Percentage distribution of the reconstructed mass of the vehicle YUGO-E when it is empty and loaded.
The first electric vehicle, General Motors, a prototype car with four seats cost 6.000 $. It was planned as a second family vehicle.
Secondly there is an electric vehicle Electric Runabout Copper, who is a manufacturer of Copper Development Association Inc. said that it can be produced for 5.000 $. The vehicle mass of 950 kg, with four seats, made of fiberglass, had a top speed around 110 km/h could not move without charge to 130 km before its battery runs out of battery. It has a 10 kW electric motor that could, in one-hour mode, it delivers up to 15 kW and ups eliminates up to 22%. Weight of batteries was about 380 kg.
Most EV were relatively modestly equipped, but the Electric Car Corporation of Michigan, he believed the first luxury electric vehicle called the Silver Volt. The prototype of this five-seat EV has achieved a top speed of movement 110 km/h had a radius of 160 km between charges the battery. Silver Volt owned air conditioning and was sold for about 15.000 $ (Tables 1 and 2).
|Laden vehicle total weight 1.134 kg||Empty vehicle Curb weight 934 kg|
|8,8%||Electric propulsion||100 kg||10,7%|
|13,2%||2 passengers||150 kg|
|YUGO - E||Type of vehicle||Passanger|
|dimensions||3,49*1,542*1,392 m||Empty vehicle weight||934 kg|
|Useful load||2 persons +50 kg||drive||front-wheel|
|Brakes||disk, front and back||Control||over the rack|
|Voltage||72 V||Rated current||113 A|
|Number of revolution||2.800 min−1||Weight||38 kg|
|Total voltage||72 V||Capacity (20 h)||143 Ah|
|Pieces||6||Total Weight||294 kg|
|Current limit||180 A||Voltage drop at current of 100 A||0,7 V|
|Undervoltage disconnection||48 V||Weight||4 kg|
|Battery charger characteristic||IUUo|
|Voltage||72 V||Current||18 A|
|Power||1.800 W||Weight||38 kg|
|Type||with galvanic isolation|
|Output voltage||13,5 V||Maximum output currant||22,2 A|
|power||300 W||Weight||2 kg|
Some companies also produce and display luxury EV priced up to 120.000 $ the most expensive ever built passenger car of this type.
The majority of EV is driven by a conventional lead-acid batteries that are found even 1868th years and are still the mainstay of the vehicles. But the lead-acid batteries have also already been the primary limiting factor for the development of EV. Pointed out that at least 40 million vehicles in the U.S., a total of 110 million, can be electrically driven second family vehicle as meeting the ecology and urban and suburban driving conditions. However, lead batteries and still remain a limiting factor in EV that time.
From this period, the EV was largely rebuilt vehicles from the existing series production vehicle with the drive IC. And with a maximum weight of lead acid batteries, the performances of these cars were quite limited. As an example, the percentage distribution of the reconstructed mass of the vehicle can serve example of the reconstructed vehicle YUGO-E when it is empty and loaded, reference [18, 19].
The invention of the transistor in 1948 revolutionized the electronics industry . Semiconductor devices were first used in low power level applications for communications, information processing, and computers. In 1958, General Electric developed the first Tyristor, which was at that time called SCR, in . Since around 1975, more turn-off power semiconductor elements were developed and implemented during the next 20 years, which have vastly improved modern electronics. Included here are improved bipolar transistors (with fine structure, also with shorter switching times), Field Effects Transistors (MOSFETs), Gate Turnoff Thyristors (GTOs) and Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBTs) (Figure 8) .
Although they initially made Chopper with thyristors, later almost exclusively were made with transistors. The main difference is that Chopper with thyristors operates up to several hundred Hz, and the power transistors and up to several tens of kHz. For use the EV used Chopper with mutual influence (for lowering and raising the voltage), because this type of chopper allows propulsion and recuperative or regenerative braking drive motors. In this way it is possible to drive DC generator machine brake or braking to convert mechanical energy into electrical energy in .
It is well known, there are two modes of operation of electric vehicles. In the
Late 20th century contributed to an even greater exacerbation of conditions around the EV application. Scientists have become aware that environmental pollution is becoming larger, the emission of exhaust gases and particles affect climate change and that non-renewable energy sources under the influence of high demand and exploitation are becoming more expensive and slowly deplete.
Technology is certainly a double edged sword that has also created new problems such as pollution, overpopulation, the greenhouse effect, depletion of the ozone layer, and the threat of extinction from nuclear war. It has also been used to give us prosperity our ancestors could never have dreamed about. Whether it is ultimately used for our benefit or destruction is up to us and remains in the balance .
In 2010, the world’s population reached 6,9 billion persons in . It is expected to attain 9,3 billion in 2050 and 10,1 billion by the end of the century. The proportion of the population living in urban areas grew from 29 per cent in 1950 to 50 per cent in 2010. By 2050, 69 per cent of the global population, or 6,3 billion people, are expected to live in urban areas . The atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2), the main gas linked to global warming, has increased substantially in the course of economic and industrial development. CO2 emissions are largely determined by a country’s energy use and production systems, its transportation system, its agricultural and forestry sectors and the consumption patterns of the population. In addition to the impact of CO2 and other greenhouse gases on the global climate, the use of carbon-based energy also affects human health through local air pollution. Currently, CO2 emissions per person are markedly higher in the more developed regions (12 metric tons per capita) than in the less developed regions (3,4 metric tons per capita) and are lowest in the least developed countries (0,3 metric tons per capita). Industrial and household activities as well as unpaved roads produce fine liquid or solid particles such as dust, smoke, mist, fumes, or smog, found in air or emissions. Protracted exposure to Particulates is detrimental to health and sudden rises of concentration may immediately result in fatalities. Concentration of particulate matter in the air of medium and large cities is inversely correlated with the level of development.
Ownership of passenger cars has increased considerably worldwide and the transportation of goods and services by road has intensified. Rising demand for roads and vehicles is associated with economic growth but also contributes to urban congestion, air and noise pollution, increasing health hazards, traffic accidents and injuries. Motor vehicle use also places pressure on the environment, since transportation now accounts for about a quarter of the world’s energy use and half of the global oil consumption, and is a major contributor to greenhouse gas emissions. In the more developed regions there are more than 500 motor vehicles per 1000 population. In the less developed regions this ratio is only 70 vehicles per 1000 population, but it is increasing more rapidly than in the more developed regions .
Energy generated by the combustion of fossil fuels and biomass often results in air pollution, affecting the health of ecosystems and people. This type of combustion is also the main source of greenhouse gases and rising atmospheric temperatures.
However, in the late 20th century has made improvements in electric drives. Quality inverters are designed with the ability to control the voltage and frequency, enabling the use of induction motors to drive the EV in . Asynchronous (induction) motor is simpler, lighter, more efficient and robust than DC motors. Despite all that, its price is considerably lower than the DC motor. Maximum speed is increased by 50–150% of maximum speed DC motor which is limited because of problems with commutation. The efficiency of induction motors is from 95–97%, and is higher than that of DC motor from 85–89% for DC motors. Inverters are power converters that convert the DC voltage alternating current, the required frequency and amplitude [28, 29].
The unprecedented decrease in mortality that began to accelerate in the more developed parts of the world in the nineteenth century and expanded to all the world in the twentieth century is one of the major achievements of humanity. By one estimate, life expectancy at birth increased from 30 to 67 years between 1800 and 2005, leading to a rapid growth of the population: from 1 billion in 1810 to nearly 7 billion in 2010, in .
With the growth of population in the world there is a need to increase transportation of people, goods and raw materials as a prerequisite for the growth of production and consumption and the standard of living. This constant growth is natural and expected process of development of civilization and one of the most important indicators of development of society and humanity so that today a life without road traffics considered unthinkable.
Big boost for electric vehicle development was given by the developed countries where air pollution is receiving alarming values.
In cities with large population, and where there is a big environmental pollution, the city authorities have taken some steps to the special places provided for movement and recreation citizens to reduce air pollution. In places where there are a large number of urban populations, city governments often support the eco-drive vehicles.
First of all vehicles are required city services that are moving in the streets intended for pedestrians, such as travel or vehicle inspection. In addition, various types of tourist vehicles moving at pedestrian areas or in city parks. Then, various kinds of utility and delivery vehicles that work in limited areas such as rail bus stations or airports.
In order to significantly reduce oil consumption and pollution in the world that creates traffic especially in big cities it is necessary to make the transition from today’s cars with internal combustion engines to electric drives. Given the poor performance of EV on the market there are fewer of these vehicles, although almost all major manufacturers of passenger vehicles operate on the development of these vehicles.
Although scientist Nikola Tesla wrote and discussed the use of EV with the alternate (induction) engine until 1904 in , when the EV is already contained in the traffic in the United States a decade ago founded the company bearing his name, Tesla Motors, which is producing very interesting and modern sports EV.
EV “Tesla Roadster” is a sport, the first serial built car that used lithium-ion battery in , and the first one which had a radius greater than 320 km on a single charge.
The vehicle has a length of 3.946 mm, 1.851 mm width and a curb weight is 1.234 kg. Useful load is for 2 persons, and the weight of batteries is 450 kg. The AC drive motor has a power 185 kW and a maximum speed of rotation 14.000 min−1. Voltage Li-ion battery is a 375 V and capacity 145 Ah. Charger of the rechargeable battery is inductive (contactless). The vehicle can travel up to 231mile (372 km) in city driving with standard EPA testing procedure. Speed of 60 mph (97 km/h) can be achieved only by 3,9 s, top speed is electronically limited to 125 mph (201 km/h). This vehicle has made the largest radius of movement on single charge EV batteries 311 miles (501 km). Electricity consumption is only 145 Wh per kilometer of road traveled (Figure 9).
Mass production of this vehicle was started in early 2008 year. Despite the crisis that is evident and the prices of over 100,000 USD in the beginning of sales, has so far sold more than 1000 pieces of this vehicle in .
On the development of modern EV worked both large and small manufacturers of motor vehicles. EV still has significant problems arising from low-volume production so that these vehicles are still expensive and thus less attractive. In the first place it is air-conditioning for passengers and a relatively small possibility of storing electricity in batteries. The necessity of development of plant components specially developed for series production will be affected by the low price of these components. Great stimulus to the occurrence of EV on the World Fair is given by Far eastern markets provide producers in [34, 35], which also made a series of large vehicles substantially at lower prices and affordable to most buyers in developed countries.
Oil prices value on world markets in spring 2008 exceeded 100 $/barrel, with previous analyzes have designated this value as the marginal cost of EV use. Oil prices reached a value of 147 $/barrel in early July 2008., and shortly thereafter dropped to a value of only 40 $/barrel, it is nowday stabilized at value around 100 $/barrel.
One of the objectives of the new plan, which President Obama has described as “historic”, is to replace the existing complex system of federal and state laws and regulations on exhaust emissions and fuel economy. Announcing the plan in , President Obama said that “the status quo is no longer acceptable,” as it creates dependency on foreign oil and contributes to climate change. Effects of new measures will be as if from the roads in America 177 million vehicles have been removed and that the state saves as much oil as in 2008 was imported from Saudi Arabia, Venezuela, Libya and Nigeria.
Since then it speeds up the development and improvement of a mostly EV batteries or “power tank” which the vehicle carries. Parallely is working on improving the use of EV which now can be used for some applications, as well as the use of HV.
Not finding the opportunity to meet the existing types of EV driving habits with conventional drive vehicles, and vehicles with conventional drive to meet certain environmental requirements, motor vehicle manufacturers have come to the medium solution, so called hybrid drive. If the hybrid has a higher capacity battery that can be recharged via connection to an external source and distribution network, then it is a “plug in” hybrid vehicle (PHV).
HV makes real breakthrough in terms of reducing consumption of fossil fuels, as well as in terms of environmental benefits, and improving air quality in cities, which is encouraged by governments in some western countries. Using PHV reduces smog emissions established in the cities, in .
Although PHV will never become a “zero-emission vehicles” (ZEV) due to their internal combustion engine, the first PHV which appeared on the market reduce emissions by one third to half in , and is expected from more modern models to reduce emissions even more.
There are several types of applications in hybrid drive vehicles. Common to all is that a shorter time in the city center, vehicle can move with the electric drive as an environmentally clean and then to aggregate that includes the IC engine that runs at the optimal point of operation. In this way the HV has minimal emissions and minimal consumption of petroleum products (Figure 10).
HV has two drives, and practically unlimited radius of movement. In the regime of pure electric drive with modest performance with maximum speed of 80 km/h small autonomous movement of about 80 km radius, but because of that the hybrid drive doubles the speed and radius becomes practically unlimited. Because the two types of power, HV is about 35% more expensive than the equivalent of cars with internal combustion engine, but to create habits of drivers, some states stimulated by reducing taxes for these vehicles .
The general conclusion is that is a positive step towards the introduction of environmental drive vehicles. However, since no definitive solution is found, experiments with pure electric and hybrid solutions carried out, as well as various types of technical drive solutions. Despite the turbulent development of EV and HV, some experts believe that vehicles with ICE will dominate for more 15 years, but even after that will not disappear in .
The main reason for the production and purchase of hybrid vehicles down to fuel economy in city driving, but are often cited and highlight information on saving energy and reducing pollution in [42, 43]. Best-selling HV Prius in , has a fuel-efficiency of 51 mpg (21,7 km/l) in the city and 48 mpg (20,4 km/l) on the open road. Typically, in our present data on consumption per 100 km distance traveled, so that consumption in the city is 4,6 l/100 km and on the open road is about 4,9 l/100 km.
EV with batteries still have a small market share in the sale and use of cars, but different types of EV, especially the Army, that made significant progress. This was especially favored new legislation announced by the U.S. administration.
It is known that the EV motor vehicle was powered by an electric motor fed from an electrochemical power sources. Often, an electric vehicle (EV) is called the zero vehicle emissions (ZEV), because it emits no harmful particles into the atmosphere. In the older literature, for EV use the terms electric vehicle (EM) or autonomous electric vehicle (AEV) .
The basic components of the EV are battery pack as a “reservoir of power” and drive electric motor with speed regulator.
If someone install aggregate in the EV that has a combustion engine and generator, we get a hybrid variant of EV and then it is always possible when driving or when necessary to recharge the battery. With this solution the drive gets slightly higher consumption of oil products in long-distance driving and slightly lower performance with the drive in vehicles with internal combustion engine. But, in the city center, when the internal combustion engine is not in operation, the car behaves ecologically and uses less oil derivatives per kilometer of road vehicles then vehicle with internal combustion engine.
Hybrid vehicles are vehicles in which exists a combination of internal combustion engines (gasoline or diesel) and electric drive, but have limited features of the electric drive mode and can be supplemented from the power grid.
“Plug in” HV are vehicles that can move a distance of 15 to 60 km with a charged battery pack and then the batteries need to be supplemented from the power grid or by combustion engines. Often embedded computer determines the optimal conditions to charge.
The main differences between HV and “Plug in” HV Prius becomes obvious if one looks at the range or increase the radius of the vehicle in electric mode, approximately 2 km (Prius) to 23,4 km (PHV), in .
In addition, it is improved specific fuel consumption in the hybrid mode. Studies have shown that in Japan, 90% of drivers exceed the average daily distance below 50 km and 60 km and 75 in the EU and the U.S. respectively. In this case, the expected cost of vehicles greatly influences the price of electricity which during the day in Japan is about 20 cents/kWh and late at night around 8 cents/kWh. It should be noted that the average price of electricity in Serbia amounts to only 5 EU cents/kWh (Table 3).
|Prius PHV||Prius HV|
|Dimensions (length/width/height)||4.460/1.745/1.490 mm||←|
|Curb weight||1.490 kg||1.350 kg|
|Maximum engine power||60 kW (82 KS)||←|
|Maximum power of the entire system||100 kW (136 KS)||←|
|Storage energy||Li-ion battery (5,2 kWh)||NiMH batterya (1,3kWh)|
|Engine Displacement / maximum power||1.797 cc / 73 kW (99 hp)||←|
|Fuel consumption PHV||57,0 km/l||—|
|Fuel consumption HV||30,6 km/l||32,6 km/l|
|EV range||23,4 km||around 2 km|
|EV top speed||100 km/h||55 km/h|
|Electrical energy efficiency||6,57 km/kWh||—|
|Battery recharge time||About 100 min. (200 V) about 180 min. (100 V)||—|
The best-selling hybrid car in the U.S. “Toyota Prius”, has the highest demand when fuel prices rise. The state encourages the producer price of 6.400$, in , so that the standard model sells for just 21.610 US$). The fuel economy of this vehicle is 48 mpg (4,9 l/100 km) in city driving and 45 mpg (5,2 l/100 km) on the open road. Translated into fuel consumption per 100 km is 5,2 l/100 km in city driving and 4,9 l/100 km on the open road.
Large oil producers, such as BP33, consider that in future, up to 2030. PHV will be dominant, primarily due to a reduction in fuel consumption per kilometer of the road, Figure 11.
Transport in cities today is based on other petroleum derivatives. With today’s technical solutions existing EV’s does not have enough energy so that it can achieve a radius of movement and performance competitive with internal combustion powered vehicles. On the other hand, the absence of exhaust emissions and low noise make the EV attractive for some specific purposes such as short trips with frequent stops in which vehicles with internal combustion engines would have inefficient work.
In addition to high economic dependence on oil and oil products, is a common problem and protecting the environment, reducing emissions and greenhouse gases. It is anticipated that, due to technology development, energy consumption in production systems, despite the larger volume of production in the coming years largely be stagnant.
There are several factors that influence the development of EV:
Growth in world population and transportation needs
Energy demand in the world
Crude oil as an energy source
Pollution and global warming
World production and consumption
Efficiency of electric drives
As the main means of mass transportation, cars with internal combustion engines marked the twentieth century. However, the consequences of this form of mass transportation are a large amount of harmful exhaust substances that pollute the environment. Finding alternative energy sources that would move the vehicle could solve this problem. One possible solution is EV.
The world in 2010 year, according to OICA in , produced 58,305,112 passenger vehicles used to transport passengers. China topped the list with almost 24% of produced cars followed by Japan, Germany and South Korea. Despite the large car manufacturers for which she is known in the world, the U.S. ranks only seventh in the world (Table 4).
|Sl.no.||Country||Number of vehicles|
Population growth in the world and general technical advances cause a growing need for all types of energy. Percentage of growth energy use needs in the world is greater than the percentage of population growth. Today, more than half, or 56% of the world’s energy consumed in the U.S., Japan and the European Union . As these countries are relatively poor in energy resources, they represent the largest energy importers.
Estimates are that due to increasing consumer demands, and especially because of increasing demands for the transportation of goods and people, energy demand increased by about 1.5 to 2% per annum . It is believed that in the period from 2000 to 2050. The demand for energy will be more than doubled.
The different energy sources in total or primary energy consumption in the world in the same period and forecast up until 2035, is presented in Figure 13. This balance includes oil, natural gas, solid fuels, nuclear energy and renewable energy sources with heat recovery lost during combustion of other fuel types. Weaker energy sources, such as wood, biomass and other sources in these considerations are not taken into account.
It may be noted that the share of nuclear ‘energy significantly increases and the prediction indicate that, despite all the concern and dissatisfaction of the “green” this type of energy will be exploited more and more. There are expectations that all types of renewable energy products and exploit all the more. Although these sources are currently produced per unit of energy even more expensive than others, it is believed that in the future primarily due to new technologies and mass production price significantly reduced.
Coal remains the main source of energy. Consumption and production of natural gas is increasing. Production of hydropower is poor because the share of water flows in the production of electricity is utilized enough.
Although the share of oil in total primary energy percentage decreases, production, consumption of oil is generally increasing. There are opposing tendencies: on the one hand, increased daily transport of people and goods, while the second reduction of imported energy, environment and the negative economic balance. Over 97% of fuel consumed in the transport sector, U.S. in , is based on oil, and this represents about two-thirds of the total national oil consumption. Although the specific consumption of liquid fuels in vehicles since 1970. The steadily declining, population growth and the length of distance traveled per capita is increasing and contributing to the total consumption of liquid fuels for transport.
And if efforts are made to find new sources and new facts indicate that this type of energy is slowly decreasing and scientists expect that for some time all sources of energy will dry up.
Forecast of production of petroleum products in the world by 2.035 year, according to the Energy Information Administration (EIA) in [50, 54] is shown in Figure 15. We hope to discover new oil fields, and activate the existing drain current, so that the next 25 years, production of crude oil will mainly keep the existing values. Expected to increase consumption of natural gas and non-conventional liquid fuels. At the same time certain redistribution of the consumption of liquid fuels will be made. Expected increase in consumption of liquid fuels for transport and to a lesser extent for other consumers.
Taking into account today and proven preset fossil fuel reserves can be estimated that up to half of the century the transport sector and transport of energy resources was largely satisfied, but certainly not after the 2050th year, if only with today’s fuel reserves appeared a new energy crisis, in .
Modern transport has contributed to overall economic progress but also caused problems and environmental pollution, traffic congestion and problems of energy supply - particularly in times of energy crisis.
Air pollution by burning fuel in motor vehicles becomes the most important global issue, especially in urban areas worldwide. Emission of pollutants originating from motor vehicles caused by the level of traffic, possibility of roads and weather conditions. Pollutants from the exhaust system of motor vehicles reach the atmosphere and are dependent composition, and fuel volatility (Figure 16) .
In terms of impact on global atmospheric pollution and problems associated with it, the most important effect is the increase in global mean temperature. From the standpoint of global warming the greatest danger represents carbon dioxide, an unavoidable component of the combustion products of petroleum products, in .
Human activities in the past two centuries have been based on the large use of hydrocarbons to obtain the necessary energy. Therefore, the amount of “greenhouse gases” in the atmosphere has increased and is expected to lead to increase in average global temperature.
In addition to air pollution in violation of the environment and space as a significant natural resource waste oils are participating, as well as uncontrolled release of oil, in  to contaminate surface and groundwater.
In contrast to the natural greenhouse effect, an additional effect caused by human activity contributes to global warming and may have serious consequences for humanity. Earth’s average surface temperature has increased by about 0,6°C in , only during the twentieth century.
In addition, if we cannot take any steps towards limiting emissions of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, concentrations of carbon dioxide by 2100, can be expected to reach values between 540 and 970 million particles of the volume. This concentration of carbon dioxide is leading to global temperature increase between 1,4 and 5,8°C by the end of this century.
The temperature rise of this magnitude would also have impacted on the entire Earth’s climate, and would be manifested trough the frequent rainfall, more tropical cyclones and natural disasters every year in certain regions, or on the other hand, in other regions such as long periods of drought, which would overall have a very bad effect on agriculture. Entire ecosystems could be severely threatened extinction of species that could not be fast enough to adapt to climate change.
In order to reduce air pollution from vehicles and to make more economical cars in the fight against global warming and reducing dependence on oil in the U.S. are preparing new standards for reducing automobile emissions and reduce consumption of fossil fuels. The intention of the U.S. administration is that these measures by 2016. reduce he emissions from vehicles by 30%. Under the new standards for passenger vehicles, fuel consumption must be reduced to a level of 35,5 miles/gallon (6,62 l/100 km) in . It is expected that new proposals for new vehicles in the average rise in price by about 1,300 $ in 2016 Year .
It should be noted that the U.S. is the largest automobile market in the world with about 250 million registered vehicles
A necessary precondition for economic development and growth of each country and the region is safe and reliable electricity supply. Electricity consumption per capita is highest in the Nordic countries (to a maximum of 24,677 kWh, Iceland) and in North America. Almost half of EU countries have nuclear power plants so that in France and Lithuania almost 75% of electricity is obtained from nuclear power plants in .
The growth and forecast growth of electricity production in the world and the total energy consumption in the period 1990–2035, according to the Energy Information Administration (EIA) is shown in Figure 17.
Base for observation of this comparison was taken 1990 year. It may be noted that the real growth of electricity consumption in the period since 1990 to 2006 is 59% and overall energy consumption 36%. Forecasted growth in electricity consumption by 2025 amounts to 181% and overall energy consumption 95%.
Production and consumption of electricity for years has a steady growth of around 3.3% per year. Normal for middle-income countries has a slightly higher growth. Electricity production is obtained mostly by burning solid fuel 40% and natural gases about 20%. About 16% of electricity obtained from hydropower and only slightly less, 15% from nuclear power plants. Less than 10% is obtained from petroleum.
Last few decades, the share of electricity derived from nuclear power plants have increased considerably and from hydro has declined, although the total growth in electricity production obtained from hydropower continued. It is believed that the near future will experience significant increase in production of electricity from nuclear power plants, to a lesser extent from natural gas, and later also from renewable sources.
Efficiency of electric vehicles was marked several times when lead-acid batteries were used. It can be divided into two parts: the degree of usefulness in the charging and discharging the batteries.
Batteries with a charger efficiency of 85% conditioned that 15% of the total power dissipated in heat, all for process for charging batteries or refill the tank “of electricity.” Charging process is followed by the inevitable losses, so that for certain conditions and the charge current was 82%. This creates a loss of primary energy by 15,3%. This implies that already in the charging of batteries about 30% of the total electrical energy is converted into losses.
The process of discharging the battery is quite complex. How discharge current overcome five-hour discharge current and they belong to one-hour mode current to or even lower, there is a significant drop in efficiency. For example, one-hour discharge mode, discharge current is about 3,7 times higher than the five-hour, and a level of efficiency is 0,65. In discharge mode for 0,5 h, discharge current is about 5,5 times higher and the efficiency is only 0,45. In the tested vehicle we had a 45-minute discharge mode in which the utilization rate of 0,56, so that the primary energy from the power grid consumes an additional 30.7%. Practically, this much power is necessary to drive electric cars and overcoming all resistance to traction.
Assembly drive motor and voltage regulator exceeds the value of the degree of utilization of 94% with the direction of growth, regardless of whether the DC or AC powered. For these components not more than 7% is loss of electricity drawn from the power grid. Transmission along with the transmission gear has high efficiency of about 96%, so that the components of the electric drive consumes only 1,5% of primary energy.
Taking into account all the losses in transport of the electricity from the power grid to power the drive wheels of the vehicle may be test requirements for electric vehicles Yugo – E, in  obtain overall efficiency:
The efficiency of primary energy is much better than machines with conventional drive. Useful power is consumed in four parts and to overcoming of resistance: frictional, wind (aerodynamic), climb and acceleration. Computer data indicates that at a constant speed on flat road of 60 km/h, about 60% of output used for overcoming the friction force, and about 40% to overcoming aerodynamic drag (Figure 18).
In order to analyze the total energy efficiency level of the energy source to the wheels of the vehicle, it is necessary to bear in mind the following:
The efficiency of exploitation from the mine of natural fuels (fossil fuel or nuclear energy),
Electricity production and
The network transport.
Efficiency of electricity production can vary widely. According to European measurements, ranges from 39% for plants with coal production to 44% for power plants with natural gas, or the average value of 42%. Combined cycle power plant with natural gas can reach the level of efficiency over 58%. If we multiplied the average value of 42% by the transfer efficiency of 92%, the sources of efficiency of the reservoir of 38% is obtained. Battery charger recharges the battery, and transmission losses in the electric motor give the utility of the reservoir of energy to the wheels of 65–80%. Thus the total utility from the source to the wheels is from 25 to 30%.
Exploitation of natural fuel and transport network are dependent of the type of energy but have an average efficiency of about 92%. Together with the losses in transport and processing of getting the total level of efficiency from source to reservoir of about 83%. But the internal combustion engine is only 15–20% of energy into useful work. Thus the total utility of the source to the wheels is 12 to 17%.
Energy efficiency is extremely important information on the consumption of electricity from power grid to travel kilometer of the road. It is obtained as the ratio of distance traveled per unit of electricity consumed. Measurements have been made in Serbia, in [60, 62]. Driving a constant speed along a straight road in the hilly city driving. The results showed that the energy efficiency of a flat open road is about 5,1 km/kWh, while in the hilly city driving about 4,5 miles/kWh. The specific energy consumed, defined as the ratio of electrical energy from the power grid per unit distance traveled, or as the reciprocal of the energy economy, is on a flat open road below 0,2 km/kWh in the hilly city driving around 0,22 km/kWh (Table 5).
|From source to reservoir||83%||38%|
|From the reservoir of energy to the wheels||15–20%||65–80%|
|Total: From the source to the wheels||12–17%||25–30%|
Development and implementation of future EV largely depend on the technical characteristics of the components of the drive. It is difficult to change established habits of drivers in the world, with the expectation from a motor vehicle to transport them quickly from one location to another. The main disadvantage of EV is in the battery pack and that they still cannot accumulate more than 200 Wh/kg energy. If compared to liquid fuels about 12.000 Wh/kg, this very fact means that the tank cars with conventional internal combustion engine, which weighs about 40 kg can store approximately 480 kWh of energy in modern Li ion battery heavy around 300 kg only about 60 kWh electricity.
Promising system Li-air batteries with 1.700 Wh/kg will be able to fully provide the comparative characteristics of the EV and to thereby make the transition to a completely pure EV.
It is interesting to note that the investigation of an aluminum-air battery has started several decades ago because of the high energy potential, because of the opportunities for quick replacement of worn out mechanical anode and the economy, in . It was worked on the development of aluminum-air battery with the anode of aluminum which is alloyed with small amounts of alloying components and a neutral aqueous solution of sodium chloride NaCl as the electrolyte in . The prototype battery achieved 34/39 W/kg specific power and specific energy of 170–190 Wh/kg, the optimal current density between 50 and 100 mA/cm2, which at the present level of development of chemical power sources is a battery of exceptional quality. The lack of battery life is relatively high cost of components which are used for alloying aluminum anode.
The energy density of gasoline is 13.000 Wh/kg, which is shown as “a theoretical energy density” (Figure 19). The average utilization rate of passenger cars with IC engine, from the fuel tank to the wheels, is about 13% in US, so that “useful energy density” of gasoline for vehicles use is around 1.700 Wh/kg. It is shown as “practical” energy density of gasoline. The efficiency of autonomous electric propulsion system (battery-wheels) is about 85%. Significantly improvement of current Li-ion energy density of batteries is about 10 times, which today is between 100 and 200 Wh/kg (at the cellular level), could make that electric propulsion system be equated with a gasoline powered, at least, to specific useful energy. However, there is no expectation that the existing batteries, as Li-ion, have ever come close to the target of 1,700 Wh/kg .
Oxidation of 1 kg of lithium metal, releases about 11.680 Wh/kg, which is slightly lower than gasoline. This is shown as a theoretical energy density of lithium-air batteries. However, it is expected that the real energy density of Li-ion batteries will be much smaller.
The existing metal-air batteries, such as Zn-air, usually have a practical energy density of about 40–50% of its theoretical energy density. However, it is safe to assume, that even fully developed Li-air cells will not achieve such a great relationship, because lithium is very lightweight, and therefore, the mass of the battery casing and electrolytes will have a much bigger impact.
Oxidation of 1 kg of lithium metal, releases about 11,680 Wh/kg, which is slightly lower than gasoline. This is shown as a theoretical energy density of lithium-air batteries. However, it is expected that the real energy density of Li-ion batteries will be much smaller.
Fortunately, the energy density of 1700 Wh/kg for a fully charged battery pack fits only 14.5% of the theoretical energy content of lithium metal. It is realistic to expect, achieve mint of such energy density, at the cellular level, considering the intense and long team’s development in . Energy density of complete batteries is only a half of density, realized at the cellular level.
It is interesting to mention, that the significant results in development this type of battery are achieved in the laboratories of the Institute of Electrochemistry ICTM and the Institute of Technical Sciences SASA, where they were working on development of aluminum-air battery with the aluminum anode alloyed with small amounts of alloying components and the neutral aqueous solution NaCl, as the electrolyte in . The prototype of such batteries, had achieved a power density of 34/39 W/kg, and energy density of 170–190 Wh/kg, by optimal current density between 50 and 100 mA/cm2.
Accommodation of batteries as a power source, for vehicles with electric drive, is a big problem also depending on technological solution of batteries. As it can be seen, in Table 6 in , lead-acid batteries have a low energy, per unit mass and volume and a relatively small number of charge cycles. In contrast, modern Li-ion batteries and NaNiCl, have significant energy capacity, with a larger number of charges and are of a stable voltage. However, the latter ones are sensitive to warming and may have an energy loss up to 7,2%.
|Battery types||Energy density (Wh/kg/Wh/litar)||Specific power (W/kg)||Number of rechar. Cycles||Energy efficiency||Self disch. For 24 hours||Duration (years)||Price (US$/kWh)|
|Li-ion||125/270||1800||1.000||90,0%||1%||5–10||> > 1000|
Battery duration should be, always, taken into account, when their price is consideration. The duration depends on several factors, such as how often the vehicle is in use and how many times the batteries have been filled up. In Table 6, there are data on duration expectancy of certain batteries types and price per unit of energy .
It can be concluded that the future and the past belong to the EV. Nevertheless, new sources of liquid fuels are still to be found, their exploitation is more expensive and there is less of it in the world. In addition, it is necessary to preserve oil as a resource to other industry where you cannot find an alternative. On the other hand, electricity is usually sufficient. If in the meantime renewable energy booms, the possibility of its cheap production will open. This means that, in addition to the environmental, economic and conditions for wider use of electric vehicles will gain.
Almost all the problems related to the production of EV technology are sufficiently well resolved, with high efficiency. The biggest problem is the electrical energy storage. Fuel cells, electrochemical sources, supercapacitors, or new sources that could be made sufficiently compact and inexpensive, would allow in the near future, the transition from vehicles that use liquid fuels to electric vehicles .
It is likely that the transition from internal combustion vehicles to EV will not be quick. Still these ones are inferior and cannot meet potential customers in all circumstances. Battery development has made great progress but still not enough.
In addition, if the battery problem will be solved, there are still many problems that need to be better addressed. Some of these problems will resolve themselves, as prices fall with the increased production, but others, supporting the introduction of new vehicle traffic will be much harder to resolve spontaneously.
So far EV‘s are more expensive than existing and have certain restrictions of applications you still cannot replace the existing vehicles of most vehicle owners in the world. In order to create habits of the driver for the purchase and use of EV, economically strong countries are introducing incentive funds for the EV and HV, which gives definite results. First, there are certain financial incentives for the purchase of the vehicle. In addition, the purchase of EV are not paying taxes, in the cities parking is free for them, vehicles do not pay a toll and in the cities they can move in traffic bands reserved for public transport vehicles. The most important thing is to develop a refilling station for batteries which often offer free recharge EV. EV should not be that expensive investment, especially in large-scale production. So far, the most expensive and also less than perfect for use in EV its battery. Therefore, the most intensive scientific research carried out exactly in this area.
In a situation of permanent oil price increases and increased air pollution, especially in cities, two solutions to the problem occurred.
In accordance with the statements of U.S. President, U.S. moved in the direction of energy efficiency and savings in transportation of petroleum products. This means that it is headed in the direction of HV use with the aim to reduce consumption of the average U.S. vehicle to 6,62 l/100 km. Although the U.S. made the extremely popular EV Tesla Roadster, more U.S. government supports all major car manufacturers to start producing HV.
At the same time as the major importers of oil turned to the study and making Plug in EV or pure EV. First who did it is Germany ahead of the EU, but also China and other countries.
This work was financially supported by the Ministry of Education and Science Republic of Serbia through projects TR 35041, TR 35042 and TR 35036.
© 2012 The Author(s). Licensee IntechOpen. This chapter is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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