Open access peer-reviewed chapter

Life Span Management

Written By

Adewale James Alegbeleye

Submitted: December 1st, 2017 Reviewed: January 31st, 2018 Published: October 10th, 2018

DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.74730

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One of the challenges plaguing the health of people is the effect of chronic diseases. Life expectancy of people has continued to be at stake due to the emergence of chronic diseases. The centers for public health in various countries have raised concern that there is a need for urgent intervention to address this challenge. Self-management is the key to a healthy life and healthy aging. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), lifespan management could play an important role in preventative measures of hereditary diseases, reduce mortality rates, and act as motivating factors to human beings in general. Life span is the duration of existence of an individual or the amount of time that a person or animal lives according to Cambridge dictionary and this could be improved. There are various measures that have been scientifically proven to improve lifespan management such as calorie reduction, good nutrition, regular exercise, weight reduction, and healthy relationship. In conclusion, healthcare givers, doctors, and nurses should be able to learn that treatment is not the only medical process that can heal a patient. Lifespan management is an all-round process aimed at improving the health of a patient and if possible, a total restoration.


  • life
  • lifespan
  • lifestyle
  • management
  • life expectancy
  • elderly
  • services

1. Introduction

Lifespan is the average length of life of an organism or of a material object especially in an environment or under specified circumstances. When it comes to human life, it is imperative to note that the period and the number of years possible for a human being to live on this earth are well known. For instance, in the history of mankind, people living above 120 years with all the body organs functioning properly have been recorded. At some point in life, one can think of good health, and for the people who care about their health, the existence of mankind relies on the knowledge and skills of preventative measures available for the most preventable diseases that they are able to prevent at all costs. When normal life is compromised by a condition, lifespan management (LSM) comes in to supplement one’s life to continue living.

Lifespan management (LSM) is a very new health sustaining innovation and is aimed at improving individual more especially for those aging persons who have need of personal assistants with life activities and poor account of adequate interaction with the healthcare industry at length. Many have been asking questions in regard to the need and the importance of the process and the programs. It is one of the most important programs for all humanity because it gives humanity the dignity that it deserves at all times.

Lifespan management can be done at home or through health expert’s advice; we are all optimistic and have the perception that we may live a life that will not be attacked by an uncontrollable condition. One thing that we must understand as humans is that the body is prone to morbidity. Many medical scientists and doctors are aware that people can be prone to deleterious and fatal impact of sickness at any time; for this reason it is important to know that life can go on well. However, it is well seen among health practitioners that if a certain disease comes and compromises our lifespan, the treatment, and the other care, can be addressed through the new concept of this innovative approach to lifespan called lifespan management. Apart from expert care for patients in their own community environment, increasing ease and efficient access to healthcare, most of the cases, are done on patients who are victims of world-known epidemics and pandemics [1].

Lifespan management encompasses the kind of care after drug prescription that is accompanied by nutrition recommendation, diet, and change of lifestyle. In general, it is meant for the continuity of life after a certain treatment to the recommended levels. The importance of lifespan management does include the enhancement of lifespan in humanity through methods other than medicine which could be incorporated into diet, exercise, and sports nutrition. In the long run, it is a way of reducing the mortality rates through constant checkup and advisory services to patients on how to avoid death from a condition. Once someone or a patient goes through lifespan management, it will include both medication and other procedures, and this will boost the patient’s immunity; hence, lifespan management objective is achieved, where the patient will not be lost for the reasons related to their illness before their time. In other words, premature death will be a mile of years away. It also motivates the patients to be strong and accept their conditions and learn to live by it and reduce the side effects of some of the longtime drugs.

About those elderly patients who require frequent medical attention, lifespan management would be an effective and easy approach to meeting their health needs and ensuring longevity. It is crucial for making patients continue with their lives, and there are those conditions that are known to be fatal; however, it is assumed that when drugs are administered to such patients they may still die. It is a clear assumption that holds a critical view by the fact that the process of lifespan management after drug administration will help the patient to be able to control the condition and make it possible for the patients to live longer than expected with the same complications by easy access to healthcare through lifespan management. For instance, for a patient with diabetes, yes it is important to make sure that they visit a health facility, but after that, they will be engaged in diet recommendation, nutrition, and mental stability; in this regard the patient cannot die prematurely but live with the disease [1].

According to the Association of American Psychologists (AAP), people are not conscious about living for a long period of time, but they do understand that they can live on earth peacefully and happily. It is observable that they have never concentrated so much on the strategies on how to live according to the maximum years possible for human. It is crucial that people are educated on how to work on the number of days that they must live and make sure that they are aware that they should be responsible for each action that inhibits the lifespan. On the other hand, lifespan management is the health and social techniques that can be adhered to so that one can live according to the lifespan expected of a human.

Lifespan management also includes the medical therapy offered when the person who is under the program is being supported by medical equipment and drugs so that they can be able to continue with their lives normally. A good example is the people living with HIV; they are constantly on antiretroviral drugs as a life support. Off course, drug therapy alone may not be adequate for certain diseases. Therefore, there would be a need for other lifestyles such as the counseling, the diet watch, and other physical needs that are categorized as lifespan management techniques. Apart from the normal drug and health facility care regarding medicine, there is a part of treatment that includes counseling and recommendation from the health experts like nutritionists and dieticians; they play an important role in the health recovery process of the patients, and in the long run, it is regarded as part and parcel of lifespan management in general.


2. Objectives of lifespan management

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), lifespan management has played and could lay an important role in preventative measures of hereditary diseases, reduce mortality rates, and also act as a motivating factor to human beings in general, and it is estimated that the people who try to live their lives in accordance with the tenets of a specific program for lifespan management tend to live longer than those who do not understand their lifespan. In general, lifespan management is the process that is adopted at a personal level and institutional level, mainly for the purpose of reducing deaths and making people live for long or even live comfortably with the health challenges that they go through.

It is the process where one seeks help to increase his or her stay on earth through medication, counseling, and support from health experts and healthcare institutions. Every human being would love to stay long on earth, but the question on how best to acquire a long lifespan is what has been in people’s mind for a long time.


3. Theories of lifespan

There are several theories that have been put across to explain the issue surrounding lifespan in general. According to science, it reiterates that lifespan is a dependent variable on the genetic makeup of a living organism, whereas in contemporary society is dependent on environmental factors and lifestyle. It is imperative at this stage to explain what exactly “lifespan” is [2]. In a normal thinking of a person, they will think of how to elongate life or how to live longer on earth without much consideration to the determinants of a life on earth in humans.

In this paper, we are going to see and discuss the topic on both sides, that is, a long lifespan and a short lifespan in humans, the factors that lead to both and how to manage both but much will be on lifespan management. Sometimes, people ask how long they can live on earth and for how many years, and even in some case, they attach their lifespan to some materials that they believe they can help them manage their lifespan.

Lifespan in this context can only be determined by several factors. But one thing that humanity needs to understand is that the process of lifespan management begins right from conception and at birth. The process takes a break after birth and thereafter begins again when a person begins to be independent and during old age when care is paramount. Therefore, lifespan depends largely on self-care and external care by healthcare professionals or by an agency of human life. As mentioned, it is a process that needs constant care, and scrutiny of one state of health and well-being either during his or her young hood and old age.

There is no specific theory that explains how lifespan management can be approached, but in the long run, it is all about what we feed our bodies with both mentally and physically, where one is alert for any contraindications on the usage of any product that they are used to. Most of the lifespan management programs do depend so much on the health historical records of a society and a person, as they form the foundations for healthcare management at a personal level so that aspects of care in terms of lifespan management will be based upon.

Though, there is the theory of the scientific and the cell physiology in general, where cell division is more attached to the nature of lifespan of a living species. Scientifically, the number of times the cells replicate and divide determines a species’ span of life, but in real sense, there are other factors that do determine the lifespan of a living thing. In this regard, this is applicable to all living things including humans; in fact, humans and animals are categorized as one, but the distinction is the way of thinking and the consciousness [1].

In the previous narrations, it has been concluded that lifespan management is triggered by one or two factors, and one of the reasons for the need of lifespan management for both an individual and the society at large is the health status of a person; if the people are known to die of a certain condition, it is of great importance to make sure that they are given the correct medication, supplies, and any other support so as to assist in their wellness, and all this entails lifespan management [3].

The human nutrition, that is, the food intake, is an independent factor that determines the quality of homeostasis and the normal functioning of our bodies. Maintenance of how our lifestyle is designed is generally the foundation of a good lifespan management. That is based on a health condition, but when it comes to the perfection of the health status of a person who is healthy, the preventative measures act as a remote lifespan management program. Motivation is also a component for lifespan management; the aspect of informing the patient to be strong, such that you tend to prove and assure them that the condition is manageable and he or she is not the only one with the same condition, is a component of lifespan management.

There are several theories that have been raised concerning the determinants of our lifespan. Some of these questions span around the main factors that control our lives. Some of these factors span from lifestyle factors and genetic, cellular, epigenetic, or perhaps spiritual factor which is emerging under spirituality of life. Scientific knowledge is yet to provide satisfactory answers to such mystery of our existence. However, it has been concluded that there are factors that do have a great influence in the lifespan of a human in general. As earlier mentioned, the life of an individual on earth is determined by several factors right from birth all the way to death. The main goal in the process of “lifespan” management is to extend the time of death of an individual.

It should be clear that there is no record on a way or a technology that helps people to increase their days on earth, but there are social and economic factors that do determine a well-managed lifespan [4].

Lifespan management is a process that can take different directions and originate from different reasons; for instance, there is a need for lifespan management advisory services if someone has a medical condition that compromises his or her life, and such medical conditions and complications are either inborn or were acquired in the middle of life. In this case, lifespan management will be compulsory and of the essence for the survival of an individual.

Lifespan management is a kind of program that has medical and social attribute in nature. Love and compassion are central parts of a successful goal accomplishment. It is imperative that people around the person must show love and compassion so that the patient will feel loved and encouraged and forget the fact that they are going through a problem and learn to live with it. By so doing, the person gets to hope that they will see tomorrow and the other days. It is an important part of lifespan management on a social perspective; on the other hand, if the need for lifespan management originates from a medical condition and demands medical attention, then health professionals play an important role in making the person or patient live for long and get hope through medical help.

This was just an overview of how lifespan management process is introduced to humans or patients. In normal academic terms, lifespan management is also the same as longevity increases the process where its main purpose is to reduce mortality rates in the world and sustain it to an age like 90 to 120 years. As of today, the mortality rates globally for certain chronic diseases in the older population are high. Apart from the nature of illness, there is a variation in mortality among various nations and are influenced by several factors ranging from environmental to socioeconomic factors. In the end, the main objective at a personal level for the process of lifespan management is to increase the life of an individual and to enable the person to live a happy life. It is necessary to have a look at the factors that do influence lifespan in humans for a better understanding of what lifespan management is in details.


4. Factors that influence considerations for lifespan management

Lifespan is influenced by many things that human beings undergo during his or her life, and what people do most of the time determines how long and how short someone will stay alive. Lifespan management is not a process that one can apply some given parameters and give a measure or equate it to a given period of time; for instance, if one sticks a diet free from cholesterol for a year, it is not practical to measure the number of years added ahead in life equivalent to cholesterol-free period. It is conclusive to confirm that lifespan management has no specific factors that give results to the positive side and the negative side, but it is important to understand that lifespan management is triggered by both positive and negative factors; if one is going through hard times, and this goes for a long time, then there is a need for an introduction of a process of lifespan management.

The environmental factors do play a vital role for the need of lifespan management. There are some environments that are not fit for human habitation, and they are known to pose a risk to the lives of humans. They can be either artificial or natural, and they are not necessarily risky, but depending on the adaptive nature of a person to the environment, it will result into either positive or negative in either way. Environmental factors can be adverse climatic conditions, and the quality of water that is found in the region if the water, for instance, in the region is known to contain fluorine in high quantities, then the implication is that people are likely to lose teeth early in their lives and as young as 35 years [5].

Nutritional support for the elderly patients is an indication for the need of lifespan management services because people will not be able to access some of the nutrients through chewing, during old age. They will require care support to make them live to the maximum age recommended. On the other hand, the environment can be very conducive where the bodies of humans can be comfortable and make the people in the area to live long. In a nutshell, environmental conditions do play a role in either shortening life or elongating life in humans. But, the question that is very critical in this case is whether lifespan management is a need for a normal human being.

The answer to the case of a normal person can be challenging; in normal life situation, lifespan management is perceived as a process for the needy, for the sick people, and for the old, physically challenged people and patients undergoing a certain permanent condition in life. It is a fact that management of life is intended to elongate someone’s life that could be in danger majorly, but this has been extended to those people who are also healthy; they also take care of themselves, not only because they are doubtful or hopeless for the future, but also they want to make things easier for them once they are old. Indeed, whatever we do today has an implication for the future, what we eat, wear, and do daily may determine how we are going to live in the future and even sometimes affects our children.

For instance, if a person smokes tobacco, it influences his or her life at that time, in the future, and possibilities are high to affect their offspring. Lifespan management is a process that can take directions as mentioned before for the needy and for those people who want to live a better life in the future; it is not necessary for a specific people, but the need is for those with complications majorly. The factors that do influence the lifespan of human beings either for a long life or a short life, in general, are diverse.

Elaborating more on the environmental issues, that is, the human activities that do take place in our surrounding, a good example are the industries that are located in close proximity to the residential areas and the mining sites, and the industrial waste that is emitted in the form of carbon to the air is later on taken into the living things’ respiratory systems; this has been reported by several human rights organizations that the chemicals that are emitted in the form of carbon and other industrial wastes do cause grievous harms to humans.

If this is to continue for the next century, it will basically increase mortality rates and hence affect the lifespan of humans drastically. For this reason, there is a need to get into lifespan management at an early stage, so that the environmental conditions do not have a greater negative effect on the human life. This is an important part of lifespan management, more especially if the authorities want to increase the health and happiness of human beings. The understanding of influence of our clean environment to enhance longevity and a life free of adverse environmental and climatic conditions should continue to be a priority of all governments, climatologists, and environmentalists in the world.


5. Would most people need lifespan management?

Our lifestyle plays a crucial role in determining how far we can live as humans; we have these people who do or engage in manual activities as their main activity and income-generating activity for themselves. This can be good for them from a perspective of exercise, but it has a negative effect that causes harm to the body organs leading to diseases like asthma and other specific chest complications, so the kind of job that we engage in should be limited to a certain period in our lifetime.

As an illustration, a professional who deals with machine operations, like the compactors and drills, may tend to be affected as they shake the body for a long time, and this affects the bones and the muscles; in this regard, the body will disintegrate, and when old age comes, you will find that the past lifestyle activities will lead to complications associated with it. It is imperative that people engage in some activities with caution bear in mind the fact that they have an implication in the future. From the foregoing, lifespan management will be triggered by the previous activities that we did during our youthful stage.

It is a wider aspect of what we engage in that will prompt us to get into the perspective lifespan management. If one wants to make it a simple process, it must start from the days when you are a youth; this is because it will be much easier if we do not have problems that can be originating from our young hood. For instance, for a person who has been alcoholic for a long period of time, this person may have a difficult time in the process of lifespan management, because the organs in the body will not be as original as they were. They will need an extra cost through medication and alcohol cessation program. In this regard, lifespan management will involve healthcare, and at the same time diet, this is when one is old, but a good process of lifespan management begins from the mind, making sure that every part of the body is working optimally.

Yes, the life of a human being does not depend on one thing, like food only; it entails other processes that include healthcare, economic, and social process that will bring satisfaction. The straining of the body too is a dangerous affair especially the mental part of the body. If one undergoes a life that is known to be stressful, his or her life will be shorter, and death may come soon, and if this will be detected early enough, the issue of counseling and giving hope to this kind of person will amount to lifespan management because you already know that it can lead to death. On a social ground, you have and every person has to embrace the aspect of getting contented with what they have and living within their means altogether.

Lifespan management is not a process that you must wait for a certain age to click or when faced with a health condition so that you begin it; it is something that should be part of every conscious adult. In fact, in every action that we take for the good of ourselves, it should be referred to as lifespan management because every living thing does its best to make sure that they see tomorrow. However, according to the objectives of lifespan management of the American Academy of Pain Medicine, it is assumed that it is meant to elongate life, as much that it could be one of the reasons it is not a major reason for the process of lifespan management. The main idea is to make life comfortable and make it possible to have our body organs operate as required [4].

On the other hand, lifespan management should not be handled by the health professionals only. In fact, they are to give advice to the people and do it by themselves. For instance, people born with epilepsy, cerebral palsy, and others are people who may need the process because they are at risk at all times and their death could be known to their parents and relatives, and the health professionals would advise on how to take care of them so that they can live longer and a comfortable life in general. This is a type of lifespan management that demands an expert’s advice together with the caregivers. In this context, it can be concluded that lifespan management is both for the comfort of humans and at the same time is meant to improve the health and lifespan of a person. Such conditions are also the influencers of the need for lifespan management.

In summary, lifespan management is a process that is given to a person to make his stay long regardless of other factors in life, and this can be administered to a person whom upon observation is concluded that he or she has to live with the condition. It is not actually done from any place but can be made possible from a remote area, and the people go for the feedback checkups. In this regard, the process can be self-driven and undertaken from institutions that offer such services to the sick and the old with the perspective of healthcare. But the main objective of a lifespan management program is to make possible the ability and the life of human beings to live fully within the periods that are scientifically known to be possible for the human to survive having put all the other factors into consideration.

There are other factors that do lead to the need for lifespan management, that are personal, and that are based on how people from the family linage lived with regard to the quality and duration of their lifespan. In medical terms, it is dependent on the genetic makeup, where one observes how people who are not living died prematurely due to preventable diseases. In this instance, one could consider on what age set and the kind of ailments that they faced most of the time in their lifetime. This is an important data for one to base the basics of his or her lifespan management. One will be conscious about it, and in the end, he or she will be able to know when and during which to expect anything at a point in life. Though this has never been proven to be factual, but in some instances, it has worked [5].

For instance, if members of a certain family lived for 100 years, they are most likely to live the same period, but one thing that is impossible to understand is the fact that it is hard to establish the lifestyle that your deceased relatives led when they were alive but is important to work toward lifespan management with anticipation to live beyond their lifespan. This is based on genetic or hereditary determinant of their lifespan. It will involve looking into the diseases that are hereditary and the complications that are genetically transferred from one generation to the other. By so doing the preventative measures can be started early enough so that you may not be like the gone members of your family. This is part of the personal care in relation to lifespan management.


6. Categories of lifespan management

There are no specific categories of lifespan management, but what have been come up in the medical field are the processes that can be of two main considerations. There is the aspect of patient lifespan management which categorically meant to improve the adaptability of the patients to the advancement of the conditions they go through. It is also meant to make the pain and stigma associated with the complications to subside and bring back the patient to optimal health status. In this case, the society and the health professionals have a responsibility to make sure that the patient is at ease and accepts the fact that life has to go on with their condition.

The doctors and the nurses or the caregivers have a duty to offer advice and medical prescriptions for the patients. The society, on the other hand, should be able to understand that there is no single person who can allow or admire an illness, and they should be able to love and show compassion to the less fortunate in the society. The kind of lifespan management that we are talking is health based where a given condition is managed through medical means and life support equipment.

In this case, where a patient has been diagnosed with diabetes, it is both the responsibility of the doctors and the service provider to encourage the patient to work toward avoiding meals known to trigger the blood sugar levels and make it possible for the patients to access medical care and checkup whenever possible. In this context, lifespan management is based on the diets and reduction of disease causative agents and actions. For instance, checking the sugar levels and the blood pressure of the patients is of an essence to the diabetic patients.

The society or the family members are to make sure that the patient is mentally stable and is not stressed in any way possible and make sure that they feed on the right diet to increase his or her lifespan with the disease or the conditions. In this matter, lifespan management is regarded as a process where different techniques are employed to improve the health status of a person in general. It may involve health professionals, relatives, and family members; equipment like the life support machine, ICU (intensive care unit) equipment, and oxygen equipment; and others.

Another instance that will highly demand the lifespan management is the matter of the cancer patients. This is a category of patients who in the end must cope with the harsh conditions of cancer. They must endure pain and mental stress because of the disease. It is well known that cancer is a deadly disease that if not well managed it can lead to death. This type of disease results in discomfort and life-threatening conditions to the patients. It is imperative for the patients to be treated; there is no equal measure for the cure of cancer, yet the patient has to be encouraged that everything is going to be fine. There is no proper cure for some of the conditions in the world; notwithstanding, the doctors and physicians are required to provide duty of care and support, and give hope where possible. The doctors engage in this process to make it possible for the victims to live by the disease, to reduce its effects, and to make the patient live by the problem which is a process known as lifespan management in relation to healthcare.

The other category is the one that is very rare in the health facilities globally. Lifespan management is precautionary and preventative in nature, where a patient knows that he or she has been living with a certain condition, yet they have not taken any step to protect or reduce the chances of getting a certain disease. The diseases like diabetes that can be hereditary or sporadic in nature can be controlled through preventative measures: like adequate blood sugar control with drugs, checking on the foods that one takes, what someone does daily and adjusting to the climatic conditions. A good move by most of the governments globally is to demonstrate a clear view of the process of lifespan management by the recent introduction of PrEP (pre-exposure prophylaxis). This is meant to reduce the chance of contracting the epidemic virus; this is a good illustration of the process of remote lifespan management.

Generally, the main objective is to protect a person from succumbing to the ailments but learn to live with the outcomes of the disease or prevent the adversities from creating more relapses. It is necessary for strategies to prevent these diseases than to cure them, hence improving the lifespan of an individual. This is mostly concerned with the idea of encouraging the vulnerable adults to scrutinize their eating patterns, activity patterns, and the need for relaxation and sleep. Caregivers must understand that the lifespan of human beings is compromised by the conditions that they go through, and for the reason, it is important to make sure that diagnosis and medical advice are given attention that it deserves. In this case, the levels of impairment are to be analyzed so that they understand how to deal and give care to such cases. For instance, if the conditions of the patients are alarming to the point that it hinders mobility of the person, the caregivers have to understand that the inability to move from one place to another can lead to other complications associated with lack of exercise and hence lead to obesity; this can be on all categories of patients who are in need of care and lifespan management [6].

It must be understood that the process of lifespan management is geared toward reducing the chances of premature deaths that is the main objective of the process. For adults, it is central to incorporate several things to keep them alive and to keep them busy with activities like watching TV, reading, motivational talks, and engaging in mental discussions and medication; by so doing, it will be possible for them to live with the conditions and meet the objective of lifespan management.

In essence what the caregivers should be doing is to make sure that they give the best advice and care to the patients. In fact, lifespan management is not all about medication and care; it is about the aspect of lifestyle because there are many conditions in the world that are different from each other and they demand different attentions, for instance, mental lifespan management, terminal illness lifespan management, and hereditary condition lifespan management, among others. They need to be handled according to the needs of the patients and the required standards. In the case of mental disorder lifespan management, it is good to understand that what can make the patient face a premature death could be depression, and the most important thing away from medication is the fact that the patients should not be subjected to stressing environments that could lead to depression.

If it is a terminal illness, it should be on the basis of medication and healthcare, where the patients are duly informed positively to make sure that they take medication seriously and they are brought nearer to the people who have managed the illness in the past and came out strong. In general, there are several categories of lifespan management which are known to the experts, but every human being does anything for survival, and lifespan management should not only be left to the caregivers and the healthcare experts. This should be extended to other close people within the family so that the victims can see a reason to live longer. Another objective of lifespan management is to make sure that, as much as human beings who have psychological problems, should not to die prematurely or at an early age. It is meant to improve their emotional wellbeing and increase their body resistance to illness.


7. The tenets of lifespan management

Lifespan management is a process that should be understood as a sustaining procedure. Medicine is part of the process, and the prescription management is necessary is a component of lifespan management. In rare cases we do witness medication to be the central part of a curing process (LSM). There is a distinction between cure and treatment: cure ends when the doctor administers drugs to a patient, and cure begins from the time the symptoms are reduced or eradicated completely. Lifespan management is in a two-way traffic system, where the victim is subjected to a process of adapting to the changes in the body and the psychological stability of the patient.

It is crucial to make sure that as much as the prescriptions are in progress in the process of lifespan management. Cure entails helping the patients avoid the extension of their conditions like in diabetes. It is geared toward its reversal through proper diets and control of insulin. The patient cannot see the reason for the reversal of diabetes if they are not constantly reminded of the need to control and prevent the condition. Medication must be a part of the processes, but the psychological and emotional wellness of the patients should be enhanced through lifespan management process or programs.

It is not confined to a given location or facility; it should be done anywhere wherever the patient feels comfortable. Some of them may not want to remain in a hospital after treatment. They may need to go back home for the cure to continue. In this case, the emotional well-being is guaranteed to the patient and the caregivers. Lifespan management is good and recommended to be done in a place where the patient is comfortable. In fact, the World Health Organization has indicated that what leads to the premature deaths in the twentieth century is not lack of medication or even wrong diagnosis but the lack of facilities to give care and attention to patients to fully recover from their conditions, and in this case, it recommends that lifespan management should the second process after medicine and diagnosis [7].

Health professionals should be able to give advice and their opinion based on the values and the needs of wellness regarding managing the span of life of their patients either in the hospital or away. But in the recent past, it has proven that most of the health professionals bring the process to an end after medication. Reasons have been cited for this shortcoming based on the number of patients and the number of doctors leading to a health crisis in general. Apart from the normal medical process and diagnosis, counseling must be emphasized by the caregivers. This creates a strong bond and connection with the patients and feel the ability to get stronger day by day, and as a result, lifespan of the patients can generally be enhanced, hence the objective of the process of lifespan management.

Some of the procedures that should be incorporated in the process of lifespan management include exercises in the case where a patient is not able to involve themselves in vigorous activities like stretching and running. There should be equipment for the gym to enhance muscle activity and even chair base for the nerve stretching and testing. In some other developed countries, they have initiated institutions for care, both for the patients and the old. This is important for the reduction of mortality rates especially if it is accompanied by necessary legislation. One good advancement is the emergence of the artificial equipment that are helpful for the weak; in this regard a home care and lifespan management is to have the necessary equipment for the well-being of the patients and clients undergoing a cure and treatment therapies that must accompanied with medication for the purpose helping the patients to take control.

It is also imperative to make sure that during the process of lifespan management, recommendations must be given to the clients based on the improvements. A report has to be made on the reaction of the client’s body toward the process, such that it should include what to avoid and what not to avoid; in this case, the span of life will be added after a given period of time. The caregivers are to give feedback on how the conditions of the patients are doing, in regard to prevention and the reversal of the condition. It does matter so much to give positive feedback because this stabilizes the moods and the emotions of the patients. Lifespan management as mentioned earlier is to make sure that every person receives information regarding their health and diagnosis on time so that they can base the information on the prevention.

There are categories of people whose ability to function themselves independently is compromised, like in the case where a patient cannot eat or drink by themselves; in this case, the facilities should be able to provide other means and equipment to enable the patients to function easily. Children must also be informed of their conditions, so that they get the psyche to take food, because if by any chance a patient cannot eat well, this can lead to other complications like malnutrition and hence drop the immune system of the patient, and at that stage, the patients may not be able to achieve the objectives of lifespan management. Proper feeding can be enhanced by the use of tubes or gastronomy where the caregiver includes the services of registered dieticians to bring in professionalism and guarantee continuity of life [8].

In conclusion, health caregivers, physicians, doctors, and nurses should be aware that treatment is not the only medical process that ultimately heal a patient. It is not only in the health facility that a patient can be treated. They must understand that they can contribute to the survival of a patient, and the only way out is to make sure that they encourage and embrace the process of making sure they live their life as it was supposed to be. In fact, the reason as to why emphasis is made on the lifespan management in every part of the world is because no disease should cut short the life of a person because it is manageable. Lifespan management is an all-round process aimed at improving the health of a patient and the weight to manageable levels; if the patients are stable and comfortable, the rest may be achieved.


  1. 1. Klaus Sames SS. Extending the Lifespan. Münster: LIT Verlag; 2005
  2. 2. Cech DJ, Martin ST. Functional Movement Development Across the Lifespan – E-Book. Elsevier Health Sciences; Oct 5, 2011
  3. 3. Walsh L. Depression Care Across the Lifespan. John Wiley & Sons; Mar 16, 2009
  4. 4. Edelman CL. Health Promotion Throughout the Lifespan. Elsevier Health Sciences; Jul 25, 2017
  5. 5. Talley RC, Montgomery RJV. Caregiving Across the Lifespan. Springer Science & Business Media; Dec 22, 2012
  6. 6. Steinmetz SK. Family and Support Systems Across the Lifespan. Springer Science & Business Media; Jun 29, 2013
  7. 7. Stillion JM, Eugene E. Suicide Across the Lifespan. Taylor & Francis; 1996. ISBN 10: 1560323043 ISBN 13: 9781560323044
  8. 8. Guindon MH. Self-Esteem Across the Lifespan: Issues and Interventions. Taylor & Francis; Oct 27, 2009. ISBN-13: 978-0415996990

Written By

Adewale James Alegbeleye

Submitted: December 1st, 2017 Reviewed: January 31st, 2018 Published: October 10th, 2018