Open access peer-reviewed chapter

# Calculation Methods for Thermoelectric Generator Performance

Written By

Fuqiang Cheng

Submitted: 01 April 2016 Reviewed: 06 September 2016 Published: 21 December 2016

DOI: 10.5772/65596

From the Edited Volume

## Thermoelectrics for Power Generation

Edited by Sergey Skipidarov and Mikhail Nikitin

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## Abstract

This chapter aims to build one-dimensional thermoelectric model for device-level thermoelectric generator (TEG) performance calculation and prediction under steady heat transfer. Model concept takes into account Seebeck, Peltier, Thomson effects, and Joule conduction heat. Thermal resistances between heat source, heat sink, and thermocouple are also considered. Then, model is simplified to analyze influences of basic thermal and electrical parameters on TEG performance, when Thomson effect is neglected. At last, an experimental setup is introduced to gauge the output power and validate the model. Meantime, TEG simulation by software ANSYS is introduced briefly.

### Keywords

• thermoelectric generator
• thermoelectric model
• output power
• thermoelement

## 1. Introduction

Output power Pout and energy conversion efficiency η are the primary parameters to characterize TEG performance. They are intensively influenced by such factors as temperature of heat source and sink, thermoelectric materials physical properties, thermocouple geometries, thermal and electrical contact properties, and load factor. Therefore, it is necessary to build physical model formulating these factors concisely, to conduct realistic TEG design. At present, many significant works have been undertaken for modeling device-level TEG precisely [13]. In addition, comprehensive three-dimensional (3D) thermoelectric model has been successfully developed in software ANSYS [4]. In Refs. [57], quasi-one-dimensional thermoelectric model is established, where Thomson effect and thermal resistances between thermocouple and heat source, heat sink are neglected. In Ref. [8], improved one-dimensional model including Thomson coefficient and thermal resistances is used to analyze the matched load, the limit of energy conversion efficiency, and the influence of Peltier effect. It shows, that expression of matched load contains not only the inner electrical resistance of TEG, but also the terms resulting from Peltier and Joule effects. In Ref. [9], one-dimensional model to analyze the influence of Thomson heat is built and experimentally validated.

In this chapter, Seebeck, Peltier, Thomson effect, and Joule conduction heat are formulated in thermoelectric generation module model. By model simplification, analytical expressions of output power and energy efficiency are introduced. Essential factors for enhancing the output power are extracted. Then, an experimental setup is built to measure the output power and validate the model. And TEG simulation by software ANSYS is presented.

## 2. Thermoelectric model for device-level TEG

### 2.1. TEG cell structure

TEG cell consisting of thermocouple is shown in Figure 1, where basic thermoelectric effects including Peltier and Joule heat and a circuit with load RL are included. The p and n thermoelements are cuboids of the same thickness and bridged by an electrode in series. Practical devices usually make use of thermoelectric modules containing a number of TEG cells connected electrically in series and thermally in parallel. Cross-sectional area and thickness of thermocouple are marked as A and l. Subscripts ‘n’ and ‘p’ are used to discriminate conductivity type of thermoelements. Temperature of heat source and heat sink is T1 and T0, and that of hot and cold side of thermocouple is Th and Tc. ∆Tg = ThTc is temperature difference on thermoelements, and ∆T = T1T0 is the one of heat source and heat sink.

There are Joule heat flowing out and Peltier heat flowing in at hot end of thermoelements, and at cold end, Peltier heat flows out and Joule heat flows out. In addition, there is thermal resistance Rth,h and Rth,c between thermoelements, heat source and heat sink. Heat flow qh passes from heat source to hot side of thermocouple and the counterpart qc outflows from cold side of thermocouple to heat sink.

### 2.2. Basic model

It is assumed, that thermoelements are physically homogeneous and insulated from the surroundings both electrically and thermally, except at junction-reservoir contacts [89]. Variable x is defined as location in the thickness direction of thermoelements. According to nonequilibrium thermodynamics under steady heat transfer, energy conservative equations of temperature distributions Tn(x) and Tp(x) are:

{ Knlnd2Tn(x)dx2τnIdTn(x)dx+RnI2ln=0Kplpd2Tp(x)dx2+τpIdTp(x)dx+RpI2lp=0.E1

Three terms in the above equations represent thermal conduction, Thomson and Joule heat. K, R, and τ are thermal conductance, electrical resistance and Thomson coefficient (V∙K−1), respectively. Relationship of K, R and A, l is K=λAl and R=ρlA, where λ and ρ are thermal conductivity and electrical resistivity of thermoelectric materials. To solve Eq. (1) analytically, material parameters K, R, and τ are considered to be constant. The boundary conditions of Eq. (1) are:

Tn(0)=Tp(0)=Tc,E2
Tn(ln)=Tp(lp)=Th.E3

Electrical current I is determined by formula:

I=U0RL+Rg,E4
U0=TcThα(T)dT,E5

where U0 is the voltage of thermocouple, Rg is the electrical resistance of TEG cell, which contains resistance of thermocouple and contact resistance, and α(T) = αp(T) − αn(T) is Seebeck coefficient (V∙K−1) of thermocouple.

In practice, temperature of heat source T1 and heat sink T0 can be measured and determined. To acquire Th and Tc, relationship of T1, T0 and Th, Tc is necessary. That is:

{ T1Th=Rth,hqhTcT0=Rth,cqc.E6

In Eq. (6), heat flows qh and qc are:

qh=KnlndTn(x)dx|x=ln+KplpdTp(x)dx|x=lp+α(Th)ThII2Rch,E7
qc=KnlndTn(x)dx|x=0+KplpdTp(x)dx|x=0+α(Tc)TcI+I2Rcc,E8

wherein Rch and Rcc are contact electrical resistances at hot and cold side of the thermocouple. Thermal conduction heat, Peltier heat (the third term), and contact Joule heat are within Eqs. (7) and (8). By solving Eq. (1) with Eqs. (2)(5), Tn(x) and Tp(x) only relating to Th, Tc, and RL can be obtained. And flows qh and qc can be formulated with Th, Tc, and RL in Eqs. (7) and (8). Then, Th and Tc can be determined for a given RL by solving Eq. (6) numerically, which is presented in detail [9].

Finally, the output power Pout and energy conversion efficiency η are calculated by the basic equations of thermoelectricity:

Pout=qhqc=I2RL,E9
η=Pqh.E10

When neglecting Thomson heat, the problem will be much simplified. By solving Eqs. (1)(8) with τ = 0, an cubic equation about ΔTg can be yielded as:

a1ΔTg3+b1ΔTg2+c1ΔTg+1=0.E11

where:

a1=α¯4RLRth,cRth,h(Rg+RL)3ΔTE26
b1=α¯2Rth,cRth,h(Rg+RL)2ΔT[ Rg(εRth,c+ε1Rth,h)+RL(1Rth,c1Rth,h) ],E27
c1=Rth,cRth,hΔT[ (T1Rth,h+T0Rth,c)α2Rg+RL+KgRth,h+KgRth,c+1Rth,cRth,h ],E28
ε=0.5R0+RccRg,E29

and Seebeck coefficient α becomes a constant. Equation (11) suits thermoelectric module consisting of m thermocouples, as well, where α and Kg are m times of those of a single thermocouple, but Rth,h and Rth,c are exactly on the contrary.

Generally, c1 is far larger than a1 and b1 in absolute value. Mainly, because of practical module, Seebeck coefficient α has a very small value of about 10−2 V∙K−1, which is much less than unity. For example, taking module TEG-127-150-9 in Ref. [8], α = 0.05 V∙K−1, Rg = 3.4 Ohm, RL = 4 Ohm, Rth,c = 6 K∙W−1, Rth,h = 0.1 K∙W−1, Kg = 2.907 W∙K−1, ε ≈ 0.5, T0 = 297 K, and T1 = 323 K, calculation result is a1 ≈ 1.423 × 10−9 K−3, b1 ≈ 5.905 × 10−5 K−2, and c1 ≈ −0.7461 K−1. So, the terms with ΔTg order higher than unity can be neglected. At last, here is:

ΔTg=ΔT1+Rth,cKg+Rth,hKg+α2(Rth,cT1+Rth,hT0)Rg+RL.E12

It can be seen, that ΔTg is influenced not only by thermal resistances Rth,c and Rth,h, but also by Peltier effect, which is presented in the last term of the denominator and functions to decrease ΔTg. Because it is tantamount to accelerate heat conduction in thermocouple, Peltier heat flows in and out on two sides of thermocouple. By combing Eqs. (12) and (4), (5), (9), the output power Pout is:

Pout=α2ΔTg2RL(Rg+RL)2=α2ΔT2RL(1+Rth,cKg+Rth,hKg)2[ Rg+RL+α2(Rth,cT1+Rth,hT0)1+Rth,cKg+Rth,hKg ]2.E13

RL, T1, T0, Rth,c, Rth,h, α, Rg, and Kg directly affect Pout. In those parameters, α, Rg and Kg are TEG internal factors, and RL, T1, and T0 are the external ones, and Rth,c and Rth,h originate from both the internal and external. From the form of Eq. (13), it is obvious, that reducing T1, T0, Rth,c, and Rth,h can increase Pout, if ΔT is constant, owing to influence of Peltier effect on ΔTg. On the other hand, Pout has a maximum along with Rg and Kg.

### 2.3. Matched load, output power and energy efficiency

First of all, influence of RL on Pout is analyzed. In Eq. (13), Pout reaches maximum, when RL is:

RL=Rg+α2(Rth,cT1+Rth,hT0)1+Rth,cKg+Rth,hKg,E14

which is the matched load and marked as RL,m. Indeed, RL,m is slightly larger than Rg due to the very small value of α2. It means, that existence of Peltier effect increases irreversible heat in thermoelectric module. And reducing T1 and T0 helps to cut down this irreversible heat. When Kg→+∞, RL,m is equal to Rg, since at this moment heat conduction in thermocouple runs under infinitesimal temperature difference and the irreversibility of heat transfer disappears. However, this irreversibility exists with finite Kg, leading to heat loss in thermocouple, that is equivalent to increase in internal resistance. Define RL/Rg as the load factor sL. So, sL is:

sL=1+ZKg(Rth,cT1+Rth,hT0)1+Rth,cKg+Rth,hKg,E15

when RL is equal to matched load and Z=α2KgRg is the figure of merit. For thermoelectric module, the output power is:

Pout=m2α2ΔT2RL(1+Rth,cKg+Rth,hKg)2{ RL+m[ Rg+α2(Rth,cT1+Rth,hT0)1+Rth,cKg+Rth,hKg ] }2,E16

where m is the number of thermocouples. And the corresponding matched load is RL,m=m[ Rg+α2(Rth,cT1+Rth,hT0)1+Rth,cKg+Rth,hKg ].

As for energy efficiency η, by Eq. (7), which can be expressed as function of ΔTg and Eqs. (12) and (13), it is:

η=Pqh=α2ΔT2RLc22(RL+Rg)2{ α2ΔT[ Th(RL+Rg)εΔTRgc2 ]c2(RL+Rg)2+ΔTKgc2 },E17

where

c2=1+Rth,cKg+Rth,hKg+α2(Rth,cT1+Rth,hT0)RL+Rg.E30

By solving Eq. (17) about the partial derivative of RL, it can be obtained, that when load factor sL is:

sL=1+ZTh+ZεΔT+ZKg(1+ZTh)(Rth,cT1+Rth,hT0)1+Rth,cKg+Rth,hKg,E18

then η reaches maximum. Equation (18) is downright different from Eq. (15) in the expressions, so achieving maximum of output power and energy efficiency simultaneously is impossible. Actually, the corresponding load factor of the former is smaller than that of the latter. When the ideal state is considered (Rth,c = Rth,h = 0), sL = 1 is for the former and sL=1+ZTh+ZεΔT, which is larger than 1, is for the latter.

### 2.4. Influence of Kg on TEG performance

Kg is important internal factor that influences the output performance in TEG. When matched load is reached, the corresponding output power Pout,m is:

Pout,m=ZKgΔT24(1+Rth,cKg+Rth,hKg)2[ 1+ZKg(Rth,cT1+Rth,hT0)1+Rth,cKg+Rth,hKg ].E19

For a common thermoelectric module, thermoelements have the same size, ln = lp and An = Ap, so the figure of merit Z is not related to their size, but material physical parameters. From Eq. (19), we can see, that increase in Z will enhance the output power. By solving Eq. (19) regarding the partial derivative of Kg, when:

Kg=1(Rth,c+Rth,h)2+Z(Rth,cT1+Rth,hT0)(Rth,c+Rth,h)=(λp+λn)AeleE20

then Pout,m reaches maximum, where le and Ae are thickness and cross-sectional area of thermoelements. Since Rth,c and Rth,h are related to Ae, but not to le, there is an optimal le to maximize Pout,m:

Pout,m=ZΔT24c3(1+Rth,cc3+Rth,hc3)2[ 1+Z(Rth,cT1+Rth,hT0)c3(1+Rth,cc3+Rth,hc3) ],E21

and

c3=(Rth,c+Rth,h)2+Z(Rth,c2T1+Rth,h2T0+Rth,cRth,hT1+Rth,cRth,hT0).E31

### 2.5. Influence of Peltier effect on TEG performance

When Peltier effect is neglected, the relation of ΔTg and ΔT is:

ΔTg=Rth,gRth,g+Rth,h+Rth,cΔT,E22

and the corresponding output power with matched load RL = Rg and constant Seebeck coefficient is:

Pout,m=(αΔT)24Rg(1+Rth,hKg+Rth,cKg).E23

Meantime, the output power Eq. (13) is for the condition without Peltier effect, and the ratio of Eq. (23) and Eq. (19), ηPelt, reflects influence degree of Peltier effect on the output power:

ηPelt=(1+ZT02Rth,c+Rth,hRth,g+Rth,h+Rth,c+Z2Rth,cΔTRth,g+Rth,h+Rth,c)2.E24

It is known, that when Rth,gRth,c + Rth,h, ηPelt is approximately (1 + 0.5ZT0 + 0.25ZΔT)2 with Rth,cRth,h, and even with ΔT → 0, the output power calculated without Peltier effect is more than the output power considering Peltier effect, by over 120% for a common Bi2Te3-based module with ZT ≈ 1. That means, the influence of Peltier effect must be considered. Similar status is obtained, where the difference is more than 50%, when Rth,gRth,c + Rth,h. On the contrary, when Rth,gRth,c + Rth,h, ηPelt is approximately equal to 1, which means the influence of Peltier effect is negligible. Hence, the smaller the thermal resistance of thermocouple Rth,g, the stronger is the influence of Peltier effect.

Eventually, basic factors for enhancing TEG output power are summarized as:

1. Enhancing ZT of thermoelectric materials and ΔT, decreasing Rth,c and Rth,h.

2. When ΔT is fixed, lower T0 and T1 can reduce irreversible heat to elevate output power.

3. Matched load is a little larger than the inner electrical resistance of TEG.

4. There exists an optimal thermocouple thickness to maximize output power.

## 3. Test validation

### 3.1. Materials property

P-type and n-type Bi2Te3-based materials are, respectively, Bi0.5Sb1.5Te3 and Bi2Te2.85Se0.15, which are prepared by mechanical alloy + spark plasma sintering method. Seebeck coefficient and resistivity of the materials are tested by HGTE-II thermoelectric material performance test system (Chinese patent no. ZL200510018806.4) with test temperature up to 1073 K, relative error of not more than 6%. Thermal conductivity of the materials is measured by laser perturbation method (Type TC-7000 of ULVAC RIKO®). As shown in Table 1, parameters are obtained by polynomial fitting of the experimental data. In temperature range 273 K < T < 493 K, Seebeck coefficient value α is between 170 × 10−6 V∙K−1 and 220 × 10−6 V∙K−1, decreasing with rising temperature. Electrical resistivity ρ is (8.3–20.0) × 10−6 Ohm∙m and thermal conductivity λ is 1.4–2.1 W∙m−1∙K−1, which both show obvious increase with temperature rise.

Material Parameters Values
p-Bi0.5Sb1.5Te3 α/V∙K−1 −1.791 × 10−11T3 + 1.763 × 10−8T2 − 5.714 × 10−6T + 8.304 × 10−4
ρ/Ohm∙m −7.929 × 10−13T3 + 7.992 × 10−10T2 −1.947 × 10−7T + 1.728 × 10−5
ƛ/W∙m−1∙K−1 3.342 × 10−5T2 − 2.24 × 10−2T + 5.118
n-Bi2Te2.85Se0.15 α/V∙K−1 1.321 × 10−11T3 − 1.383 × 10−8T2 + 4.81 × 10−6T − 7.774 × 10−4
ρ/Ohm∙m −7.618 × 10−13T3 + 8.098 × 10−10T2 − 2.537 × 10−7T + 3.207 × 10−5
ƛ/W∙m−1∙K−1 3.264 × 10−5T2 − 2.228 × 10−2T + 5.302

### Table 1.

Physical parameters of Bi2Te3-based materials (273 K < T < 493 K).

In practice, it is difficult to measure thermal resistances Rth,c and Rth,h, and contact electrical resistances rcc and rch. Their values are determined according to empirical formulas. Contact electrical resistivity ρc (Ohm∙m2) at leg-strap junctions and thermal conductivity λc (W m−1 K−1) of thermal conductive layer (≈1.2 mm thick) are according to the empirical formulas given by Rowe et al. [5]:

2ρcρ=0.1mm,λλc=0.2.E25

Here ρ and λ are electrical resistivity and thermal conductivity of thermoelements, respectively. In our calculation, the mean values of ρ and λ over the temperature range are taken as references. As ρ and λ vary with temperature, values of ρc and λ c are also different as the temperature varies. Experiments under four temperature conditions are carried out and the corresponding parameter values are shown in Table 2.

Temperatures, °C Parameters T0 = 23
T1 = 81
T0 = 23
T1 = 111
T0 = 27
T1 = 147
T0 = 27
T1 = 177
rcc/mOhm 0.6 0.7 0.7 0.8
rch/mOhm 0.6 0.7 0.7 0.8
Rth,c/K∙W−1 31.0 31.5 30.9 31.0
Rth,h/K∙W−1 23.5 23.3 22.8 23.0

### Table 2.

Thermal resistances and contact electrical resistances under different temperatures.

### 3.2. Test setup

System for measuring output performance of thermoelectric modules was established, mainly including electric heating plate controlled by PID, adjustable load, circulatory cooling unit, thermal imaging device, temperature and voltage data acquisition units, etc., with its basic structure as shown in Figure 2. Electric heating plate is used as heat source, with temperature control precision of ±0.1 K and temperature ranging from room temperature to 773 K. Cooling unit, which consists of heat sink, water tank, flow meter and flow valve, etc., takes cold water as the coolant. Heat sink is made of red-copper and its temperature could be adjusted by controlling flowrate of cooling water. In addition, some thermal conductive filler is pasted on both sides of module to reduce thermal resistance between module, heat source and heat sink. Electrical current in the circuit is obtained via measuring voltage on both ends of sampling resistor (metal film precision resistor: 0.2 Ohm, precision of ±1%).

Voltage and temperature signal are acquired by 9207 and 9214 acquisition card of National Instruments (NI) Company, with precision of ±0.5%. Data to be acquired include as follows: (1) temperature of heat source and heat sink; (2) temperature of the coolant (water) inside heat sink and water tank; (3) voltage on adjustable load and sampling resistor. K-type thermocouples with diameter of 1 mm are inserted in heat source and heat sink to measure temperature values. Actually, even though electric heating plate is controlled by PID, heat source temperature still fluctuates during the change of load resistance. In order to eliminate impacts of such transient effect, data shall not be acquired until the heat source and heat sink temperatures are stable.

Test of energy efficiency is not undertaken due to its complexity, where the heat flow into the hot side of the module must be measured or evaluated. An effective way is to adopt heat flux sensor and bury it just under the module. But that would impact heat conduction between heat source and the module, leading to higher thermal resistance. And heat flux sensors of high temperature enduring are really costly. Another useful method is by calculating electrically generated heat in heat source, and at the same time, radiation and convective heat loss must be subtracted, as is introduced in Ref. [10].

### 3.3. Comparison of test results with calculation

Figures 3 and 4 show variations of output power Pout with load RL at four temperature conditions, acquired by physical model calculation, ANSYS simulation and experiment. ANSYS method will be introduced in the next part. Figure 3 shows data at heat sink temperature T0 = 300 K, while Figure 4—at T0 = 296 K. Figures 5 and 6 are the corresponding current-voltage (I-V) characteristics. RL results are disposed in the same way. From the results, it is found, that the output power has maximum value with the increase of load. And current is linearly related to voltage. Calculation results are well coincident with ANSYS results, and they are both a little higher than experimental data. Under the four temperature conditions, values of maximum output power are 2.5, 2.6, 2.8 and 1.1% higher than experimental results with T1 changing from high to low. They are especially coincident well, when temperature difference ΔT is small. From the analysis follows, deviation of calculated results is caused mainly by taking thermal conductivity and electrical resistivity as constant (i.e., using the mean values), when solving Eq. (1). When ΔT is small, then material physical parameters vary within a narrow range. So, values of parameters are close to the real values. Otherwise, when ΔT is large, material physical parameters change within a large scale, leading to a great deviation of calculations.

## 4. Introduction to TEG simulation in ANSYS

### 4.1. TEG cell model

By software simulation, TEG performance can be achieved both in thermal and in electrical aspects. But it is not direct to cognize and understand the influence of thermoelectric effects, when compared with the above physical model. In this part, TEG cell model is set up by ANSYS, and geometry and meshing methods are illustrated in Figure 7. Thickness and cross-sectional area of thermoelements are 1.6 mm and 1.4 mm × 1.4 mm, respectively. Other geometry parameters are shown in Figure 7. Thermoelectric module consists mainly of p-n thermoelements, current-conducting copper straps and ceramic substrates for heat conducting and electric insulation. Thermoelements and copper strap are meshed by element SOLID226 in ANSYS. This type of element contains 20 nodes with voltage and temperature as the degrees of freedom. It can simulate 3D thermal-electrical coupling field. Element SOLID90 is used to mesh ceramic substrate. It has 20 nodes with temperature as the degree of freedom. Load resistance is simulated by element CIRCU124.

Contact properties of the leg-strap junction are implemented with element pairs CONTACT174/TARGET170. Detailed finite element formulations in ANSYS are introduced in [4], and the range of contact thermal conductivity and electrical resistivity is explicated in [11].

### 4.2. APDL codes for TEG simulation

ANSYS Parametric Design Language (APDL) is widely used for programed simulation. The following APDL codes have taken temperature variation of materials properties, thermal contact and thermal radiation (although its influence is very weak) into consideration. According to the practical requirements, the readers could use the code more concisely by neglecting certain physical effects. The unit referring to length is meter and the temperature unit is Celsius.

! defining the TEG cell dimensions

ln=1.6e-3 ! n-type thermoelement thickness

lp=1.6e-3 ! p-type thermoelement thickness

wn=1.4e-3 ! p-type thermoelement width

wp=1.4e-3 ! p-type thermoelement width

d=1.0e-3 ! Distance between the thermoelements

hs=0.2e-3 ! copper strap thickness

hc=1e-3 !substrate thickness

! definition of several physical parameters

rsvx=1.8e-8 ! copper electrical resistivity

kx=200 ! copper thermal conductivity

kxs=24 !substrate thermal conductivity

T1=250 ! temperature of heat source

T0=30 ! temperature of heat sink

Toffst=273 ! temperature offset

! defining TEG output parameters and the load

*dim,P0,array,1 ! defining P0 as the output power

*dim,R0,array,1 ! defining R0 as the load

*dim,Qh,array,1 ! defining Qh as the heat flow into the TEG cell

*dim,I,array,1 ! defining I as the current

*dim,enta,array,1 ! defining enta as the energy efficiency

*vfill,R0(1),ramp,0.025 ! setting the load (Ohm)

! pre-processing before calculation, defining element type, building the structure and meshing

/PREP7

toffst,Toffst ! set temperature offset

et,1,226,110 ! 20-node thermoelectric brick element

et,2,shell57 ! shell57 element for radiation simulation

et,3,conta174 ! conta174 element for contact simulation

et,4,targe170 ! target170 element for contact simulation

keyopt,3,1,4 ! taking temperature and voltage as the degree of freedom

keyopt,3,9,0

keyopt,3,10,1

keyopt,4,2,0

keyopt,4,3,0

! Temperature data points

mptemp,1,25,50,75,100,125,150

mptemp,7,175,200,225,250,275,300

mptemp,13,325,350

! Seebeck coefficient of the n-type material (V·K−1)

mpdata,sbkx,1,1,-160e-6,-168e-6,-174e-6,-180e-6,-184e-6,-187e-6

mpdata,sbkx,1,7,-189e-6,-190e-6,-189e-6,-186.5e-6,-183e-6,-177e-6

mpdata,sbkx,1,13,-169e-6,-160e-6

! electrical resistivity of the n-type material (Ohm*m)

mpdata,rsvx,1,1,1.03e-5,1.06e-5,1.1e-5,1.15e-5,1.2e-5,1.28e-5

mpdata,rsvx,1,7,1.37e-5,1.49e-5,1.59e-5,1.67e-5,1.74e-5,1.78e-5

mpdata,rsvx,1,13,1.8e-5,1.78e-5

! thermal conductivity of the n-type material (m* K−1)

mpdata,kxx,1,1,1.183,1.22,1.245,1.265,1.265,1.25

mpdata,kxx,1,7,1.22,1.19,1.16,1.14,1.115,1.09

mpdata,kxx,1,13,1.06,1.03

! Seebeck coefficient of the p-type material (V·K−1)

mpdata,sbkx,2,1,200e-6,202e-6,208e-6,214e-6,220e-6,223e-6

mpdata,sbkx,2,7,218e-6,200e-6,180e-6,156e-6,140e-6,120e-6

mpdata,sbkx,2,13,101e-6,90e-6

! electrical resistivity of the p-type material (Ohm*m)

mpdata,rsvx,2,1,1.0e-5,1.08e-5,1.18e-5,1.35e-5,1.51e-5,1.7e-5

mpdata,rsvx,2,7,1.85e-5,1.98e-5,2.07e-5,2.143e-5,2.15e-5,2.1e-5

mpdata,rsvx,2,13,2.05e-5,2.0e-5

! thermal conductivity of the p-type material (m* K−1)

mpdata,kxx,2,1,1.08,1.135,1.2,1.25,1.257,1.22

mpdata,kxx,2,7,1.116,1.135,1.13,1.09,1.12,1.25

mpdata,kxx,2,13,1.5,2.025

! material property for cooper strap

mp,rsvx,3,rsvx

mp,kxx,3,kx

! material property for the substrate

mp,kxx,4,kxs

!radiation property for the p-n materials

mp,emis,5

! contact friction coefficient

mp,mu,6,0

! build the TEG cell structure

block,d/2,wn+d/2,-ln,0,,t

block,-(wp+d/2),-d/2,-lp,0,,t

block,d/2,wn+d/2,,hs,,t

block,-(wp+d/2),-d/2,,hs,,t

block,-d/2,d/2,,hs,,t

block,-(wp+d/2),-d/2,-lp,-(lp+hs),,t

block,d/2,wn+d/2,-ln,-(ln+hs),,t

block,-(wp+d/2),wn+d/2,hs,hs+hc,,t

block,-(wp+d/2),wn+d/2,-(lp+hs),-(lp+hs+hc),,t

! glue the copper strap and the substrate

vsel,s,loc,y,0,hs

vsel,a,loc,y,hs,hc+hs

vglue,all

allsel

vsel,s,loc,y,-lp-hs,-lp

vsel,a,loc,y,-lp-hs-hc,-lp-hs

vglue,all

allsel

! meshing the TEG cell structure

numcmp,all

mshape,0,3d

mshkey,1

type,1

mat,3

lsel,s,loc,x,-d/2,d/2

lsel,r,loc,y,0

lsel,r,loc,z,t

lesize,all,d/3

vsel,s,loc,x,-d/2,d/2

vsel,r,loc,y,0,hs

vsweep,all

allsel

esize,ww/3

type,1

mat,3

vsel,s,loc,y,0,hs

vsel,u,loc,x,-d/2,d/2

vsweep,all

vsel,s,loc,y,-lp-hs,-lp

vsweep,all

type,1

mat,1

vsel,s,loc,x,d/2,d/2+wn

vsel,r,loc,y,-ln,0

vmesh,all

mat,2

vsel,s,loc,x,-(wp+d/2),-d/2

vsel,r,loc,y,-lp,0

vmesh,all

type,1

mat,4

vsel,s,loc,y,hs,hs+hc

vsel,a,loc,y,-lp-hs-hc,-lp-hs

vsweep,all

allsel

! defining the contact parameters

r,5 ! selecting the thermal contact conductivity and resistivity

RMORE,

rmore,,7e5 ! setting the thermal contact conductivity

rmore,0.67e8,0.5 ! setting the thermal contact resistivity

! defining the contact layer between p-leg and upper copper strap

vsel,s,loc,y,0,hs

asel,s,ext

asel,r,loc,y,0

nsla,s,1

nsel,r,loc,x,-(wp+d/2),-d/2

type,3

mat,6

real,5

esurf

allsel

! defining the target layer between p-leg and upper copper strap

vsel,s,mat,,2

asel,s,ext

asel,r,loc,y,0

nsla,s,1

type,4

mat,6

esurf

allsel

! defining the contact layer between n-leg and upper copper strap

vsel,s,loc,y,0,hs

asel,s,ext

asel,r,loc,y,0

nsla,s,1

nsel,r,loc,x,d/2,d/2+wn

type,3

mat,6

real,5

esurf

allsel

! defining the target layer between n-leg and upper copper strap

vsel,s,mat,,1

asel,s,ext

asel,r,loc,y,0

nsla,s,1

type,4

mat,6

esurf

allsel

! defining the contact layer between p-leg and bottom copper strap

vsel,s,loc,y,-hs-lp,-lp

vsel,r,loc,x,-wp-d/2,-d/2

asel,s,ext

asel,r,loc,y,-lp

nsla,s,1

type,3

mat,6

real,5

esurf

allsel

! defining the target layer between p-leg and bottom copper strap

vsel,s,mat,,2

asel,s,ext

asel,r,loc,y,-lp

nsla,s,1

type,4

mat,6

esurf

allsel

! defining the contact layer between n-leg and bottom copper strap

vsel,s,loc,y,-hs-ln,-ln

vsel,r,loc,x,d/2,d/2+wn

asel,s,ext

asel,r,loc,y,-ln

nsla,s,1

type,3

mat,6

real,5

esurf

allsel

! defining the target layer between n-leg and bottom copper strap

vsel,s,mat,,1

asel,s,ext

asel,r,loc,y,-ln

nsla,s,1

type,4

mat,6

esurf

allsel

! defining the shell element for copper strap

type,2

aatt,3,,2

asel,s,loc,x,-(wp+d/2),wn+d/2

asel,r,loc,y,0,hs

asel,u,loc,y,0

asel,u,loc,y,hs

amesh,all

allsel

asel,s,loc,x,-d/2,d/2

asel,r,loc,y,0

amesh,all

allsel

aatt,3,,2

asel,s,loc,x,-(wp+d/2),wn+d/2

asel,r,loc,y,-lp-hs,-lp

asel,u,loc,y,-lp

asel,u,loc,y,-lp-hs

amesh,all

allsel

aatt,4,,2

asel,s,loc,x,-d/2,d/2

asel,r,loc,y,-lp-hs

amesh,all

! defining the shell element for p-n thermoelements

allsel

aatt,5,,2

asel,s,loc,x,-(wp+d/2),wn+d/2

asel,r,loc,y,-lp,0

asel,u,loc,y,-lp

asel,u,loc,y,0

amesh,all

! defining the space node for radiation simulation

n,10000,0,0,3e-3

fini

/aux12

emis,3,1 ! setting the emissivity

emis,4,1

emis,5,1

allsel

geom,0

stef,5.68e-8 ! setting the Stefan-Boltzmann constant

vtype,hidden

space,10000

write,teg,sub ! outputting the radiation super element

fini

/prep7

! deleting the shell elements and the corresponding mesh

allsel

asel,s,type,,2

aclear,al

etdele,2

allsel

et,5,matrix50,1 ! defining radiation matrix element

! defining boundary conditions and the load

nsel,s,loc,y,hs+hc ! TEG cell hot side

cp,1,temp,all ! coupling of temperature degree of freedom

nh=ndnext(0) ! getting the master node

d,nh,temp,Th ! setting the temperature constraint to the hot side

nsel,all

nsel,s,loc,y,-(ln+hs+hc) ! selecting the TEG cell cold side

d,all,temp,Tc ! setting the temperature constraint to the cold side

nsel,s,loc,y,-(ln+hs),-ln

nsel,r,loc,x,d/2+wn

cp,3,volt,all ! electrical coupling

nn=ndnext(0) ! getting the master node

d,nn,volt,0 ! setting the ground connection node

nsel,all

nsel,s,loc,y,-(lp+hs),-lp

nsel,r,loc,x,-(wp+d/2)

cp,4,volt,all ! ! electrical coupling

np=ndnext(0) ! getting the master node

nsel,all

type,5

allsel

d,10000,temp,300 ! setting the temperature of the space node

et,6,CIRCU124,0 ! setting the load resistor element

fini

/prep7

! setting the load value and property

r,1,R0(1)

type,6

real,1

numcmp,all

e,np,nn

esel,s,type,,6

circu_num=elnext(0) !getting circuit element number

allsel

fini

! starting the calculation

/SOLU

antype,static ! solution type

cnvtol,heat,1,1.e-3 ! setting the converging value for heat condition

cnvtol,amps,1,1.e-3 ! setting the converging value for the current

neqit,50 ! calculation iteration step

solve ! starting solving

fini

*get,P0(1),elem,circu_num,nmisc,1 ! getting the output power of the TEG cell

*get,Qh(1),node,nh,rf,heat ! getting the heat flow into the TEG cell

*get,I(1),elem,circu_num,smisc,2 ! getting the current

*voper,enta,P0,div,Qh ! calculating the energy efficiency of the TEG cell

## 5. Conclusions

The built one-dimensional model, which is validated by test results, can calculate TEG output power and energy efficiency accurately. By simplifying this model, it is convenient to analyze influences of different thermal and electrical parameters on TEG performance. And basic factors to enhance TEG output power and energy efficiency are extracted. At last, ANSYS simulation considering thermal contact and radiation effects for TEGs is introduced briefly, and basic APDL codes are shared.

## References

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Written By

Fuqiang Cheng

Submitted: 01 April 2016 Reviewed: 06 September 2016 Published: 21 December 2016