Checklist of diadromous species of
The Macrobrachium genus in Mexico is represented by two big groups: the first one, where the larval stages are extended, and the second one, has an abbreviated larval development. There are three main slopes in Mexico or exorheic basins and several endorheic basins such as lakes and inner lagoons. The species with extended larval stage are M. carcinus, M. heterochirus, M. acanthurus, M. olfersii, M. hobbsi, and M. faustinum in the Atlantic and Caribbean slope, while in the Pacific slope, these species are M. americanum, M. occidentale, M. digueti, M. michoacanus, M. acanthochirus, and M. tenellum. These species have important fishery activities on different basins because they live from oasis in desert to main rivers in the bigger basins. However, there are some rivers that have an extended region on their upstream such as Usumacinta, Grijalva, Papaloapan, and Coatzacoalcos basins that in general are considered as hydrological regions. Just in these extended regions, there are more caves in freshwater, springs, and primary or secondary streams, which are covered by short area rivers, and in these places, there are the following species: M. totonacum, M. tuxtlaense, M. oaxacae, M. cosolapaense, M. oaxacae, M. jacatepecense, M. mazatecum, and M. vicconi, while in the cave are M. villalobosi, M. acherontium, and M. sbordonii. However, for these species, the uses are more for the local groups mainly indigenous cultures such as Mayan, Lacandon, Zapotecs and Mixtecs, and others, and their commercial use is only in the local region depending on where these species are distributed.
- freshwater shrimp
- uses and management
In the rivers, channels, and ponds in Mexico, there are several endemic crustaceans such as crabs, crayfishes, and freshwater shrimp species that are used by local people to obtain protein specifically by the indigenous cultures or these species are used by commercial fisheries in several basins around Mexico.
In first instance, the freshwater prawns from genus
However, there are some rivers that have an extended region on their upstream such as Usumacinta, Grijalva, Papaloapan, and Coatzacoalcos basins that in general are considered as hydrological regions. Just in these extended region there are more caves with freshwater, springs, and primary or secondary streams that are covered by short area rivers; and in these places there are the following species:
The goal of this chapter is to show the distributional ranges of these species, as described in Section 2, which represents a holistic analysis that includes all species recognized in Mexico. Section 3 presents a normative frame analysis of the uses of natural resources such as freshwater prawns on river fisheries in Mexico and the river basin management programs according to the hydrological region in Mexico. Section 4 shows the commercial data specifically considering the bigger prawn species in the three slopes. Finally, Section 5 presents the uses and commercial opportunities to species with abbreviated larval development by the indigenous people and local markets in Mexico.
2. Distributional ranges of
In Mexico, these species are distributed into three exorheics basins: Pacific slope, Gulf of Mexico slope, and Caribbean slope. The first two basins are large with water flowing in the main river, and in the last one, due to the soil, the basins are subterranean and the freshwater flows underground to sea and the animals found the channels to inhabit in these places. It is interesting that in the Pacific and Gulf of Mexico or Caribbean Sea, there is one similar species inhabiting in each slope. In all cases, diadromous species need brackish water in some moments of their life cycle, while there are anadromous species that live their entire cycle in freshwater. In general, para in these slopes, the climate is tropical wet, and tropical wet and dry and arid, because these species are present along the Pacific and Gulf of Mexico Coast; in general, the rivers still have the original riparian vegetation according to the location, but most of these basins are associated with a growing human population where the amount of sewage water has been increased in the past 50 years. Moreover, due to the water needs for agriculture, human consumption, and farmers, the dam construction occurred in the past years has produced diverse alterations in the normal migration conditions. For example, the species that need high content of oxygen dissolved, such as
Species with abbreviated larval development trait in general live in the inner or endorheic basins mainly in springs. In general, these species inhabit areas between 100 and 300 m altitude around the mountain systems of hydrological basins. Because these mountain systems have emerged on Cretaceous and Tertiary and that the origin of
Four habitat types are distinguished, where the freshwater prawns with abbreviated larval development have the following unifying characteristics: freshwater all time, tropical springs and streams, and important relationship with roots of riparian vegetation (trees or shrubs), the values of oxygen dissolved are high, and the pH trend toward alkalinity and few sites were recorded coexisting with another
3. Normative frame and management programs in Mexico
In Mexico, the normative frame for local fisheries is regulated by the Environment Secretary of Natural Resources (SEMARNAT, by Spanish acronyms). There are federal laws to protect the wildlife where it is stated that for some species that are examined with protected labels such as vulnerable, dangerous to extinct, or only dangerous, the fisheries are forbidden. In this case, for most
4. Fisheries and commercial data
In the slopes of Pacific and Gulf of Mexico, important fisheries on these resources exist. In general, the local people use local nets (atarrayas) or traps (nazas) to catch different species. The bigger species from both sides are
5. Local commercial uses of the
Macrobrachiumwith abbreviated larval development
It is evident that the freshwater prawns of genus
The authors are grateful to the División of Desarrollo Sustentable from University of Quintana Roo and to Consorcio de Universidades Mexicanas (CUMEX) for supporting this collaboration through the International Exchange Program. This paper was also supported by the projects Diversidad del género
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