soups (chilaquiles), bakery products and another foods. Some foods and grains of maizes are depicted in Figure 1.

Figure 1.

Food products elaborated with pigmented corn.

The colorful corns are less common while the white and yellow are the most popular. All parts such as silk, cob, leaves, husk and kernel of corns have been used by people at remote time to Mesoamerican civilization, the pigment corns referred to as blue, red or purple corn are botanically the same species white and yellow. This cereal was used in the preparation to color foods and beverages. The interest on pigmented (blue, red and purple) corn is due to the bioactive compounds; these are anthocyanins, p-hydroxycinnamic acids, flavonoids and to minor proportion carotenoids, phytoesterols, vitamin E, lignans, policosanols and xylans. The purpose of this chapter is to provide an overview of bioactive compounds and of the biological activity of the purple, red and blue corns in all parts of the plant including pericarp of the grain (kernel), silk (seda), inflorescence (espiga), husk (totomoxtle) and corn cobs (olote). The plant parts typical to corn are shown in Figure 2.

Figure 2.

Organs of the corn plant. Painting by Esteban Torres 2018.


2. Anthocyanin in pigmented corn

Anthocyanins are the largest group of phenolic pigments responsible for the pink, red, purple and blue corns which is the cereal with most anthocyanin content [4]. For that reason, the pigmented corn has caught attention in research and production. There is a great diversity in types of corn including sweet corn, popcorn, pod corn, flint corn, flour corn, waxy corn and dent corn; everyone is able to have different variety of color as shown in Figure 3, which give us opportunity to get a great source of anthocyanins using the whole plant because, according with the variety of corn, the silk, corn husk and corn cob could have more anthocyanins than kernel, as we will see in later section.

Figure 3.

Purple corn and Cacahuacintle corn with purple cornhusk and corn cob.

2.1. Anthocyanin in pigmented corn kernel

Anthocyanin in corn is found in kernel, cob, husk, silk, leaves and stem [5, 6]. In terms of anthocyanins, kernel is the most studied and anthocyanins are found in pericarp and aleurone layer. Pericarp can be transparent, orange, red or brown while aleurone layer can be transparent, red or purple [7]. Currently, researches in corn are focused on major production of anthocyanins, so there are some strategies to find new and better source of pigmented corns. One of them is the study of Mexican maize due to an excellent source for the production of anthocyanins because there are more than 60 native races of corn that have been little studied. However, Mendoza had studied the anthocyanins content in different corn lines and found corns with higher anthocyanins [8]. Other strategy is hybrid corn which is also studied; nevertheless, the anthocyanins content is not better than other pigmented native corns.

The later research about anthocyanin characterization shows a similar profile include cyanidin-3-glucoside and cyanidin-3-(6”malonyl) glucoside as the main anthocyanins. Figure 4 shows anthocyanins found in pigmented corn. However, the variety of colors on pigmented corns is due to the difference on the concentration of each anthocyanin depending on genetics [9]. Peonidin-3-glucoside and pelargonidin-3-glucoside and their derivatives are the anthocyanins that have major variability and a major concentration of pelargonidin-3-(6”malonyl)glucoside are found in red corn [10] while blue corn has neither pelargonidin-3-glucoside nor peonidin-3-glucoside as purple corn has [11], moreover blue corn has more cyanidin-3-(6″ malonyl)glucoside than purple corn; however, its total concentration is much less than purple corn as shown in Table 1 [9].

Figure 4.

Structure of anthocyanin found in pigmented corn.

Part of the cornCorn phenotypeAnthocyaninRef.
KernelPurple corn2
Purple corn bran3
Purple corn pericarp6
Cy-3-glu (45.8%)2, (45.8%)3, (47.3%)4 (73.62%)6
Pg-3-gluc (2.0%)2 (3.3%)3, (4.7%)4 (15.50%)6
Pn-3-gluc (9.3%)2, (4.,1%)3, (11.9%)4 (10.88%)6
Cy-3-malonylglu (17.2%)2, (11.9%)4
Pg-3-malonylglu (2.4%)2, (2.1%)4
Pn-3-malonylglu (3.1%)2, (6.0%)4
Condensed form (16.8%)2, (11.2%)4
[11]4, [12]2, [13]3
Purple corn V1-V91
Purple corn2,3,9
Purple Hybrid (WenveiiR5 R11)5
Condensed forms1; Cy-3-glu1,2,3,5,6, Pg-3-gluc1,2,6,9; Pn-3-gluc1,2,5,6,9; Cy-3-malonylglu1,2,3,5; Pg-3-malonylglu1,2,3,5; Cy-3-dimalonylglu1; Pn-3-malonylglu1,2,3; Pg-3-dimalonylglu1,2; Pn-3-dimalonylglu1[9]5, [10]1, [12]2, [14]6, [15]9
Red hybrid corn (Wenwei2 R6 x LH287 R8)5Cy-3-glu5; Pn-3-gluc5; Cy-3-malonylglu5[9]5
Blue cornCy-3-glu (24.4%)7 (61.50%)8
Pg-3-glu (13.88%)8
Pn-3-glu (3.39%)8
Cy-3-malonylglu (56.6%)7
Pg-3-malonylglu (9.1%)7
Pn-3-malonylglu (10.4%)7
Cy-3-succinylglu (3.62%)8
Cy-3-disuccinylglu (4.56%)8
[11]7, [16]8
Blue hybrid corn (Lfy blue RI)5Cy-3-glu5; Cy-3-malonylglu5; Pn-3-malonylglu5[9]5
GermPurple corn sproutsDirect condensed
(Epi)catechin-Cy/Pg-3,5 diglu
(Epi)catechin (4-8)-Cy/Pn/Pg 3,5 diglu
(Epi)catechin (4-8)-Cy 3-malonylglu-5 glu
Cy- 3,5 diglu
Cy/Pg/Dp/Pn 3-glu
Cy 3-malonylhexoside
Cy/Pg/Pn 3-(6″-malonylglu)
Cy/Pg/Pn 3-(3″,6″-dimalonylhexoside)
CobPurple corn9
Purple corn (Peru)10
Cy-3-glu9, 10; Cy-3-malonylglu9, 10; Pn-3-glu9, 10; Pn-3-malonylglu9, 10; Pg-3-glu9, 10; Pg-3-malonylglu9, 10[15]9, [18]10
Purple corn (Peru)Cy-3-glu (75.28%)
Pn-3-glu (8.55%)
Pg-3-glu (16.16%)
HuskPurple cornCy-3-glu (11.7%)11 (39.8%)12
Cy-3-malonylglu (29.0%)11 (8.4%)12
Pg-3-malonylglu (11.0%)12
Cy-3-succinylglu (20.8%)12
Cy-3-glu monomalonate (1.0%)11
Pg-3-glu (~1.5%)11 (2.0%)12
Cy-3-malonylglu (6.3%)11
Pn-3-glu (0.9%)11
Cy-3-glu dimalonate (3.9%)11
Cy-3-dimalonylglu (35%)11
Pn-3-malonylglu (2.0%)11
Pg-3-dimalonylglu (1.5%)11
Pn-3-dimalonylglu (1.4%)11
[19]11, [20]12
SilkPurple cornCy-3-glu

Table 1.

Composition of Anthocyanins found in pigmented corn plant.

Superscript indicates the correlation of the concentration of anthocyanins with its reference.

2.2. Anthocyanin in pigmented corn cob

Cob is considered as a by-product from the corn and represents the 20.6–26.2% of the plant and it is used as animal feed. However, it has a chemical high value due to their high anthocyanin concentration and other phenolic compounds. Purple corn cob anthocyanin concentration is 3–3900 mg/100 g according to the last years’ review (Table 2). Differences are due to corn variety and also, but in a lesser way, extraction method. Anthocyanin composition in cob is similar to the kernel, finding the six main anthocyanins, and identification has made by HPLS-MS [15, 40].

Part of cornMaize phenotypeExtraction methodAnthocyanins content (mg/100 g)Ref.
KernelPurple/Blue (Zea mays var. saccharata)Heat water
60 min
KernelPurple Corn2% formic acid, 2 h
40:1 liquid-to-solid
3 extractions
KernelPurple (AREQ-084)Alcoholic extraction (Methanol or ethanol) with acid (85:15 v/v)
1–3 extractions
Purple (Zea mays L., cv Zihei)55.8[15]
Purple (AREQ-516540TL)850[24]
Purple (EP24)153[25]
Purple (race Conico)97–426[26]
Purple corn1600[27]
Purple (KKU-WX)74.5[28]
Purple corn (ZM01-ZM22)0.8–111.7[29]
KernelRed corn (ZM01-ZM22)Methanol acid0.8–33.4[29]
KernelPink (ZM01-ZM22)Methanol acid0.3–1.4[29]
Pink (EP24)0.018[25]
KernelBlue pericarpAlcoholic extraction (Methanol or ethanol) with acid (85:15 v/v)
One to three extractions
Blue (ZM01-ZM22)7.3–7.4[29]
Blue (race Chalqueño)64.6[30]
Blue (race Conico)89.2[30]
Blue hybrid corn73.0–105.2[30]
Blue hybrid corn27.39–78.28[31]
CobRed/Purple waxy corn
  1. KKU-WX111031

  2. KKU-OP

  3. hybrid

  4. commercial

Methanol-1% citric acid (80:20 v/v)
24 h, 4°C
  1. 34/37

  2. 116/179

  3. 17/189

  4. 27/336

CobPurple waxy corn (red to black)Methanol
Shaken for 2 h
Two extractions
CobPurple hybrid corn (KPSC 901)Conventional heating3660[33]
Ohmic heating3280
HuskPurple corn husk0.1 N HCl
6 h, room temperature
HuskRed/Purple waxy corn
  1. KKU-WX111031

  2. KKU-OP

  3. hybrid

  4. commercial

Methanol-1% citric acid (80:20 v/v)
24 h, 4°C
  1. 5/3

  2. 34/130

  3. 48/494

  4. 5/213

SilkPurple (ZPEXP)/Pink (ZP341)
Purple hybrid (PWC1-5)
Methanol acidified with 1 N (85:15 v/v)
Shaking by 30 min
70°C, 1.5 h
[34, 35]
SilkPurple cornEthanol 50%
Ratio 1:1 w/v
5 min
SilkRed/Purple waxy corn
  1. KKU-WX111031

  2. KKU-OP

  3. hybrid

  4. commercial

Methanol-1% citric acid (80:20 v/v)
24 h, 4°C
  1. 78/478

  2. 408/419

  3. 289/456

  4. 249/500

GerminatedPurple corn (PMW-581)240[17]
FoliarPurple corn (Jingzi No. 1)Ethanol 60% with citric acid 1%
60°C, 120 min
Ultrasound assisted extraction
KernelPurple corn96% ethanol and 1.5 N HCl (85:15)
1:25/80 solid-to solvent
15 min
Two extractions
KernelPurple corn bran400 W362[13]
CobDried cob of purple waxy65°C, 35 min
1:20 solid-solvent ratio
Supercritical fluid technology
KernelPurple corn pericarp (Peru)50°C, 400 bar
Supercritical CO2→Ethanol→H2O
KernelPurple waxy corn (Zea mays L. var. ceratina)Subcritical solvent extraction method
Water-ethanol 1:3
Sample-to-solvent ratio 1:20)
CobPurple waxy corn (Zea mays L. var. ceratina)
Subcritical solvent extraction method
Water-ethanol 1:1
Sample-to-solvent ratio 1:20)
1240–1270[14, 38]
SilkPurple waxy corn (Zea mays L. var. ceratina)Subcritical solvent extraction method
Water-ethanol 1:1
Sample-to-solvent ratio 1:30)
KernelPurple waxy corn
Zea mays L. ceratina
High-pressure processing 700 MPa (30–45 min)116[39]

Table 2.

Anthocyanins extraction methods and concentration.

2.3. Anthocyanin in pigmented corn silk

Corn silk can be yellow, green or purple depending on the corn variety. Silk is used in local community as medicinal herbs; however, it does not take advantage and is considered a waste [34]. But silk has a great potential to obtain phenolic compound, among them, anthocyanins. Research of silk is about its quantification and characterization of anthocyanins and results showed that has the highest anthocyanins concentration of the whole plant [41].

2.4. Anthocyanin in pigmented corn husk

Husk is the least studied part of the corn; there is limited research about their anthocyanin composition; however, they had a high concentration of anthocyanins depending on corn variety [20]. Most recent reports show a deeper studied of the type of anthocyanins in purple husk which has more anthocyanin diacylated [19] but there is other report that found cyaniding-3-succinylglucoside instead of diacylated anthocyanin [20]. For that reason, more research is needed; due to the low information, it is not possible to ensure that corn husk composition is different from other parts.

2.5. Extraction methods and characterization of anthocyanins in pigmented corn

Extraction of anthocyanin is made with methanol solvent acid and the method most used is ultrasound-assisted extraction that shows better efficiency, although, microwave-assisted extraction, ohmic heating extraction and supercritical solvent extraction are also used. Liquid chromatography techniques are the most used in anthocyanin identification. Table 2 shows the extraction methods used until 2018 and the anthocyanin content.

2.6. Biological activity of pigmented corn anthocyanins

Structural anthocyanins have conjugation that provides stabilization of free radicals. Antioxidant activity is plenty reported in pigmented corn. Additionally, anthocyanin extract of pigmented corn has been used in in vitro and in vivo assays, Table 3 shows some of the activities studied where anti-obesity is the most recurrent.

Extract of anthocyaninBiological activityRef.
Red cornInhibition proliferation of colorectal cancer cellIn vitro Cell lines[42]
Purple cornInhibition proliferation of colorectal cancer cellIn vitro Cell lines[42]
Purple corn (hybrid maize) kernelCardioprotective activityIn vitro[43]
Purple maize flourReduce visceral adiposity index, total body fat mass, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol and plasma triglycerides. Improve glucose tolerance, liver and cardiovascular structure and functionIn vivo
In rats diet
Purple corn pericarpAdipogenesis, inflammation and insulin resistance in adipocytesIn vitro[45]
Purple waxy corn cobNeuroprotective and memory enhancing effect[46]
Purple corn silk
(Zea mays L. var. ceratina)
Anti-obesity agent[21]
Blue tortillasLearning capabilityIn rats diet[47]

Table 3.

Biological activity found in purple corn.

2.7. Applications of pigmented corn anthocyanins

Purple corn is used traditionally to make tortillas, atole, chips, popcorn and other type of food products. However, chemical studies of these food products are limited. Food industry is more interested in elaboration of products with a major quality and bioactive compounds content; in consequence, the development of new products with purple corn have been the most studied. Some of the developed products are presented in Table 4, where the main purpose was to find the best process to keep the major anthocyanins concentration.

Corn phenotypeUseRef.
Purple cornBeverage[12]
Blue popping corn and dark-red popping corn (Zea mays L. spp. Everta)Bakery (cookies) with higher phenolic content[4, 35]
Purple corn (husk, cob and silk)Photosensitizers[48]

Table 4.

Use of anthocyanins found in pigmented corn.

Additionally, the anthocyanins are used to make photosensitizers from different colored parts of the corn including cob, husk and silk.

Furthermore, due to the low stability of anthocyanins, there are some studies related to this topic. The stability of anthocyanins has been improved using intermolecular copigmentation with gallic ferulic, caffeic acids, and results show that those acids do not protect the anthocyanins only have a hypochromic effect. There is a better protection by self-association. Other strategy is the encapsulated of anthocyanins in alginate-pectin hydrogel [49] and the spray-dried purple corn found that 5% of maltodextrin, 150°C and water are the best condition to obtain a soluble product with the major anthocyanin concentration [50]. Haggard in 2018 also found that beverage with more pelargonidin-3-glucoside concentration has a major half-life [10].


3. Phenolic acids in pigmented corn

Pigmented corns are good source of phenolic acids; mainly hydroxycinnamic acids but also hydroxybenzoic and chlorogenic acids. These compounds are distributed in whole plant. Table 4 shows the main phenolic acids found in different parts of the plant reported in the literature (Figure 5).

Figure 5.

Phenolic acids structures in pigmented corn.

In white, yellow and pigmented maize, ferulic acid is the most abundant phenolic acid. There are reports that in white and yellow corn it can be found in the forms of dimers, trimers and tetramers [51]. Other authors have reported 1.94 mg/100 g [52] of free diferulic acid in blue Mexican corn which is the most abundant in that variety (Table 5).

3.1. Phenolic acid in pigmented corn kernel

Free ferulic acid concentration in a variety of pigmented kernel is similar among Mexican and Khao Niew Dum varieties (2.02–3.99 mg/100 g) [24, 52]; however, Peruvian variety has the highest concentration with 5.50 mg/100 g [53].

Also, there are reports that evaluate ferulic concentration among different Mexican corn phenotypes pigmented white and yellow and there are no statistically significant differences. The concentration is between 140 and 160 mg and 94–98% are bounded in cell wall and the rest is free [24]. In the cell wall, ferulic acid plays an important role because it is cross-linked through photochemical reactions or coupling reactions catalyzed by peroxidases with the polysaccharides present in the grains, thus improving the rigidity in the cell wall of corn [51].

Other acids found in pigmented maize kernel are as follows: p-coumaric, caffeic, vanillic, chlorogenic and hydroxybenzoic acids, however concentrations are different according to the variety. In purple maize variety Khao Niew Dum, the next acid apart of the ferulic acid are p-coumaric, vanillic, caffeic and p-hydroxybenzoic acid [54]; while in INIA-GUI purple corn from Peru, the acid with major concentration after ferulic acid is the caffeic acid and cholorogenic acid [53]. The difference in concentration could depend on different factors as genetic, environmental, ripening, light-UV exposure and insect and pathogens attack [51].

3.2. Phenolic acid in pigmented corn cob

Research about pigmented corn cob is low; nevertheless, they have concentrations of important phenolic acids. The most abundant phenolic acid in cob from four pigmented corn phenotypes is syringic acid (31–202.78 mg/100 g) [32], followed by ferulic acid (7.34–10.73 mg/100 g) and in minors amounts vanillic acid (1.42–7.05 mg/100 g) and hydroxybenzoic acid (0.73–7.05 mg/100 g).

3.3. Phenolic acid in pigmented corn silk

Other organ from maize plant which has been studied due to their higher concentration of phenolic acids, in particular chlorogenic acids, is the stigma, commonly called silk. Some authors highlight that silk from purple corn have 25.64 mg/100 g of chlorogenic acid [21] and other studies highlight that from 25 days after emergence from four phenotypes of corn (purple, green, pink and yellow) they have 21.2–29.3 mg/100 g of 3-caffeoylquinic acid, and 5 days after emergence 923.7–1840.8 mg/100 g [37], also other three chlorogenic acids where studied: 4-caffeoylquinic acid (186.9–362.1 mg/100 g), 5-caffeoylquinic acid (74.4–86.5 mg/100 g) and p-coumaroylquinic acid (43.4–90.9 mg/100 g). Purple and green silk has the major concentration of chlorogenic acids.

3.4. Extraction methods and characterization of phenolic acids in pigmented corn

As already mentioned, most of the phenolic acids in the corn kernel are bound to the cell wall and a minimum amount are free form; for this reason, the way to extract them to identify and quantify them is not simple and is diverse: some authors point to the extraction of free phenolic acids, making an extraction with 80% methanol and centrifuging [31]; while the solid of the methanol extraction was carried out by a basic hydrolysis (with NaOH) with a water bath at 80°C for 30 min, and in this way the acids bound to the cell wall are obtained. Other authors report successive extraction methods for the recovery of free and bound phenolic acids; first for the free acids, they performed an extraction with 80% ethanol using a high-performance disperser, then the residue was assisted by adding an enzyme cocktail (pectinases, amylases and cellulases). To the residue of this, they made a thermal hydrolysis doing another extraction with methanol and 70°C. Finally, to the solid residue of this extraction, they added NaOH to carry out a basic hydrolysis [55].

In the case of phenolic acids present in corn silk, they only report extractions with organic solvents; for example, performing a direct extraction of the silk, using 95% methanol, centrifuging and using the supernatant for quantification and characterization [35]; other studies use 50% ethanol [21]. In the same way, for the case of the phenolic acids of the cob where they describe a simple extraction using methanol and centrifugation [32].

To carry out the characterization and quantification of each of the phenolic acids perform chromatography techniques: such as HPLC and HPLC-MS [52, 53, 54, 55].

3.5. Biological activity of pigmented corn phenolic acids

The phenolic acids present in the pigmented corns are of great importance due to the biological effects on human health [56], such as anticancer properties, antimutagenic, anti-inflammatory and cardiovascular diseases [56]. Table 6 shows the biological properties of each of the phenolic acids present in the pigmented corn plant.

Corn partPhenolic acidPigmented corn phenotypeContent (mg/100 g)Ref.
KernelFerulic acidPeruvian purple (INIA-GOI)5.52[53]
Mexican pigmented Pigmentados1.97–2.02[24]
Blue-Queretaro (Mexico)1.94[52]
Purple corn variety Khao Niew Dum2.3[54]
Kernelp-Coumaric acidBlue-Queretaro (Mexico)0.512[52]
Purple corn variety Khao Niew Dum1.1[54]
KernelDiferulic acidBlue-Queretaro (Mexico)1.9[52]
KernelCaffeic acidPeruvian purple (INIA-GOI)3.81[53]
Purple corn variety Khao Niew Dum0.29[54]
Kernelp-Hydroxybenzoic acidPurple corn variety Khao Niew Dum0.18[54]
KernelVanillic acidPurple corn variety Khao Niew Dum0.98[54]
KernelChlorogenic acidPeruvian purple (INIA-GOI)1.05[53]
SilkSilk from Thai purple corn25.64[21]
CobSyringic acidPurple corn cob from four phenotypes of Thai corn31–202.78[32]

Table 5.

Free phenolic acid concentration in different phenotypes of pigmented corns.

Phenolic acidBiological activityRef.
Ferulic acidPotential antioxidant[24, 52]
Anticancer properties[57]
Against cardiovascular diseases[56]
Coumaric acidReduction of blood glucose[21]
Diferulic acidPotential antioxidant
Allelopathic effects
Caffeic acidImmunostimulatory properties[58]
p-Hydroxybenzoic acidImmunostimulatory properties[58]
Vanillic acidReduction of blood glucose[21]
Chlorogenic acidPotential antioxidant[58]
Reduce visceral adiposity index[21, 35]
Syringic acidEffect against cerebral ischemia

Table 6.

Phenolic acids present in pigmented maize and their biological properties.

The biological activity that most report is as antioxidant, with phenolic acids having the capacity to reduce the free radical formation and elimination of ROS, inhibition and repair of lesions caused by the oxidation and degradation of other molecules and biomolecules [57]. The effect of antioxidant activity on corn from Bajio and Morelos (Mexico) has been evaluated; wherein the amount of free and bound phenols was measured; concluding that the antioxidant activity increases three times more in the extractions with basic hydrolysis. Therefore, antioxidant increase is attributed to phenolic acids linked mainly to phenolic acid [31]. In other studies, they reported that one-third of the antioxidant activity of the phenolic fraction in Mexican pigmented corn is given by ferulic acid [24]. They have also described the antioxidant activity between phenolic compounds, reporting that the highest antioxidant activity is generally presented by hydroxycinnamic acids, with ferulic acid presenting the highest and hydroxybenzoic acids less activity. In the case of purple and pink corn silk [35], high antioxidant activity is attributed mainly to chlorogenic acids, these activities being so high that they could be compared with other medicinal plants such as Mentha piperita and Salvia officinalis.


4. Flavonoids in pigmented corn

Other import group of the bioactive compounds that contain the pigmented corns are of flavonoids; with>4000 compounds, these molecules are most abundant polyphenols present in plant foods. They are characterized by a 15-carbon skeleton, organized as C6-C3-C6, with different substitutions making up the different subclasses. The major groups of the flavonoids of nutritional interest are the flavonols or catechins [59].

The most common chemical structures of flavonoids in corn are shown in Figure 6, and the composition of flavonoids in different parts of is presented in Table 7.

Figure 6.

Flavonoids structures in pigmented corn.

4.1. Flavonoids in pigmented corn kernel

Peruvian purple corn has kaempferol and morin as major flavonoids in kernel (Table 8), the concentration is 202–224 mg/100 g [53] which represent almost the total flavonoids (Table 9); after kaempferol and morin the naringenin glucoside and in minor amount rutin and quercetin. Meanwhile, Serbian pigmented corn phenotypes [35] report a lower total flavonoid concentration with 19.90–33.75 mg/100 g.

FlavonoidPart of cornPigmented corn phenotypeTotal flavonoid content (mg/100 g)Ref.
QuercetinSilkThai purple corn silk20.26[21]
PollenRed corn0.111[60]
Blue corn0.569
Dark red corn0.145
KernelPeruvian purple corn1.58[53]
Naringenin glucosideSilkThai purple corn silk6.45[21]
KernelPeruvian purple corn14.8[53]
MaysinSilkSerbian purple corn17.1[35]
Serbien pink corn12.6
RutinPollenRed corn0.186[60]
Blue corn0.013
Dark red corn0.010
KernelPeruvian purple corn2.74[53]
HyperosidePollenRed corn0.897[60]
Blue corn0.655
Dark red corn0.537
KaempferolKernelPeruvian purple corn224.0[53]
MorinKernelPeruvian purple corn202.0[53]

Table 7.

Flavonoid concentration in different parts of pigmented corn.

Parts of the cornPigmented corn phenotypeTotal flavonoid concentration (mg/100 g)Ref.
SilkSerbian purple corn3644.9[35]
Serbian pink corn3594.2
Mexican red corn2602.4[61]
Mexican dark red corn797.1
Mexican white-purple corn809.5
PollenRed corn1087.69[60]
Blue corn916.36
Dark-red corn1056.21
KernelPeruvian purple corn261–266[53]
Dark red27.05
Light blue33.75
Dark blue30.74
CornPeruvian purple corn187[14]
PericarpPeruvian purple corn4200[14]

Table 8.

Total flavonoid concentration in different parts of pigmented corn.

FlavonoidsBiological activityRef.
QuercetineApoptosis induction[18]
Adiposites lipolysis
Antioxidant activity[56]
Naringenin glucosideAntioxidant activity[50]
RutinAntioxidant activity[56]
HyperosideAntioxidant activity[56]
KaempferolAntioxidant activity[50]
MorinAntioxidant activity[50]

Table 9.

Biological activity of maizes flavonoids.

4.2. Flavonoids in pigmented corn silk

Flavonoids are the main bioactive compounds in pigmented corn silk [35] as shown in Table 9. Some authors reports until 3644.9 mg/100 g in Serbian purple corn and Mexican pigmented corn reports 797.1 a 2602.4 mg/100 g [61]. Among the flavonoids identified and quantified in pigmented corn silk is the maysin with 12.6–17.1 mg/100 g [35], quercetin (1.58 mg/100 g) and narigenin glucoside (6.45 mg/100) [21].

4.3. Flavonoids in pigmented corn pollen

Other organ of pigmented corn (blue, red and red dark) which represent higher concentration of total flavonoids is pollen (916.36–1087.69 mg/100 g) Table 9. The flavonoids identified are (Table 8) hyperoside, rutin and quercetin [60].

4.4. Extraction methods and characterization of flavonoids in pigmented corn

Flavonoid extraction methods in pigmented corn are made using simple extraction using organic solvents (methanol, ethanol and water in different proportions), centrifuge and using aqueous solution for analysis [21, 35, 53, 60].

Characterization and quantification of each one is made by chromatography techniques as HPLC and HPLC-MS [21, 53].

4.5. Biological activity of pigmented corn flavonoids

The most important biological activities of flavonoids in pigmented corns that are reported in the last 10 years are presented in Table 9.

Flavonoids of pigmented corns have been studied mainly for their antioxidant and neuroprotection activities. Corn flavonoids have also been reported, which can act as inductors of apoptosis and lipolysis of adipocytes.


5. Conclusions

Pigmented corns and its parts is a food that can be beneficial to the human because of the presence of phytochemicals and biological activities that are present. The studies of pigmented corns have been increased year after year, and they showed that the coloration blue, purple, pink and red is given by anthocyanins. Also, they have a large amount of phenolic acids and flavonoids. These compounds are present in the whole plant (kernel, cob, husk, silk), and their concentration is different depending on the organ.

The most abundant anthocyanins in corn plant are cyanidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3- (6″-malonyl) glucoside, peonidin-3-glucoside, peonidin-3- (6″-malonyl) glucoside, pelargonidin-3- glucoside and pelargonidin-3-(6”malonyl) glucoside and the coloration of each corn is depending on the concentration and profile of these.

With reference to phenolic acids, the representatives are ferulic acid in the kernel, syringic acid in the cob and chlorogenic acid in the silk. Finally, the flavonoids are morin, kaempferol, naringin, maysin, rutin, quercetin and hyperoside; the concentrations of these compounds are high especially in purple silk. Each of these compounds has a biological activity, so in the case of anthocyanins is its anti-cancer activity, cardioprotective and anti-obesity activity; according to phenolic acids, the ferulic acid is a potential antioxidant and provides anticancer properties, and in general, flavonoids have antioxidant activity.

Therefore, pigmented corns are important for the development of new functional food products from the grain and for obtaining natural colorants and antioxidants from the other parts of the plant.



This chapter was supported by the PAPIIT-IT202318.


  1. 1. Kraft KH, Brown CH, Nabhan GP, Luedeling E, Ruiz JDJL, Coppens d’Eeckenbrugge G, Hijmans RJ, Gepts P. Multiple lines of evidence for the origin of domesticated chili pepper, Capsicum annuum, in Mexico. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 2014;111(17):6165-6170
  2. 2. Cardoza y Aragón L. Artes de México. Número 79. Corazón de Maíz. 2006:11-17
  3. 3. Rouf Shah T, Prasad K, Kumar P. Maize-a potential source of human nutrition and health: A review. Cogent Food & Agriculture. 2016;2(1):1-9
  4. 4. Žilić S, Kocadağlı T, Vančetović J, Gökmen V. Effects of baking conditions and dough formulations on phenolic compound stability, antioxidant capacity and color of cookies made from anthocyanin-rich corn flour. LWT- Food Science and Technology. 2016;65:597-603
  5. 5. Simla S, Boontang S, Harakotr B. Anthocyanin content, total phenolic content, and antiradical capacity in different ear components of purple waxy corn at two maturation stages. Australian Journal of Crop Science. 2016;10(5):675-682
  6. 6. Moreno YS, Salinas CG, Coutiño B, Vidal VA. Variabilidad en contenido y tipos de antocianinas en granos de color azul/morado de poblaciones mexicanas de maíz. Revista Fitotecnia Mexicana. 2013;36:285-294
  7. 7. Warner LM. Handbook of Anthocyanins. Food Sources, Chemical Applications and Health Benefits. New York: Nova Science Publishers; pp. 476, 2015
  8. 8. Mendoza-Mendoza CG, del C. Mendoza-Castillo M, Delgado-Alvarado A, Castillo-González F, Kato-Yamakake T, Cruz-Izquierdo S. Antocianinas totales y parámetros de color en líneas de maíz morado. Revista Fitotecnia Mexicana. 2017;40(4):471-479
  9. 9. Collison A, Yang L, Dykes L, Murray S, Awika JM. Influence of genetic background on anthocyanin and copigment composition and behavior during thermoalkaline processing of maize. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2015;63(22):5528-5538
  10. 10. Haggard S, Luna-Vital D, West L, Juvik JA, Chatham L, Paulsmeyer M, Gonzalez de Mejia E. Comparison of chemical, color stability, and phenolic composition from pericarp of nine colored corn unique varieties in a beverage model. Food Research International. 2018;105:286-297
  11. 11. Li Q, Somavat P, Singh V, Chatham L, Gonzalez de Mejia E. A comparative study of anthocyanin distribution in purple and blue corn coproducts from three conventional fractionation processes. Food Chemistry. 2017;231:332-339
  12. 12. Luna-Vital D, Cortez R, Ongkowijoyo P, Gonzalez de Mejia E. Protection of color and chemical degradation of anthocyanin from purple corn (Zea mays L.) by zinc ions and alginate through chemical interaction in a beverage model. Food Research International. 2018;105:169-177
  13. 13. Chen L, Yang M, Mou H, Kong Q. Ultrasound-assisted extraction and characterization of anthocyanins from purple corn bran. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation. 2017;42(1):1-7
  14. 14. Monroy YM, Rodrigues RAF, Sartoratto A, Cabral FA. Extraction of bioactive compounds from cob and pericarp of purple corn (Zea mays L.) by sequential extraction in fixed bed extractor using supercritical CO2, ethanol, and water as solvents. Journal of Supercritical Fluids. 2016;107:250-259
  15. 15. Yang Z, Zhai W. Identification and antioxidant activity of anthocyanins extracted from the seed and cob of purple corn (Zea mays L.). Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies. 2010;11(1):169-176
  16. 16. Nankar AN, Dungan B, Paz N, Sudasinghe N, Schaub T, Holguin FO, Pratt RC. Quantitative and qualitative evaluation of kernel anthocyanins from southwestern United States blue corn. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. 2016;96(13):4542-4552
  17. 17. Paucar-Menacho LM, Martínez-Villaluenga C, Dueñas M, Frias J, Peñas E. Optimization of germination time and temperature to maximize the content of bioactive compounds and the antioxidant activity of purple corn (Zea mays L.) by response surface methodology. LWT- Food Science and Technology. 2017;76:236-244
  18. 18. Lao F, Giusti MM. Extraction of purple corn ( Zea mays L.) cob pigments and phenolic compounds using food-friendly solvents. Journal of Cereal Science. 2018;80:87-93
  19. 19. Deineka VI, Sidorov AN, Deineka LA. Determination of purple corn husk anthocyanins. Journal of Analytical Chemistry. 2016;71(11):1145-1150
  20. 20. Chung-Ying L, Hee-Woong K, Se-Ra W, Hwang-Kee M, Ki-Jin P, Jong-Yeol P, Mun-Seob A, Hae-Ik R. Corn husk as a potential source of anthocyanins. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2008;56:11413-11416
  21. 21. Chaiittianan R, Sutthanut K, Rattanathongkom A. Purple corn silk: A potential anti-obesity agent with inhibition on adipogenesis and induction on lipolysis and apoptosis in adipocytes. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2017;201:9-16
  22. 22. Somavat P, Kumar D, Singh V. Techno-economic feasibility analysis of blue and purple corn processing for anthocyanin extraction and ethanol production using modified dry grind process. Industrial Crops and Products. 2018;115:78-87
  23. 23. Gálvez Ranilla L, Christopher A, Sarkar D, Shetty K, Chirinos R, Campos D. Phenolic composition and evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of free and bound phenolic fractions from a Peruvian purple corn (Zea mays L.) accession. Journal of Food Science. 2017;82(12):2968-2976
  24. 24. Lopez-Martinez LX, Oliart-Ros RM, Valerio-Alfaro G, Lee CH, Parkin KL, Garcia HS. Antioxidant activity, phenolic compounds and anthocyanins content of eighteen strains of Mexican maize. LWT- Food Science and Technology. 2009;42(6):1187-1192
  25. 25. Rodríguez VM, Soengas P, Landa A, Ordás A, Revilla P. Effects of selection for color intensity on antioxidant capacity in maize (Zea mays L.). Euphytica. 2013;193(3):339-345
  26. 26. García-Tejeda YV, Salinas-Moreno Y, Martínez-Bustos F, Martnez-Bustos F. Acetylation of normal and waxy maize starches as encapsulating agents for maize anthocyanins microencapsulation. Food and Bioproducts Processing. 2014;94:717-726
  27. 27. Petroni K, Pilu R, Tonelli C. Anthocyanins in corn: A wealth of genes for human health. Planta. 2014;240(5):901-911
  28. 28. Harakotr B, Suriharn B, Tangwongchai R, Scott MP, Lertrat K. Anthocyanins and antioxidant activity in coloured waxy corn at different maturation stages. Journal of Functional Foods. Jul. 2014;9(1):109-118
  29. 29. Ryu SH, Werth L, Nelson S, Scheerens JC, Pratt RC. Variation of kernel anthocyanin and carotenoid pigment content in USA/Mexico borderland land races of maize. Economic Botany. 2013;67(2):98-109
  30. 30. Urias-Lugo DA, Heredia JB, Serna-Saldivar SO, Muy-Rangel MD, Valdez-Torres JB. Total phenolics, total anthocyanins and antioxidant capacity of native and elite blue maize hybrids ( Zea mays L.). CyTA Journal of Food. 2015;13(3):336-339
  31. 31. Urias-Peraldí M, Gutiérrez-Uribe JA, Preciado-Ortiz RE, Cruz-Morales AS, Serna-Saldívar SO, García-Lara S. Nutraceutical profiles of improved blue maize (Zea mays) hybrids for subtropical regions. Field Crops Research. 2013;141:69-76
  32. 32. Kapcum N, Uriyapongson J, Alli I, Phimphilai S. Anthocyanins, phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities in colored corn cob and colored rice bran. International Food Research Journal. 2016;23(6):2347-2356
  33. 33. Piyapanrungrueang W, Chantrapornchai W, Haruthaithanasan V, Sukatta U, Aekatasanawan C. Comparison of anthocyanin extraction methods from high anthocyanin purple corn cob hybrid: KPSC 901, and quality of the extract powder. Journal of Food Processing & Preservation. 2016;40(5):1125-1133
  34. 34. Sarepoua E, Tangwongchai R, Suriharn B, Lertrat K. Influence of variety and harvest maturity on phytochemical content in corn silk. Food Chemistry. 2015;169:424-429
  35. 35. Žilić S, Janković M, Basić Z, Vančetović J, Maksimović V. Antioxidant activity, phenolic profile, chlorophyll and mineral matter content of corn silk (Zea mays L): Comparison with medicinal herbs. Journal of Cereal Science. 2016;69:363-370
  36. 36. Gu X, Cai W, Fan Y, Ma Y, Zhao X, Zhang C. Estimating foliar anthocyanin content of purple corn via hyperspectral model. Food Science & Nutrition. 2018:1-7
  37. 37. Muangrat R, Pongsirikul I, Blanco PH. Ultrasound assisted extraction of anthocyanins and total phenolic compounds from dried cob of purple waxy corn using response surface methodology. Journal of Food Processing & Preservation. 2018;42(2):1-11
  38. 38. Muangrat R, Williams PT, Saengcharoenrat P. Subcritical solvent extraction of total anthocyanins from dried purple waxy corn: Influence of process conditions. Journal of Food Processing & Preservation. 2017;41(6)
  39. 39. Saikaew K, Lertrat K, Meenune M, Tangwongchai R. Effect of high-pressure processing on colour, phytochemical contents and antioxidant activities of purple waxy corn (Zea mays L. var. ceratina) kernels. Food Chemistry. 2018;243:328-337
  40. 40. Yang Z, Zhai W. Optimization of microwave-assisted extraction of anthocyanins from purple corn (Zea mays L.) cob and identification with HPLC–MS. Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies. Jul. 2010;11(3):470-476
  41. 41. Sarepoua E, Tangwongchai R, Suriharn B, Lertrat K. Relationships between phytochemicals and antioxidant activity in corn silk. International Food Research Journal. 2013;20(5):2073-2079
  42. 42. Mazewski C, Liang K, Gonzalez de Mejia E. Inhibitory potential of anthocyanin-rich purple and red corn extracts on human colorectal cancer cell proliferation in vitro. Journal of Functional Foods. 2017;34:254-265
  43. 43. Petroni K, Trinei M, Fornari M, Calvenzani V, Marinelli A, Micheli LA, Pilu R, Matros A, Mock HP, Tonelli C, Giorgio M. Dietary cyanidin 3-glucoside from purple corn ameliorates doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in mice. Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases. 2017;27(5):462-469
  44. 44. Bhaswant M, Shafie SR, Mathai ML, Mouatt P, Brown L. Anthocyanins in chokeberry and purple maize attenuate diet-induced metabolic syndrome in rats. Nutrition. 2017;41:24-31
  45. 45. Luna-Vital D, Weiss M, Gonzalez de Mejia E. Anthocyanins from purple corn ameliorated tumor necrosis factor-α-induced inflammation and insulin resistance in 3T3-L1 adipocytes via activation of insulin signaling and enhanced GLUT4 translocation. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research. 2017;61(12):1-13
  46. 46. Kirisattayakul W, Wattanathorn J, Iamsaard S, Jittiwat J, Suriharn B, Lertrat K. Neuroprotective and memory-enhancing effect of the combined extract of purple waxy corn cob and pandan in ovariectomized rats. Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity. 2017;2017
  47. 47. Aguirre López LO, Chávez Servia JL, Gómez Rodiles CC, Beltrán Ramírez JR, Bañuelos Pineda J. Blue corn tortillas: Effects on learning and spatial memory in rats. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition. 2017;72(4):448-450
  48. 48. Phinjaturus K, Maiaugree W, Suriharn B, Pimanpaeng S, Amornkitbamrung V, Swatsitang K. Dye-sensitized solar cells based on purple corn sensitizers. Applied Surface Science. 2016;380:101-107
  49. 49. Guo J, Monica Giusti M, Kaletunç G. Encapsulation of purple corn and blueberry extracts in alginate-pectin hydrogel particles: Impact of processing and storage parameters on encapsulation efficiency. Food Research International. 2018;107:414-422
  50. 50. Lao F, Giusti MM. The effect of pigment matrix, temperature and amount of carrier on the yield and final color properties of spray dried purple corn (Zea mays L.) cob anthocyanin powders. Food Chemistry. 2017;227:376-382
  51. 51. Bento-Silva A, Vaz Patto MC, do Rosário Bronze M. Relevance, structure and analysis of ferulic acid in maize cell walls. Food Chemistry. 2018;246:360-378
  52. 52. Urias-Lugo DA, Heredia JB, Muy-Rangel MD, Valdez-Torres JB, Serna-Saldívar SO, Gutiérrez-Uribe JA. Anthocyanins and phenolic acids of hybrid and native blue maize (Zea mays L.) extracts and their antiproliferative activity in mammary (MCF7), liver (HepG2), colon (Caco2 and HT29) and prostate (PC3) cancer cells. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition. 2015;70(2):193-199
  53. 53. Ramos-Escudero F, Muñoz AM, Alvarado-Ortíz C, Alvarado Á, Yáñez JA. Purple corn (Zea mays L.) phenolic compounds profile and its assessment as an agent against oxidative stress in isolated mouse organs. Journal of Medicinal Food. 2012;15(2):206-215
  54. 54. Harakotr B, Suriharn B, Tangwongchai R, Scott MP, Lertrat K. Anthocyanin, phenolics and antioxidant activity changes in purple waxy corn as affected by traditional cooking. Food Chemistry. 2014;164:510-517
  55. 55. Cuevas Montilla E, Hillebrand S, Antezana A, Winterhalter P. Soluble and bound phenolic compounds in different Bolivian purple corn (Zea mays L.) cultivars. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2011;59(13):7068-7074
  56. 56. Lao F, Sigurdson GT, Giusti MM. Health benefits of purple corn (Zea mays L.) phenolic compounds. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety. 2017;16(2):234-246
  57. 57. de Oliveira Silva E, Batista R. Ferulic acid and naturally occurring compounds bearing a feruloyl moiety: A review on their structures, occurrence, and potential health benefits. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety. 2017;16(4):580-616
  58. 58. Pandey R, Singh A, Maurya S, Singh UP, Singh M. Phenolic acids in different preparations of maize (Zea mays) and their role in human health. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences. 2013;2(6):84-92
  59. 59. Birt D, Jeffery E. Flavonoids 1. Advances in Nutrition. 2013;4(1):576-577
  60. 60. Žilić S, Vanc J, Jankovic M, Maksimovic V. Chemical composition, bioactive compounds, antioxidant capacity and stability of floral maize (Zea mays L) pollen. Journal of Functional Foods. 2014;10:65-74
  61. 61. Mendoza-lópez ML, Alvarado-díaz CS, Pérez-vega SB, Leal-ramos MY, Gutiérrez-méndez N, Alvarado-díaz CS, Pérez-vega SB, Gutiérrez-méndez N. Compositional and free radical scavenging properti es of Zea mays female inflorescences (maize silks) from Mexican maize landraces inflorescences (maize silks) from Mexican maize landraces. CyTA Journal of Food. 2018;16(1):96-104
  62. 62. Žilić S, Serpen A, Akillioǧlu G, Gökmen V, Vančetović J. Phenolic compounds, carotenoids, anthocyanins, and antioxidant capacity of colored maize (Zea mays L.) kernels. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2012;60(5):1224-1231

Written By

Arturo Navarro, Andrea Torres, Fernanda Fernández-Aulis and Carolina Peña

Submitted: 12 February 2018 Reviewed: 04 May 2018 Published: 05 November 2018