Open access peer-reviewed chapter

Amphibians and Reptiles of the Mediterranean Basin

Written By

Kerim Çiçek and Oğzukan Cumhuriyet

Submitted: November 21st, 2016 Reviewed: July 11th, 2017 Published: November 8th, 2017

DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.70357

Chapter metrics overview

1,865 Chapter Downloads

View Full Metrics


The Mediterranean basin is one of the most geologically, biologically, and culturally complex region and the only case of a large sea surrounded by three continents. The chapter is focused on a diversity of Mediterranean amphibians and reptiles, discussing major threats to the species and its conservation status. There are 117 amphibians, of which 80 (68%) are endemic and 398 reptiles, of which 216 (54%) are endemic distributed throughout the Basin. While the species diversity increases in the north and west for amphibians, the reptile diversity increases from north to south and from west to east direction. Amphibians are almost twice as threatened (29%) as reptiles (14%). Habitat loss and degradation, pollution, invasive/alien species, unsustainable use, and persecution are major threats to the species. The important conservation actions should be directed to sustainable management measures and legal protection of endangered species and their habitats, all for the future of Mediterranean biodiversity.


  • amphibians
  • conservation
  • Mediterranean basin
  • reptiles
  • threatened species

1. Introduction

The Mediterranean basin is one of the most geologically, biologically, and culturally complex region and the only case of a large sea surrounded by Europe, Asia and Africa. The Basin was shaped by the collision of the northward-moving African-Arabian continental plate with the Eurasian continental plate which occurred on a wide range of scales and time in the course of the past 250 mya [1].

The Basin stretches approx. 3800 km east to west from the tip of Portugal to the shores of Lebanon and 1000 km north to south from Italy to Morocco and Libya (Figure 1) [1, 2]. It covers the area surrounding the Mediterranean Sea, and includes partly or entirely 30 countries which are spread across 3 continents. It also includes 11,879 islands and islets [3].

Figure 1.

The amphibian richness of Mediterranean basin.

The Mediterranean region is considered to be 1 of 34 biodiversity hotspots due to its high level of floristic endemism [4] as well as the largest of the world’s 5 Mediterranean-climate regions. The region flora includes more than 25,000 vascular plants while half of them are endemic [1, 2]—in other words, they are found nowhere else in the world.

The geographic structure of the Basin is an important factor in understanding its biodiversity. While coastal areas are extensive due to the presence of numerous archipelagos and islands, much of the area consists of mountainous terrain with many areas above 2000 m elevation and peaks as high as 4500 m [2, 3, 5]. The Mediterranean region consists of various landscapes such as high mountains, rocky shores, impenetrable scrub, semi-arid steppes, coastal wetlands, sandy beaches, and myriad islands of various shapes and sizes [1, 2].

The status and distribution of Mediterranean herptiles has been evaluated by Cox et al. [5] 9 years ago. The purpose of this chapter is to re-evaluate amphibian and reptile diversity and to discuss the major threats and conservation status of Mediterranean herptiles. The Amphibia Web [6] and The Reptile Database [7] were used for determining Mediterranean herptile list. Major threats and conservation status of species for the IUCN Red List of threatened species [8] are also addressed.


2. Amphibian and reptiles diversity

Amphibians (Amphibia) and reptiles (Reptilia) are two fascinating but poorly understood group of vertebrates, distributed around the world. For the time being, there are 7655 amphibian [6] and 10,450 reptilian [7] species recorded. Unfortunately, many amphibian and reptile species are threatened and declining all-around the world. Habitat loss and degradation, introduced invasive species, environmental pollution, disease and parasitism, unsustainable use, and global climate change are major threats on species [6, 7]. There are 117 amphibian species and 398 reptile species, and most of them are endemic distributed throughout the Basin (Table 1).

2.1. Amphibian diversity

The amphibian fauna of the Mediterranean basin represents two orders: salamanders (Caudata) and anurans (Anura). A total of 117 amphibian species are found and 80 (68%) of them are endemic in the Basin (Table 2, Figure 1).

OrderFamilyNo. of speciesNo. of endemic species
Caudata (newts and salamanders)Plethodontidae88 (100%)
CaudataProteidae11 (100%)
CaudataSalamandridae4023 (58%)
Total—Newts and salamanders4932 (65%)
Anura (frogs and toads)Alytidae1211 (92%)
AnuraBombinatoridae31 (33%)
AnuraBufonidae127 (59%)
AnuraDicroglossidae10 (0%)
AnuraHylidae85 (63%)
AnuraPelobatidae32 (50%)
AnuraPelodytidae22 (100%)
AnuraRanidae2720 (74%)
Total—Frogs and Toads6848 (70%)
Total—Amphibians11780 (68%)
Testudines (turtles and tortoises)Cheloniidae30 (0%)
TestudinesDermochelyidae10 (0%)
TestudinesEmydidae30 (0%)
TestudinesGeoemydidae32 (66%)
TestudinesTestudinidae43 (75%)
TestudinesTrionychidae20 (0%)
Total—Turtles and Tortoises165 (31%)
Sauria (lizards)Agamidae2310 (43%)
SauriaAnguidae54 (80%)
SauriaBlanidae32 (66%)
SauriaChamaeleonidae20 (0%)
SauriaEublepharidae10 (0%)
SauriaGekkonidae5126 (51%)
SauriaLacertidae13286 (65%)
SauriaPhyllodactylidae73 (42%)
SauriaScincidae3625 (70%)
SauriaVaranidae20 (0%)
Total—Lizards262160 (60%)
Ophidia (snakes)Atractaspididae32 (66%)
OphidiaBoidae20 (0%)
OphidiaColubridae6527 (42%)
OphidiaElapidae50 (0%)
OphidiaLamprophiidae10 (0%)
OphidiaLeptotyphlopidae30 (0%)
OphidiaNatricidae31 (33%)
OphidiaTyphlopidae32 (66%)
OphidiaViperidae2915 (52%)
Total—Snakes11447 (41%)
Amphisbaenia (amphisbaenians)Amphisbaenidae43 (75%)
AmphisbaeniaTrogonophiidae11 (100%)
Total—Amphisbaenians54 (80%)
Crocodylia (crocodilians)Crocodylidae10 (0%)
Total—Crocodilians10 (0%)
Total—Reptiles398216 (54%)

Table 1.

The amphibian and reptile diversity and endemism of Mediterranean basin.

Number of amphibiansNumber of reptiles
Bosnia and Herzegovina8816200368175
Canary Islands02220001611715
Libyan Arab Jamahiriya022200447257619
Syrian Arab Republic235220746409522
Turkey (except for NE Anatolia)151328123011564911939
Western Sahara022100439206316

Table 2.

The number of amphibians and reptiles in the Mediterranean countries.

A total of 49 salamander species are present in this Region and 65% of them are endemic. The Salamandridae is the most diverse family. A total of 18 species with 7 genera (Calotriton, Chioglossa, Euproctus, Ichthyosaura, Lyciasalamandra, Pleurodelesand Salamandrina) are endemic to the Basin (Table 2). The only single member of Proteidae, Proteus anguinus, is present in the Balkan Peninsula and is endemic to the Basin. The other six members of the family are found in eastern North America.

The anurans have 68 species and 70% of them are endemic to the Region. The families Alytidae, Bufonidae and Ranidae consist of 75% of the group. A fascinating species of midwife toads (Alytes) have five species which are found across western Europe, northern Africa and Majorca.

The amphibian diversity is highest in Europe, especially in areas of higher rainfall, notably in northern Italy, France, western and northern Spain, Portugal, Slovenia and Croatia (Figure 1, Table 3) [5]. On the contrary, the diversity is much lower in the eastern and southern parts of the Basin where there are large arid and semiarid habitats. The higher amphibian diversity is observed in European countries of the western Mediterranean, especially in Italy, France and Spain [5]. The amphibian richness increases from south to north and from east to west of the Basin [1]. The reason lies in larger areas of humid habitats in the north and west of the Basin, which are an ideal habitat for amphibians.

Bosnia and Herzegovina000111400
Canary Islands00000200
Libyan Arab Jamahiriya00000201
Syrian Arab Republic00001402
Turkey (except for NE Anatolia)025221215
Western Sahara00001100

Table 3.

The conservation status of amphibians in Mediterranean countries.

2.2. Reptile diversity

The reptiles of the region represent five orders: Crocodylia (crocodilians), Testudines (turtles and tortoises), Amphisbaenia (amphisbaenians), Sauria (lizards) and Ophidia (snakes). The great majority of the species are lizards (262 species, 66%) and snakes (114 species, 29%) (Figure 2, Table 4). About 54% of the reptiles are endemic to the Basin. The most diverse families are Lacertidae (132 species), Gekkonidae (51 species) and Scincidae (36 species) for lizards; and Colubridae (65 species) and Viperidae (29 species) for snakes.

Figure 2.

The reptile richness in Mediterranean basin.

Bosnia and Herzegovina000121302
Canary Islands030001401
Libyan Arab Jamahiriya0112439128
Syrian Arab Republic0032378111
Turkey (except for NE Anatolia)0152591338
Western Sahara011134944

Table 4.

The conservation status of reptiles in Mediterranean countries.

The reptile diversity is the highest in the eastern part of the Basin, particularly in southern Turkey, Lebanon, south-western Syria, Israel/Palestine, Jordan and parts of northern Egypt [5]. The species diversity is much higher in North Africa than in western Europe. The reptile diversity of North Africa is the highest in the mountainous area, in semi-arid regions along the northern margins of the Sahara and in the Nile Valley. The Balkans has much higher reptile diversity than elsewhere in Europe. At the other hand, the diversity is very low in northern Europe [5]. In contrast to amphibians, the species diversity of the reptiles increases from north to south and from west to east, along with gradients of the extent to which arid and semi-arid habitats are present [1, 5].


3. Conservation status

3.1. Conservation status of Mediterranean amphibians

About 29% of Mediterranean amphibians are globally threatened, while 5% are critically endangered, 11% endangered and 13% vulnerable (Figures 35). Rest of the species are evaluated as near threatened (15%), least concerned (49%), data deficient (<1%) and 7% is not evaluated. The salamanders and newts have higher share of threatened species (20 species, 17%). Among frogs and toads, 13 species (11%) are globally threatened. One of the endangered species is the Hula painted frog, Latonia nigriventer,from Israel/Palestine that is listed as extinct up to 2004. The species is restricted to an area under 2 km2 due to heavy predation pressure by the waterbird populations [13]. The newts and salamanders have higher number of threatened species than frogs and toads (Table 5) [5].

Figure 3.

Summary of conservation status for Mediterranean amphibians (left) and reptiles (right). EX: extinct, EW: extinct in the wild, CR: critically endangered, EN: endangered, VU: vulnerable, NT: near threatened, LC: least concern, DD: data deficient, NE: not evaluated.

Figure 4.

The species richness of endemic amphibians in the Mediterranean basin.

Figure 5.

The species richness of threatened amphibians in the Mediterranean basin.

IUCN Red List categoriesCaudataAnuraTotalCrocodiliaTestudinesAmphisbaeniaSauriaOphidiaTotal
Critically endangered24702011013
Near threatened981602028839
Least concern16415717515571242
Data deficient0110108818
Not evaluated448000332056
Endemic37 (76%)48 (71%)83 (63%)0(%)5 (31%)4 (80%)158 (60%)47 (41%)214 (54%)

Table 5.

The IUCN red List categories and endemis of amphibians and reptiles in Mediterranean countries.

3.2. Conservation status of Mediterranean reptiles

About 13% of Mediterranean reptiles are globally threatened (51 species), out of which 3% is critically endangered, 6% endangered and 4% vulnerable. A total of 347 species are assessed as near threatened (10%), least concerned (60%), data deficient (4%) and 13% is not evaluated (Figures 3, 6 and 7).

Figure 6.

The species richness of endemic reptiles in the Mediterranean basin.

Figure 7.

The species richness of threatened reptiles in the Mediterranean basin.

Amphisbaenians and crocodilians are not considered threatened species in the Region. At the other side, the chelonians have six threatened species. Among the lizards, there are 38 species considered threatened. Snakes have only seven threatened species (2%). The endemic lizard genus Gallotiaoccurs only on the Canary Islands and consist of eight species. The genus has evolved there almost 20 mya, ever since the first islands emerged from the sea [11, 12]. They are adapted to eating significant quantities of plants. The overall share of threatened amphibians in the Mediterranean basin is as twice higher (29%) than that for reptiles (14%).


4. Major threats

The Mediterranean basin is the second largest biodiversity hotspot in the world. It covers more than 2 million km2 . The Basin stretches west to east from Portugal to Lebanon and north to south from Italy to Morocco and Libya [2]. The Region is home to approx. 455 million people, from a wide variety of countries and cultures for some 8000 years [2, 10] The Gross National Income per capita in the Mediterranean EU countries being 10 times that of the north African ones [10]. The poor countries mostly depend on natural resources and this threatens natural resources at high levels. Besides, economic development increases the pressures on natural resources, the conservation challenges and options of the Basin are driven by these economic inequalities [10]. Species provide us with essential services as not only food, fuel, clothes and medicine, but also purification of water and air, prevention of soil erosion, regulation of climate, pollination of crops by insects and much more [10]. Many threats come up thanks to these entries. The human-induced factors threaten the Mediterranean biodiversity and nature more than any other biological ‘hotspot’ [10].

Fifty-three percent of amphibians and 20% of reptiles are suffering from “residential & commercial developments” (Figure 8). Urbanization, industrial areas, tourism and recreation areas negatively affected the herptile species. Another important factor is “agriculture and aquaculture” activities and almost half of the species (59% for amphibians and 25% for reptiles) are affected by such activities. Along with the increase of human population, the food needs are also increasing day by day. The expansion of agricultural areas, livestock farming, overgrazing, aquaculture and mariculture activities are causing habitat loss and degradation and intervening in the food webs.

Figure 8.

The major threats to Mediterranean amphibians.

One of the biggest contemporary concerns is the growing need for energy as well as the need for nutrients and technological developments. The most basic resource used to meet the growing energy needs is still natural resource. Among natural resources, fossil fuels and mines are used most commonly. Use of renewable energy sources as alternative energy sources are not reached desired level. The “energy production and mining” activities have low effect on Mediterranean herptiles (6% for amphibians and 5% for reptiles).

Another problem brought by urbanization and population increase is in the construction of roads, especially narrow transport corridors cause wildlife mortality. Besides, these corridors create specific stress to biodiversity by fragmentation of the habitats and lead to other threats including farms, invasive species and poachers. The “transportation and service corridors” activities have low effect on amphibians (9%) and reptiles (6%).

Unsustainable harvesting, hunting and fishing activities are directly or indirectly affecting the amphibians and reptiles. Some species are used in traditional medicine, food and pet trade. The threats are driven by destroying or declining natural populations [10]. The amphibians (37%) and reptiles (22%) are densely used as “biological resource use” for many purposes. Almost half of salamanders and snakes are suffering from commercial purpose and persecution. The Mediterranean marine turtle species are severely affected by accidental capture in fishing gear, also called as “bycatch” [10].

Besides, “human intrusions and disturbance” have low pressure on amphibians (4%) and reptiles (4%). While “natural system modifications” severely affect the amphibians (32%), it has low pressure on reptiles (9%). The dam construction, for water management or use, and other ecosystem modifications make significant pressure on natural herptile populations. Forest fires are deliberately excluded to open such areas, especially in the Mediterranean region in Turkey, it is observed that these activities have been carried out in the summer. The endemic Lyciasalamandraspecies living in this Region are highly affected by forest fires. In addition to the destruction of the area for the construction of the dams, the alteration of the water flow direction of the rivers disturbs the natural habitat areas, especially amphibians are highly affected due to degradation and reducing habitat quality.

Non-indigenous animal species, pathogens and genes are appearing as major threatening factors to biodiversity being the process that is expected to continue in the future. Mediterranean amphibians (34%) are more affected by “invasive and/or problematic species, pathogens, and genes” than reptiles (4%). The American bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianusor Rana catesbeiana) is one of the invasive species in western Europe. Another invasive species, Trachemys scripta, is popular in the pet trade and has been introduced into the Mediterranean region by people releasing it to the wild.

The amphibians (59%) are more sensitive to “pollution” than reptiles (4%). Many chemical pollutants are increasing sensitivity to illness and mortality rates and reducing the reproductive success [10]. Domestic/industrial waste carries pollution to the sea and rural areas through rivers and sewage systems, in particular. Pollutants that cause water pollution from agricultural, silvicultural and aquaculture systems containing foodstuffs, toxic chemicals and sediments also pollute natural habitats as well as agricultural areas. Apart from these pollutants, trash and soil pollutants and even atmospheric pollutants are serious threat to species.

Today, global “climate change” emerges as a factor that affects the changing nature of natural habitats. Temperature fluctuations (changing in temperature extremes, increasing average summer temperatures and reducing winter/spring temperatures) cause the alteration of habitats, breeding phenology and host-parasite relationship of herptile species. Mediterranean amphibians (18%) are more affected by global climate change than reptiles (3%).

Mediterranean amphibians and reptiles are affected by these major threats (habitat loss and degradation, invasive alien species, harvesting, pollution natural disasters, disease, human disturbance, vehicle collusion and persecution) (Figures 8 and 9) [5]. While the most common threats for amphibians are habitat loss and degradation, pollution and invasive alien species, the most common ones for Mediterranean reptiles are habitat loss and degradation, harvesting and persecution [5]. On the other hand, there is no major threat for about 10% amphibians and 21% reptiles in the Mediterranean.

Figure 9.

The major threats on to Mediterranean reptiles.


5. Conservation

The major threats to amphibians and reptiles in the Mediterranean are quite different from each other [5]. Therefore, each group needs specific conservation activities. Island species particularly need urgent conservation studies. Although amphibians (especially salamanders) have a high tendency to be threatened, and reptiles much less so, there are many more reptile species on the edge of extinction in the Region than amphibians [5, 9]. Several methods can be applied by scientists in order to protect species. Land/water protection and management, species management, education and raising awareness, and monitoring and research are major actions for Mediterranean herptiles [10, 14].

5.1. Land/water protection and management

The Mediterranean region is densely populated and more than 30% of all international tourists visit its coastal areas [15], thus direct disturbance by humans is an important threat to natural resources [10]. The Region is also considered as the cradle of Europe’s civilization and one of the most important centers of crop plants origin [2]. However, the traditional farming practices have been abandoned in recent years in favor of intensive and industrial-scale farming methods [2].

The area conservation and management are important for endemic and threatened species with high risk status. “Land/water management” include many different types of actions such as conserving or restoring habitats and controlling invasive/problematic species. The tourism, urbanization, deforestation, intensive farming, overgrazing and fires are causing habitat loss for many threatened species. Therefore, site protection and management has crucial importance for sustainability of the threatened amphibians and reptiles.

5.2. Species protection and management

Improvement and enforcement of legal protection for threatened species and their habitats is the most urgent conservation action to be taken at both regional and national levels [5]. Species Action Plans can be an effective means for determining the specific conservation actions that are needed and for promoting coordinated activities. The primary goal of species conservation is the preservation of viable populations of wild species in their original native range [10]. Another solution could be captive breeding studies for endangered species close to extinction as part of intensive management activities. Besides, measures to be taken in conjunction with legal regulations are essential for the sustainability of protected areas. All countries should have endangered species red list database along with IUCN Red List to determine conservation priorities.

5.3. Education and awareness raising activities

There is no way of protecting a species or effective conservation without support of local people. The education and raising awareness have important role for an effective conservation activity. Collaboration between regional actors such as locals, farmers, landowners, NGOs and policy-makers should enhance conservation efforts to prevent biodiversity loss [10].

An official undergraduate program could enhance the knowledge and skills of students for environmental conservation. Additionally, creating a high school environmental course could be useful in terms of raising awareness. Increasing the exchange of knowledge, skills and knowledge in structured settings outside their undergraduate programs could be an effective way to reach outside of normal learning for practitioners, stakeholders and other interested people.

5.4. Monitoring and researches

Monitoring and inventory surveys on the endangered amphibians and reptiles will be helpful for identifying threats and create key activities for protection of the species. The main topics could be determining population/community trends, habitat quality, modeling climate change impacts and attitudes of local populations.


6. Conclusion

The Mediterranean basin’s biodiversity are facing many pressures and urgent action is required to preserve its future. Fortunately, many stakeholders such as regional and governmental organizations, NGOs, scientists and conservation practitioners are cooperating to preserve Mediterranean natural resources. The key conservation actions should be focused on sustainable management and legal protection of endangered species and their habitats [10]. Besides, it is not possible to deny importance of education, awareness-raising activities and monitoring studies for sustainability of Mediterranean amphibians and reptiles.



We thank Dilara Arslan, Çağdaş Yaşar, Sevde Karagöz and Onur Obut for their help to preparing data set and Ahmet Burak Kaya for reviewing English style.


Amphibians and reptiles of the Mediterranean basin

ClassOrderFamilySpeciesIUCN Red List categoryEndemic (Yes/No)
AmphibiaCaudataPlethodontidaeHydromantes ambrosiiNTY
AmphibiaCaudataPlethodontidaeHydromantes flavusVUY
AmphibiaCaudataPlethodontidaeHydromantes geneiVUY
AmphibiaCaudataPlethodontidaeHydromantes imperialisNTY
AmphibiaCaudataPlethodontidaeHydromantes italicusNTY
AmphibiaCaudataPlethodontidaeHydromantes sarrabusensisVUY
AmphibiaCaudataPlethodontidaeHydromantes strinatiiNTY
AmphibiaCaudataPlethodontidaeHydromantes supramontisENY
AmphibiaCaudataProteidaeProteus anguinusVUY
AmphibiaCaudataSalamandridaeCalotriton arnoldiCRY
AmphibiaCaudataSalamandridaeCalotriton asperNTY
AmphibiaCaudataSalamandridaeChioglossa lusitanicaVUY
AmphibiaCaudataSalamandridaeEuproctus montanusLCY
AmphibiaCaudataSalamandridaeEuproctus platycephalusENY
AmphibiaCaudataSalamandridaeIchthyosaura alpestrisLCN
AmphibiaCaudataSalamandridaeLissotriton boscaiLCY
AmphibiaCaudataSalamandridaeLissotriton helveticusLCN
AmphibiaCaudataSalamandridaeLissotriton italicusLCY
AmphibiaCaudataSalamandridaeLissotriton kosswigiNEN
AmphibiaCaudataSalamandridaeLissotriton vulgarisLCN
AmphibiaCaudataSalamandridaeLyciasalamandra antalyanaENY
AmphibiaCaudataSalamandridaeLyciasalamandra atifiENY
AmphibiaCaudataSalamandridaeLyciasalamandra billaeCRY
AmphibiaCaudataSalamandridaeLyciasalamandra fazilaeENY
AmphibiaCaudataSalamandridaeLyciasalamandra flavimembrisENY
AmphibiaCaudataSalamandridaeLyciasalamandra helverseniVUY
AmphibiaCaudataSalamandridaeLyciasalamandra luschaniVUY
AmphibiaCaudataSalamandridaeNeurergus strauchiiVUY
AmphibiaCaudataSalamandridaeOmmatotriton vittatusLCY
AmphibiaCaudataSalamandridaePleurodeles nebulosusVUY
AmphibiaCaudataSalamandridaePleurodeles poiretiENY
AmphibiaCaudataSalamandridaePleurodeles waltlNTY
AmphibiaCaudataSalamandridaeSalamandra algiraVUY
AmphibiaCaudataSalamandridaeSalamandra atraLCN
AmphibiaCaudataSalamandridaeSalamandra corsicaLCY
AmphibiaCaudataSalamandridaeSalamandra infraimmaculataNTN
AmphibiaCaudataSalamandridaeSalamandra lanzaiVUY
AmphibiaCaudataSalamandridaeSalamandra salamandraLCN
AmphibiaCaudataSalamandridaeSalamandrina perspicillataLCY
AmphibiaCaudataSalamandridaeSalamandrina terdigitataLCY
AmphibiaCaudataSalamandridaeTriturus anatolicusNEY
AmphibiaCaudataSalamandridaeTriturus carnifexLCN
AmphibiaCaudataSalamandridaeTriturus cristatusLCN
AmphibiaCaudataSalamandridaeTriturus dobrogicusNTN
AmphibiaCaudataSalamandridaeTriturus ivanbureschiNEN
AmphibiaCaudataSalamandridaeTriturus kareliniiLCN
AmphibiaCaudataSalamandridaeTriturus macedonicusNEY
AmphibiaCaudataSalamandridaeTriturus marmoratusLCY
AmphibiaCaudataSalamandridaeTriturus pygmaeusNTY
AmphibiaAnuraAlytidaeAlytes cisternasiiNTY
AmphibiaAnuraAlytidaeAlytes dickhilleniVUY
AmphibiaAnuraAlytidaeAlytes maurusNTY
AmphibiaAnuraAlytidaeAlytes muletensisVUY
AmphibiaAnuraAlytidaeAlytes obstetricansLCN
AmphibiaAnuraAlytidaeDiscoglossus jeanneaeNTY
AmphibiaAnuraAlytidaeDiscoglossus galganoiLCY
AmphibiaAnuraAlytidaeDiscoglossus montalentiiNTY
AmphibiaAnuraAlytidaeDiscoglossus pictusLCY
AmphibiaAnuraAlytidaeDiscoglossus sardusLCY
AmphibiaAnuraAlytidaeDiscoglossus scovazziLCY
AmphibiaAnuraAlytidaeLatonia nigriventerCRY
AmphibiaAnuraBombinatoridaeBombina bombinaLCN
AmphibiaAnuraBombinatoridaeBombina pachypusENY
AmphibiaAnuraBombinatoridaeBombina variegataLCN
AmphibiaAnuraBufonidaeBarbarophryne brongersmaiNTY
AmphibiaAnuraBufonidaeBufo bufoLCN
AmphibiaAnuraBufonidaeBufo spinosusNEY
AmphibiaAnuraBufonidaeBufotes balearicusLCY
AmphibiaAnuraBufonidaeBufotes boulengeriLCY
AmphibiaAnuraBufonidaeBufotes siculusLCY
AmphibiaAnuraBufonidaeBufotes variabilisDDN
AmphibiaAnuraBufonidaeBufotes viridisLCN
AmphibiaAnuraBufonidaeEpidalea calamitaLCN
AmphibiaAnuraBufonidaeSclerophrys kassasiiLCY
AmphibiaAnuraBufonidaeSclerophrys mauritanicaLCY
AmphibiaAnuraBufonidaeSclerophrys regularisLCN
AmphibiaAnuraDicroglossidaeHoplobatrachus occipitalisLCN
AmphibiaAnuraHylidaeHyla arboreaLCN
AmphibiaAnuraHylidaeHyla heinzsteinitziCRY
AmphibiaAnuraHylidaeHyla intermediaLCY
AmphibiaAnuraHylidaeHyla meridionalisLCY
AmphibiaAnuraHylidaeHyla molleriNEY
AmphibiaAnuraHylidaeHyla orientalisNEN
AmphibiaAnuraHylidaeHyla sardaLCY
AmphibiaAnuraHylidaeHyla savignyiLCN
AmphibiaAnuraPelobatidaePelobates cultripesNTY
AmphibiaAnuraPelobatidaePelobates syriacusLCN
AmphibiaAnuraPelobatidaePelobates varaldiiENY
AmphibiaAnuraPelodytidaePelodytes ibericusLCY
AmphibiaAnuraPelodytidaePelodytes punctatusLCY
AmphibiaAnuraRanidaePelophylax bedriagaeLCY
AmphibiaAnuraRanidaePelophylax bergeriLCY
AmphibiaAnuraRanidaePelophylax caralitanusNTY
AmphibiaAnuraRanidaePelophylax cerigensisCRY
AmphibiaAnuraRanidaePelophylax cretensisENY
AmphibiaAnuraRanidaePelophylax cypriensisNEY
AmphibiaAnuraRanidaePelophylax epeiroticusVUY
AmphibiaAnuraRanidaePelophylax esculentusLCN
AmphibiaAnuraRanidaePelophylax hispanicusLCY
AmphibiaAnuraRanidaePelophylax kurtmuelleriLCY
AmphibiaAnuraRanidaePelophylax lessonaeLCN
AmphibiaAnuraRanidaePelophylax pereziLCY
AmphibiaAnuraRanidaePelophylax ridibundusLCN
AmphibiaAnuraRanidaePelophylax saharicusLCY
AmphibiaAnuraRanidaePelophylax shqipericusENY
AmphibiaAnuraRanidaeRana catesbeianaLCN
AmphibiaAnuraRanidaeRana dalmatinaLCN
AmphibiaAnuraRanidaeRana graecaLCY
AmphibiaAnuraRanidaeRana holtziCRY
AmphibiaAnuraRanidaeRana ibericaNTY
AmphibiaAnuraRanidaeRana italicaLCY
AmphibiaAnuraRanidaeRana latasteiVUY
AmphibiaAnuraRanidaeRana macrocnemisLCN
AmphibiaAnuraRanidaeRana pereziiLCY
AmphibiaAnuraRanidaeRana pyrenaicaENY
AmphibiaAnuraRanidaeRana tavasensisENY
AmphibiaAnuraRanidaeRana temporariaLCN
ReptiliaTestudinesCheloniidaeCaretta carettaVUN
ReptiliaTestudinesCheloniidaeChelonia mydasENN
ReptiliaTestudinesCheloniidaeEretmochelys imbricataCRN
ReptiliaTestudinesDermochelyidaeDermochelys coriaceaVUN
ReptiliaTestudinesEmydidaeEmys orbicularisNTN
ReptiliaTestudinesEmydidaeEmys trinacrisDDN
ReptiliaTestudinesEmydidaeTrachemys scriptaLCN
ReptiliaTestudinesGeoemydidaeMauremys caspicaLCN
ReptiliaTestudinesGeoemydidaeMauremys leprosaLCY
ReptiliaTestudinesGeoemydidaeMauremys rivulataLCY
ReptiliaTestudinesTestudinidaeTestudo graecaLCN
ReptiliaTestudinesTestudinidaeTestudo hermanniNTY
ReptiliaTestudinesTestudinidaeTestudo kleinmanniCRY
ReptiliaTestudinesTestudinidaeTestudo marginataLCY
ReptiliaTestudinesTrionychidaeRafetus euphraticusENN
ReptiliaTestudinesTrionychidaeTrionyx triunguisLCN
ReptiliaAmphisbaeniaAmphisbaenidaeBlanus cinereusLCY
ReptiliaAmphisbaeniaAmphisbaenidaeBlanus mettetaliLCY
ReptiliaAmphisbaeniaAmphisbaenidaeBlanus strauchiLCN
ReptiliaAmphisbaeniaAmphisbaenidaeBlanus tingitanusLCY
ReptiliaAmphisbaeniaTrogonophiidaeTrogonophis wiegmanniLCY
ReptiliaSauriaAgamidaeAgama impalearisLCY
ReptiliaSauriaAgamidaeAgama spinosaLCN
ReptiliaSauriaAgamidaePhrynocephalus arabicusLCY
ReptiliaSauriaAgamidaePhrynocephalus maculatusLCN
ReptiliaSauriaAgamidaePseudotrapelus aqabensisNEY
ReptiliaSauriaAgamidaePseudotrapelus sinaitusLCN
ReptiliaSauriaAgamidaeStellagama stellioLCN
ReptiliaSauriaAgamidaeTrapelus agnetaeLCN
ReptiliaSauriaAgamidaeTrapelus boehmeiLCY
ReptiliaSauriaAgamidaeTrapelus lessonaeLCN
ReptiliaSauriaAgamidaeTrapelus mutabilisLCN
ReptiliaSauriaAgamidaeTrapelus ruderatusLCN
ReptiliaSauriaAgamidaeTrapelus savigniiVUY
ReptiliaSauriaAgamidaeTrapelus schmitziDDN
ReptiliaSauriaAgamidaeTrapelus tournevilleiLCY
ReptiliaSauriaAgamidaeUromastyx acanthinuraNTN
ReptiliaSauriaAgamidaeUromastyx aegyptiaNTN
ReptiliaSauriaAgamidaeUromastyx alfredschmidtiNTY
ReptiliaSauriaAgamidaeUromastyx disparNTY
ReptiliaSauriaAgamidaeUromastyx geyriNTY
ReptiliaSauriaAgamidaeUromastyx nigriventrisNEY
ReptiliaSauriaAgamidaeUromastyx ocellataNTN
ReptiliaSauriaAgamidaeUromastyx ornataNTN
ReptiliaSauriaAnguidaeAnguis cephallonicaNTY
ReptiliaSauriaAnguidaeAnguis graecaNEY
ReptiliaSauriaAnguidaeAnguis veronensisNEY
ReptiliaSauriaAnguidaeHyalosaurus koellikeriLCY
ReptiliaSauriaAnguidaePseudopus apodusLCN
ReptiliaSauriaBlanidaeBlanus alexandriNEY
ReptiliaSauriaBlanidaeBlanus aporusNEY
ReptiliaSauriaBlanidaeBlanus mariaeNEY
ReptiliaSauriaChamaeleonidaeChamaeleo africanusLCN
ReptiliaSauriaChamaeleonidaeChamaeleo chamaeleonLCN
ReptiliaSauriaEublepharidaeEublepharis angramainyuLCN
ReptiliaSauriaGekkonidaeAsaccus elisaeLCN
ReptiliaSauriaGekkonidaeBunopus blanfordiiNEY
ReptiliaSauriaGekkonidaeBunopus tuberculatusLCN
ReptiliaSauriaGekkonidaeCyrtopodion scabrumLCN
ReptiliaSauriaGekkonidaeEuleptes europaeaNTY
ReptiliaSauriaGekkonidaeHemidactylus dawudazraqiNEN
ReptiliaSauriaGekkonidaeHemidactylus flaviviridisLCN
ReptiliaSauriaGekkonidaeHemidactylus foudaiiLCY
ReptiliaSauriaGekkonidaeHemidactylus granosusNEN
ReptiliaSauriaGekkonidaeHemidactylus lavadeserticusNEY
ReptiliaSauriaGekkonidaeHemidactylus mindiaeLCY
ReptiliaSauriaGekkonidaeHemidactylus robustusLCN
ReptiliaSauriaGekkonidaeHemidactylus sinaitusLCN
ReptiliaSauriaGekkonidaeHemidactylus turcicusLCN
ReptiliaSauriaGekkonidaeMediodactylus amictopholisENY
ReptiliaSauriaGekkonidaeMediodactylus heterocercusLCN
ReptiliaSauriaGekkonidaeMediodactylus kotschyiLCN
ReptiliaSauriaGekkonidaePristurus flavipunctatusLCN
ReptiliaSauriaGekkonidaePristurus rupestrisLCN
ReptiliaSauriaGekkonidaeQuedenfeldtia moerensLCY
ReptiliaSauriaGekkonidaeQuedenfeldtia trachyblepharusNTY
ReptiliaSauriaGekkonidaeSaurodactylus brossetiLCY
ReptiliaSauriaGekkonidaeSaurodactylus fasciatusVUY
ReptiliaSauriaGekkonidaeSaurodactylus mauritanicusLCY
ReptiliaSauriaGekkonidaeStenodactylus doriaeLCN
ReptiliaSauriaGekkonidaeStenodactylus grandicepsLCN
ReptiliaSauriaGekkonidaeStenodactylus mauritanicusNEY
ReptiliaSauriaGekkonidaeStenodactylus petriiLCN
ReptiliaSauriaGekkonidaeStenodactylus sleviniLCN
ReptiliaSauriaGekkonidaeStenodactylus stenurusNEY
ReptiliaSauriaGekkonidaeStenodactylus sthenodactylusLCN
ReptiliaSauriaGekkonidaeTarentola angustimentalisLCY
ReptiliaSauriaGekkonidaeTarentola annularisLCN
ReptiliaSauriaGekkonidaeTarentola bischoffiNEY
ReptiliaSauriaGekkonidaeTarentola boehmeiLCY
ReptiliaSauriaGekkonidaeTarentola boettgeriLCY
ReptiliaSauriaGekkonidaeTarentola chazaliaeLCN
ReptiliaSauriaGekkonidaeTarentola delalandiiLCY
ReptiliaSauriaGekkonidaeTarentola desertiLCY
ReptiliaSauriaGekkonidaeTarentola ephippiataLCN
ReptiliaSauriaGekkonidaeTarentola fascicularisNEY
ReptiliaSauriaGekkonidaeTarentola gomerensisLCY
ReptiliaSauriaGekkonidaeTarentola mauritanicaLCY
ReptiliaSauriaGekkonidaeTarentola mindiaeLCY
ReptiliaSauriaGekkonidaeTarentola neglectaLCY
ReptiliaSauriaGekkonidaeTropiocolotes algericusLCN
ReptiliaSauriaGekkonidaeTropiocolotes bisharicusLCN
ReptiliaSauriaGekkonidaeTropiocolotes nattereriLCY
ReptiliaSauriaGekkonidaeTropiocolotes nubicusDDN
ReptiliaSauriaGekkonidaeTropiocolotes steudneriLCN
ReptiliaSauriaGekkonidaeTropiocolotes tripolitanusLCY
ReptiliaSauriaLacertidaeAcanthodactylus aegyptiusNEY
ReptiliaSauriaLacertidaeAcanthodactylus blanciENY
ReptiliaSauriaLacertidaeAcanthodactylus boskianusLCN
ReptiliaSauriaLacertidaeAcanthodactylus busackiLCN
ReptiliaSauriaLacertidaeAcanthodactylus dumeriliiLCN
ReptiliaSauriaLacertidaeAcanthodactylus erythrurusLCY
ReptiliaSauriaLacertidaeAcanthodactylus grandisLCN
ReptiliaSauriaLacertidaeAcanthodactylus hardyiNEN
ReptiliaSauriaLacertidaeAcanthodactylus harranensisCRY
ReptiliaSauriaLacertidaeAcanthodactylus longipesLCN
ReptiliaSauriaLacertidaeAcanthodactylus maculatusLCY
ReptiliaSauriaLacertidaeAcanthodactylus opheodurusLCN
ReptiliaSauriaLacertidaeAcanthodactylus orientalisLCN
ReptiliaSauriaLacertidaeAcanthodactylus pardalisVUY
ReptiliaSauriaLacertidaeAcanthodactylus robustusLCN
ReptiliaSauriaLacertidaeAcanthodactylus savignyiNTY
ReptiliaSauriaLacertidaeAcanthodactylus schmidtiLCY
ReptiliaSauriaLacertidaeAcanthodactylus schreiberiENY
ReptiliaSauriaLacertidaeAcanthodactylus scutellatusLCN
ReptiliaSauriaLacertidaeAcanthodactylus spinicaudaCRY
ReptiliaSauriaLacertidaeAcanthodactylus taghitensisDDY
ReptiliaSauriaLacertidaeAcanthodactylus tilburyiNEN
ReptiliaSauriaLacertidaeAcanthodactylus tristramiLCN
ReptiliaSauriaLacertidaeAlgyroides fitzingeriLCY
ReptiliaSauriaLacertidaeAlgyroides marchiENY
ReptiliaSauriaLacertidaeAlgyroides moreoticusNTY
ReptiliaSauriaLacertidaeAlgyroides nigropunctatusLCY
ReptiliaSauriaLacertidaeAnatololacerta anatolicaLCY
ReptiliaSauriaLacertidaeAnatololacerta budakiNEY
ReptiliaSauriaLacertidaeAnatololacerta danfordiLCY
ReptiliaSauriaLacertidaeAnatololacerta pelasgianaNEY
ReptiliaSauriaLacertidaeApathya cappadocicaLCY
ReptiliaSauriaLacertidaeArchaeolacerta bedriagaeVUY
ReptiliaSauriaLacertidaeAtlantolacerta andreanskyiNTY
ReptiliaSauriaLacertidaeDalmatolacerta oxycephalaLCY
ReptiliaSauriaLacertidaeDarevskia praticolaNTN
ReptiliaSauriaLacertidaeDarevskia rudisLCN
ReptiliaSauriaLacertidaeDarevskia valentiniLCN
ReptiliaSauriaLacertidaeDinarolacerta mosorensisVUY
ReptiliaSauriaLacertidaeDinarolacerta montenegrinaLCY
ReptiliaSauriaLacertidaeGallotia atlanticaLCY
ReptiliaSauriaLacertidaeGallotia auaritaeCRY
ReptiliaSauriaLacertidaeGallotia bravoanaCRY
ReptiliaSauriaLacertidaeGallotia caesarisLCY
ReptiliaSauriaLacertidaeGallotia gallotiLCY
ReptiliaSauriaLacertidaeGallotia intermediaCRY
ReptiliaSauriaLacertidaeGallotia simonyiCRY
ReptiliaSauriaLacertidaeGallotia stehliniLCY
ReptiliaSauriaLacertidaeHellenolacerta graecaNTY
ReptiliaSauriaLacertidaeIberolacerta aranicaCRY
ReptiliaSauriaLacertidaeIberolacerta aurelioiENY
ReptiliaSauriaLacertidaeIberolacerta bonnaliNTY
ReptiliaSauriaLacertidaeIberolacerta cyreniENY
ReptiliaSauriaLacertidaeIberolacerta galaniNTY
ReptiliaSauriaLacertidaeIberolacerta horvathiNTN
ReptiliaSauriaLacertidaeIberolacerta martinezricaiCRY
ReptiliaSauriaLacertidaeIberolacerta monticolaVUY
ReptiliaSauriaLacertidaeLacerta agilisLCN
ReptiliaSauriaLacertidaeLacerta bilineataLCN
ReptiliaSauriaLacertidaeLacerta mediaLCN
ReptiliaSauriaLacertidaeLacerta pamphylicaLCY
ReptiliaSauriaLacertidaeLacerta schreiberiNTY
ReptiliaSauriaLacertidaeLacerta trilineataLCN
ReptiliaSauriaLacertidaeLacerta viridisLCN
ReptiliaSauriaLacertidaeLatastia longicaudataLCN
ReptiliaSauriaLacertidaeMesalina bahaeldiniLCY
ReptiliaSauriaLacertidaeMesalina brevirostrisLCN
ReptiliaSauriaLacertidaeMesalina guttulataLCN
ReptiliaSauriaLacertidaeMesalina martiniLCN
ReptiliaSauriaLacertidaeMesalina olivieriLCN
ReptiliaSauriaLacertidaeMesalina pasteuriDDN
ReptiliaSauriaLacertidaeMesalina rubropunctataLCN
ReptiliaSauriaLacertidaeMesalina simoniLCY
ReptiliaSauriaLacertidaeOphisops elbaensisDDN
ReptiliaSauriaLacertidaeOphisops elegansLCN
ReptiliaSauriaLacertidaeOphisops occidentalisLCY
ReptiliaSauriaLacertidaeParvilacerta fraasiiENY
ReptiliaSauriaLacertidaeParvilacerta parvaLCN
ReptiliaSauriaLacertidaePhilochortus zoliiENN
ReptiliaSauriaLacertidaePhoenicolacerta cyanisparsaLCY
ReptiliaSauriaLacertidaePhoenicolacerta kulzeriENY
ReptiliaSauriaLacertidaePhoenicolacerta laevisLCY
ReptiliaSauriaLacertidaePhoenicolacerta troodicaLCY
ReptiliaSauriaLacertidaePodarcis bocageiLCY
ReptiliaSauriaLacertidaePodarcis carbonelliENY
ReptiliaSauriaLacertidaePodarcis cretensisENY
ReptiliaSauriaLacertidaePodarcis erhardiiLCY
ReptiliaSauriaLacertidaePodarcis filfolensisLCY
ReptiliaSauriaLacertidaePodarcis gaigeaeVUY
ReptiliaSauriaLacertidaePodarcis guadarramaeNEY
ReptiliaSauriaLacertidaePodarcis hispanicusLCY
ReptiliaSauriaLacertidaePodarcis levendisVUY
ReptiliaSauriaLacertidaePodarcis lilfordiENY
ReptiliaSauriaLacertidaePodarcis liolepisNEN
ReptiliaSauriaLacertidaePodarcis melisellensisLCY
ReptiliaSauriaLacertidaePodarcis milensisNTT
ReptiliaSauriaLacertidaePodarcis muralisLCY
ReptiliaSauriaLacertidaePodarcis peloponnesiacusLCY
ReptiliaSauriaLacertidaePodarcis pityusensisNTY
ReptiliaSauriaLacertidaePodarcis raffoneiCRY
ReptiliaSauriaLacertidaePodarcis siculusLCY
ReptiliaSauriaLacertidaePodarcis tauricusLCY
ReptiliaSauriaLacertidaePodarcis tiliguertaLCY
ReptiliaSauriaLacertidaePodarcis vaucheriLCY
ReptiliaSauriaLacertidaePodarcis virescensNEY
ReptiliaSauriaLacertidaePodarcis waglerianusLCY
ReptiliaSauriaLacertidaePsammodromus algirusLCY
ReptiliaSauriaLacertidaePsammodromus blanciNTY
ReptiliaSauriaLacertidaePsammodromus edwarsianusNEN
ReptiliaSauriaLacertidaePsammodromus hispanicusLCY
ReptiliaSauriaLacertidaePsammodromus microdactylusENY
ReptiliaSauriaLacertidaePsammodromus occidentalisNEY
ReptiliaSauriaLacertidaePsammophis aegyptiusLCN
ReptiliaSauriaLacertidaePsammophis biseriatusNEN
ReptiliaSauriaLacertidaePsammophis rukwaeLCN
ReptiliaSauriaLacertidaePsammophis schokariLCN
ReptiliaSauriaLacertidaePsammophis sibilansLCN
ReptiliaSauriaLacertidaePsammophis tanganicusNEN
ReptiliaSauriaLacertidaePseuderemias mucronataDDN
ReptiliaSauriaLacertidaeScelarcis perspicillataLCY
ReptiliaSauriaLacertidaeTeira dugesiiLCY
ReptiliaSauriaLacertidaeTimon kurdistanicusLCN
ReptiliaSauriaLacertidaeTimon lepidusNTY
ReptiliaSauriaLacertidaeTimon nevadensisNEY
ReptiliaSauriaLacertidaeTimon paterLCY
ReptiliaSauriaLacertidaeTimon princepsLCY
ReptiliaSauriaLacertidaeTimon tangitanusLCY
ReptiliaSauriaLacertidaeZootoca viviparaLCN
ReptiliaSauriaLacertidaeAcanthodactylus ahmaddisiiENN
ReptiliaSauriaLacertidaeAcanthodactylus aureusLCN
ReptiliaSauriaLacertidaeAcanthodactylus bedriagaiNTY
ReptiliaSauriaLacertidaeAcanthodactylus beershebensisCRY
ReptiliaSauriaPhyllodactylidaeAsaccus baraniNEY
ReptiliaSauriaPhyllodactylidaePtyodactylus ananjevaeNEY
ReptiliaSauriaPhyllodactylidaePtyodactylus guttatusLCN
ReptiliaSauriaPhyllodactylidaePtyodactylus hasselquistiiLCN
ReptiliaSauriaPhyllodactylidaePtyodactylus oudriiLCY
ReptiliaSauriaPhyllodactylidaePtyodactylus puiseuxiLCN
ReptiliaSauriaPhyllodactylidaePtyodactylus ragazziiLCN
ReptiliaSauriaScincidaeChalcides bedriagaiNTY
ReptiliaSauriaScincidaeChalcides boulengeriNEN
ReptiliaSauriaScincidaeChalcides chalcidesLCY
ReptiliaSauriaScincidaeChalcides colosiiLCY
ReptiliaSauriaScincidaeChalcides ebneriCRY
ReptiliaSauriaScincidaeChalcides guentheriVUY
ReptiliaSauriaScincidaeChalcides lanzaiNTY
ReptiliaSauriaScincidaeChalcides manueliVUY
ReptiliaSauriaScincidaeChalcides mauritanicusENY
ReptiliaSauriaScincidaeChalcides mertensiLCY
ReptiliaSauriaScincidaeChalcides minutusVUY
ReptiliaSauriaScincidaeChalcides mionectonLCY
ReptiliaSauriaScincidaeChalcides montanusNTY
ReptiliaSauriaScincidaeChalcides ocellatusLCY
ReptiliaSauriaScincidaeChalcides parallelusENY
ReptiliaSauriaScincidaeChalcides polylepisLCY
ReptiliaSauriaScincidaeChalcides pseudostriatusNTY
ReptiliaSauriaScincidaeChalcides sepsoidesLCY
ReptiliaSauriaScincidaeChalcides sexlineatusLCY
ReptiliaSauriaScincidaeChalcides sphenopsiformisLCN
ReptiliaSauriaScincidaeChalcides striatusLCY
ReptiliaSauriaScincidaeChalcides viridanusLCY
ReptiliaSauriaScincidaeEumeces algeriensisLCY
ReptiliaSauriaScincidaeEumeces schneideriLCN
ReptiliaSauriaScincidaeEurylepis taeniolataNEN
ReptiliaSauriaScincidaeHeremites auratusNEN
ReptiliaSauriaScincidaeOphiomorus latastiiDDY
ReptiliaSauriaScincidaeOphiomorus punctatissimusLCY
ReptiliaSauriaScincidaeScincopus fasciatusDDN
ReptiliaSauriaScincidaeScincus albifasciatusLCN
ReptiliaSauriaScincidaeScincus scincusLCN
ReptiliaSauriaScincidaeTrachylepis quinquetaeniataLCN
ReptiliaSauriaScincidaeAblepharus budakiLCY
ReptiliaSauriaScincidaeAblepharus chernoviLCN
ReptiliaSauriaScincidaeAblepharus kitaibeliiLCN
ReptiliaSauriaScincidaeAblepharus rueppelliiLCY
ReptiliaSauriaVaranidaeVaranus griseusLCN
ReptiliaSauriaVaranidaeVaranus niloticusLCN
ReptiliaOphidiaAtractaspididaeAtractaspis engaddensisLCN
ReptiliaOphidiaAtractaspididaeMicrelaps muelleriLCY
ReptiliaOphidiaAtractaspididaeMicrelaps tchernoviNEY
ReptiliaOphidiaBoidaeEryx colubrinusNEN
ReptiliaOphidiaBoidaeEryx jaculusLCN
ReptiliaOphidiaColubridaeCoronella austriacaLCN
ReptiliaOphidiaColubridaeCoronella girondicaLCY
ReptiliaOphidiaColubridaeDasypeltis scabraLCN
ReptiliaOphidiaColubridaeDolichophis caspiusLCN
ReptiliaOphidiaColubridaeDolichophis cypriensisENY
ReptiliaOphidiaColubridaeDolichophis jugularisLCN
ReptiliaOphidiaColubridaeDolichophis schmidtiLCN
ReptiliaOphidiaColubridaeEirenis aurolineatusLCY
ReptiliaOphidiaColubridaeEirenis baraniLCY
ReptiliaOphidiaColubridaeEirenis collarisLCN
ReptiliaOphidiaColubridaeEirenis coronellaLCN
ReptiliaOphidiaColubridaeEirenis coronelloidesLCN
ReptiliaOphidiaColubridaeEirenis decemlineatusLCY
ReptiliaOphidiaColubridaeEirenis eiseltiLCY
ReptiliaOphidiaColubridaeEirenis hakkariensisDDN
ReptiliaOphidiaColubridaeEirenis levantinusLCY
ReptiliaOphidiaColubridaeEirenis lineomaculatusLCY
ReptiliaOphidiaColubridaeEirenis modestusLCN
ReptiliaOphidiaColubridaeEirenis occidentalisNEY
ReptiliaOphidiaColubridaeEirenis persicusLCN
ReptiliaOphidiaColubridaeEirenis punctatolineatusLCN
ReptiliaOphidiaColubridaeEirenis rothiiLCY
ReptiliaOphidiaColubridaeEirenis thospitisDDY
ReptiliaOphidiaColubridaeElaphe quatuorlineataNTY
ReptiliaOphidiaColubridaeElaphe sauromatesLCN
ReptiliaOphidiaColubridaeHemorrhois algirusLCY
ReptiliaOphidiaColubridaeHemorrhois hippocrepisLCN
ReptiliaOphidiaColubridaeHemorrhois nummiferLCN
ReptiliaOphidiaColubridaeHemorrhois ravergieriLCN
ReptiliaOphidiaColubridaeHierophis gemonensisLCY
ReptiliaOphidiaColubridaeHierophis viridiflavusLCY
ReptiliaOphidiaColubridaeLycophidion capenseLCN
ReptiliaOphidiaColubridaeLytorhynchus diademaLCN
ReptiliaOphidiaColubridaeMacroprotodon abubakeriDDY
ReptiliaOphidiaColubridaeMacroprotodon brevisNTY
ReptiliaOphidiaColubridaeMacroprotodon cucullatusLCY
ReptiliaOphidiaColubridaeMacroprotodon mauritanicusNEY
ReptiliaOphidiaColubridaeMalpolon insignitusNEN
ReptiliaOphidiaColubridaeMalpolon monspessulanusLCN
ReptiliaOphidiaColubridaeMuhtarophis baraniNEY
ReptiliaOphidiaColubridaePlatyceps collarisLCY
ReptiliaOphidiaColubridaePlatyceps elegantissimusDDN
ReptiliaOphidiaColubridaePlatyceps florulentusLCN
ReptiliaOphidiaColubridaePlatyceps najadumLCN
ReptiliaOphidiaColubridaePlatyceps rhodorachisLCN
ReptiliaOphidiaColubridaePlatyceps rogersiLCN
ReptiliaOphidiaColubridaePlatyceps sinaiDDY
ReptiliaOphidiaColubridaePlatyceps tessellataNEY
ReptiliaOphidiaColubridaePlatyceps ventromaculatusLCN
ReptiliaOphidiaColubridaeRhagerhis moilensisNEN
ReptiliaOphidiaColubridaeRhynchocalamus melanocephalusLCN
ReptiliaOphidiaColubridaeRhynchocalamus satuniniNEN
ReptiliaOphidiaColubridaeSpalerosophis diademaLCN
ReptiliaOphidiaColubridaeSpalerosophis dolichospilusDDY
ReptiliaOphidiaColubridaeTelescopus dharaLCN
ReptiliaOphidiaColubridaeTelescopus fallaxLCN
ReptiliaOphidiaColubridaeTelescopus hoogstraaliENY
ReptiliaOphidiaColubridaeTelescopus nigricepsLCN
ReptiliaOphidiaColubridaeTelescopus obtususNEN
ReptiliaOphidiaColubridaeTelescopus tripolitanusNEN
ReptiliaOphidiaColubridaeZamenis hohenackeriLCN
ReptiliaOphidiaColubridaeZamenis lineatusDDY
ReptiliaOphidiaColubridaeZamenis longissimusLCN
ReptiliaOphidiaColubridaeZamenis scalarisNEY
ReptiliaOphidiaColubridaeZamenis situlaLCN
ReptiliaOphidiaElapidaeNaja hajeLCN
ReptiliaOphidiaElapidaeNaja nubiaeLCN
ReptiliaOphidiaElapidaeNaja pallidaNEN
ReptiliaOphidiaElapidaeWalterinnesia aegyptiaLCN
ReptiliaOphidiaElapidaeWalterinnesia morganiNEN
ReptiliaOphidiaLamprophiidaeBoaedon fuliginosusNEN
ReptiliaOphidiaLeptotyphlopidaeMyriopholis algeriensisLCN
ReptiliaOphidiaLeptotyphlopidaeMyriopholis cairiNEN
ReptiliaOphidiaLeptotyphlopidaeMyriopholis macrorhynchaNEN
ReptiliaOphidiaNatricidaeNatrix mauraLCY
ReptiliaOphidiaNatricidaeNatrix natrixLCN
ReptiliaOphidiaNatricidaeNatrix tessellataLCN
ReptiliaOphidiaTyphlopidaeLetheobia episcopusDDY
ReptiliaOphidiaTyphlopidaeLetheobia simoniiLCY
ReptiliaOphidiaTyphlopidaeXerotyphlops vermicularisNEN
ReptiliaOphidiaViperidaeBitis arietansLCN
ReptiliaOphidiaViperidaeCerastes boehmeiNEY
ReptiliaOphidiaViperidaeCerastes cerastesLCN
ReptiliaOphidiaViperidaeCerastes gasperettiiLCN
ReptiliaOphidiaViperidaeCerastes viperaLCN
ReptiliaOphidiaViperidaeDaboia desertiNTY
ReptiliaOphidiaViperidaeDaboia mauritanicaNTY
ReptiliaOphidiaViperidaeDaboia palaestinaeLCY
ReptiliaOphidiaViperidaeEchis coloratusLCN
ReptiliaOphidiaViperidaeEchis leucogasterLCN
ReptiliaOphidiaViperidaeEchis pyramidumLCN
ReptiliaOphidiaViperidaeMacrovipera lebetinaLCN
ReptiliaOphidiaViperidaeMacrovipera schweizeriENY
ReptiliaOphidiaViperidaeMontivipera albizonaENY
ReptiliaOphidiaViperidaeMontivipera bornmuelleriENY
ReptiliaOphidiaViperidaeMontivipera bulgardaghicaLCY
ReptiliaOphidiaViperidaeMontivipera raddeiNTN
ReptiliaOphidiaViperidaeMontivipera xanthinaLCY
ReptiliaOphidiaViperidaePseudocerastes fieldiLCN
ReptiliaOphidiaViperidaeVipera ammodytesLCN
ReptiliaOphidiaViperidaeVipera anatolicaENY
ReptiliaOphidiaViperidaeVipera aspisLCN
ReptiliaOphidiaViperidaeVipera baraniNTY
ReptiliaOphidiaViperidaeVipera berusLCN
ReptiliaOphidiaViperidaeVipera latasteiNTY
ReptiliaOphidiaViperidaeVipera monticolaNTY
ReptiliaOphidiaViperidaeVipera seoaneiLCY
ReptiliaOphidiaViperidaeVipera ursiniiVUN
ReptiliaOphidiaViperidaeVipera walserNEY
CrocodiliaCrocodiliaCrocodylidaeCrocodylus niloticusLCN


  1. 1. Blondel J, Aronson J, Bodiou J-Y, Boeuf G. The Mediterranean Region: Biological Diversity in Space and Time. 1st ed. New York: Oxford University Press Inc; 2010. 376 p. DOI: 978-0-19-955798-1
  2. 2. Communities E. Natura 2000 in the Mediterranean Region. 1st ed. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities; 2009. 12 p. DOI: 10.2779/77695
  3. 3. Arnold C. Mediterranean Islands, 1st ed. London: Survival Books; 2008. 416 p. DOI: 978-0955648915
  4. 4. Mittermeier RA, Turner WR, Larsen FW, Brooks TM, Gascon C. Global biodiversity conservation: The critical role of hotspots. In: Zachos FE, Habel JC, editors. Biodiversity Hotspots: Distribution and Protection of Conservation Priority Areas. 1st ed. Heidelberg: Springer; 2011. p. 3-22. DOI: 783642209918
  5. 5. Cox N, Chanson J, Stuart S. The Status and Distribution of Reptiles and Amphibians of the Mediterranean Basin, 1st ed. Switzerland and Cambridge: IUCN; 2006. 42 p. DOI: 978-2-8317-0912-3
  6. 6. AmphibiaWeb. AmphibiaWeb [Internet]. 2017 [Updated: 2017]. Available from:[Accessed: March 27, 2017]
  7. 7. Uetz P, Freed P, Hošek J. The Reptile Database [Internet]. 2017 [Updated: 2017]. Available from:[Accessed: March 27, 2017]
  8. 8. IUCN. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species [Internet]. 2017 [Updated: 2017]. Available from: [Accessed: March 27, 2017]
  9. 9. Whitfield SM, de ScottRyan TJ, Buhlmann KA, Tuberville TD, Metts BS, Greene JL, Mills T, Leiden Y, Poppy S. The global decline of reptiles, déjà amphibians. BioScience. 2000;50(8):53-666
  10. 10. Cuttelod A, García N, Abdul Malak D, Temple H, Katariya V. The Mediterranean: A biodiversity hotspot under threat. In: Vié J-C, Hilton-Taylor C, Stuart SN, editors. The 2008 Review of The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 1st ed. Switzerland: IUCN Gland; 2008. p. 1. DOI: 978-2-8317-1063-1
  11. 11. Barahona F, Evans SE, Mateo JA, García-Márquez M, López-Jurado LF. Endemism, gigantism and extinction in island lizards: the genus Gallotia on the Canary Islands. Journal of Zoology. 2000;250(3):373-388
  12. 12. Cox SC, Carranza S, Brown RP. Divergence times and colonization of the Canary Islands by Gallotia lizards. Molecular Phylogenetics & Evolution. 2010;56:747-757
  13. 13. IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group. Latonia nigriventer. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T6715A13339841 [Internet]. [Updated: 2012] Available from:[Accessed: 08 April 2017]
  14. 14. Salafsky N, Salzer D, Stattersfield AJ, Hilton-Taylor C, Neugarten R, Butchart SHM, Collen B, Cox N, Master LL, O’Connor S, Wilkie D. A standard lexicon for biodiversity conservation: Unified classifications of threats and actions. Conservation Biology. 2007;22:897-911. DOI: 10.1111/j.1523-1739.2008.00937.x
  15. 15. Blue Plan. The Blue Plan’s Sustainable Development Outlook for the Mediterranean. 1st ed. Sophia Antipolis, France: UNEP Blue Plan Activity Centre; 2008. 26 p

Written By

Kerim Çiçek and Oğzukan Cumhuriyet

Submitted: November 21st, 2016 Reviewed: July 11th, 2017 Published: November 8th, 2017