Main biological activities of ECS in both female and male reproduction.
1. Endocannabinoid system (ECS)
The identification of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) in 1964 by Gaoni and Mechoulam  as the principal biologically active component of
Endocannabinoid tone is finely regulated by a highly organized system of biosynthesis and degradation enzymes that are integral part of ECS. The main pathways of AEA biosynthesis and degradation depend on the activity of the N-arachidonoyl-phosphatidylethanolamine phospholipase D (Nape-PLD)  and the fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) , respectively. Two diacylglycerol lipases (DAGLα and DAGLβ) enzymes are involved in 2-AG biosynthesis , whereas monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) and to a lesser extend FAAH metabolizes it . The biological activity of endocannabinoids is finely regulated by mechanisms of intracellular uptake. In this respect, many doubts still exist and several hypotheses have been formulated. AEA transport, for instance, may occur by passive and/or facilitated diffusion, this last by an hypothetical endocannabinoid membrane transporter whose chemical identity remains as yet unknown , by endocytosis , through fatty acid binding protein (FABP) proteins  or a FAAH-like AEA transporter protein (FLAT), a cytosolic variant of FAAH that lacks amidase activity, but bounding AEA, facilitates its translocation into cells .
2. Endocannabinoid activity in biological systems
Endocannabinoid biosynthesis, uptake, degradation, and activity have been largely reported in the central nervous system (CNS) and in a wide set of peripheral tissues in vertebrates—from fish to mammals, humans included —but also in invertebrates . Thus, this phylogenetically and onthogenetically conserved system is involved in the central and local control of many biological functions.
At cellular level, cell proliferation, differentiation, survival, and apoptotic rate—with different outcomes depending on the molecular targets and cellular context involved—have been reported to be under ECS control in tissues such as gonads, adipose tissues, bone, blood, epithelial cells, and also in the brain .
ECS activity is critical in CNS, as elsewhere properly reviewed . In general, physiological functions of ECS in CNS include: pain perception, motor functions, control of tremor, and spasticity, cognitive functions (i.e. learning and memory), thermogenesis, regulation of weak/sleep cycles, axonal pathfinding, synaptic plasticity and adult neurogenesis, emotional behavior, stress response
Besides the brain, endocannabinoid biosynthesis and activity occur in peripheral tissues, such as blood cells, heart, intestine, liver, adipose tissue, muscle, and pancreas, where it seems to be involved in the regulation of inflammation, platelet aggregation, blood pressure, heart rate, vasodilatation, modulation of peristalsis, energy balance
|Sperm motility||[51, 52]|
|Sperm fertilizing ability||[34, 56, 57]|
|Leydig cell functions||[58–60]|
|Sertoli cell apoptosis||[44, 61]|
|Sperm capacitation, ZP-induced acrosomal reaction (AR)||[57, 62–64]|
Thus, the modulation of endocannabinoid tone by FAAH is the main gatekeeper in the control of many physiological functions, from the formation of specialized tissues to neurotransmitter release, neuroprotection of circuit integrity and neuroplasticity, central pain perception, neuroendocrine functions, food intake, energy balance, reproduction, pregnancy, delivery, cardioprotection, inflammatory response, and so on .
As a consequence, alterations of ECS activity have been correlated to many diseases such as neurodegenerative disorders and motor dysfunctions, mood disorders as well as psychosis (schizophrenia) and autism, retinopathy, neuroendocrine dysfunctions, obesity, diabetes and metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disorders and cardiac pathologies, gastrointestinal and urogenital diseases, sepsis, cancer and related inflammation processes, infertility, but also to miscarriage and preterm birth.
Consistently, alteration of the physiological endocannabinoid tone by the occasional use or abuse of phytocannabinoids has been reported to deeply impact human health .
Due to the above considerations, ECS has emerged as important regulator of both physiological and pathological processes. Considerable attention has been focused on the targeting of the endocannabinoid receptors and of endocannabinoid byosinthetic/hydrolizing enzymes for the treatment of a variety of disorders with high impact on human health. Thus, in the future, the administration of specific cannabinoid receptor agonists/antagonists or the inhibition of endocannabinoid degradation might represent a promising therapeutic strategy for the maintenance/restore of human health and the cure of human diseases such as neurological and cardiovascular diseases, diabetes and obesity, as well as infertility and cancer.
The authors declare that there is no conflict of interests regarding the publication of this paper.
Work incorporated in this paper was partially supported by Prin MIUR 2010–2011 (Rosaria Meccariello).
The authors apologize for unintended omission of any relevant references.