Pathogen prevalence in Bovine Milk from some productive regions
Bovine mastitis is the most prevalent and costly disease, affecting dairy farms worldwide. Economic losses associated with mastitis derive mainly from a decrease in milk production and to a lesser extent, from the culling of chronically infected cows, cost of veterinary treatment, and penalties on milk quality (Seegers et al., 2003). Mastitis is caused by a wide spectrum of pathogenic agents that penetrate the teat canal and multiply in the udder cistern. The majority of mastitis cases are produced by a relatively small group of bacteria, including
2. Mastitis pathogens agents
Mycoplasmosis is frequently related to the mastitis outbreak onsets, to the introduction of new animals to a herd, to previous respiratory or articular disease, and to herds with unresponsive mastitis to antibiotic treatment. When at least the recurrent mastitis, a non-signs illness and an unresponsive treatment are observed, a mycoplasma infection is suspected.
Mycoplasma infection prevalence at the herd-level is estimated by
The most commonly isolated species of CNS from bovine mastitis are
The prevalence of IMI with CNS has been increasing in North America, Europe and Latin America (Calvinho
|Hungria||32.5%||-||-||12.8%||41%||6.8%||Jánosil & Baltay, 2004|
|Pennsylvania, USA||150 000 to 700 000 cells/ml||Erskine R.J. |
|Hungary||400 000 cells/ml||Jánosi & Baltay, 2004|
|Mexico||465 000 cells/ml||Miranda-Morales RE |
|Netherlands||109,000 cells/ml||Sampimon |
|Wisconsin, EEUU||600,000 cells/ml||190,000 to 519,000 cells/ml||Pantoja, 2009|
|Germany||"/>100 000 cells /ml||Schwarz D, |
Environmental mastitis pathogens
The environmental pathogens, by themselves, are not enough frequent and persistent to cause mastitis or as a significant elevation of somatic cells counts (SCC) of bulk milk (values over 400,000 cells/ml). However, 66% of mastitis caused by environmental
3. Somatic cell counts (SCC)
Throughout the world in the last ten years, udder health programs have been increasing (Godkin et al., 1999; Østerås et al., 1998; Plym 1996a; Plym et
Somatic cells are, in great quantity, cells of the immune system (80% in uninfected quarters, and 99% in quarters with mastitis) (Sordillo et al., 1997). They are part of the natural defense mechanisms, including lymphocytes, macrophages, polymorphonuclear and some epithelial cells (Pillai et al., 2001). Somatic cells are therefore a reflection of the inflammatory response to an IMI. Somatic cell counts are often used to distinguish between infected and uninfected quarters according to the general agreement between infection status and the inflammatory response to infection reflected as an increased SCC. As with any diagnostic test, errors will occur when solely depending on a single test. To minimize error, diagnostic test parameters such as sensitivity & specificity are calculated at various cut-off values in the continuum SCC (Schepers et al., 1997). In North America and Europe the SCC for an uninfected quarter is approximately 70, 000 cells. There is of course variation around this mean; its value can increase with age, decreasing milk production and days in milk period (Schepers et al., 1997). Hence, to be able to distinguish between infected and uninfected quarters a cut-off of approximately 200, 000 to 250, 000 cells is accepted (Dohoo et al., 1991; Laevens et al., 1997; Leslie
4. Bulk tank milk (BTM) SCC
BTM SCC is a general indicator of the udder health in a herd and it is also regarded as an indirect measure of milk quality (Schukken et al. 2003). Elevated SCC, are correlated with changes in milk composition, casein and more serum-derived whey proteins, as well as increased proteolytic and lipolytic activities (Auldist & Hubble, 1998). SCC may, however, vary greatly depending on factors such as number of lactations, stage of lactation, season and milking frequency (Harmon, 1994; Pyörälä, 2003). In BTM, where the total volume of milk will dilute effects from affected quarters, SCC appears to be less sensitive and specific as a biomarker for milk quality, e.g. suitability for cheese production (Leitner et al., 2006).
Bulk tank milk SCC assist in directing milk quality control programs and assist with the identification of risk factors in herds. The production of milk with low bacterial counts starts at the farm and is influenced by many procedures related to farm management practices. At the farm level, microbial contamination of BTM occurs through three main sources; bacterial contamination from the external surface of the udder and teats, from the surface of the milking equipment, and from mastitis organisms within the udder (Murphy & Boor, 2000). The levels and types of microorganisms in BTM provide valuable information on the hygienic conditions during the steps of milk production. The microbiological count methods are used to monitor hygienic quality of raw milk including the total aerobic count (TAC). TAC is the most common method for the assessment of bacterial quality of raw milk, it estimates the total number of bacteria present at the farm´s pickup time, providing an overall hygienic milk-quality measure; however, it is limited for the identification of the bacteria contamination source. An alternative has been the standard plate count (SPC) and the preliminary incubation count (PIC), a selective count is measuring psychotropic bacteria, which will grow and multiply under improper refrigeration conditions. These organisms can create undesirable odors and off-flavors. Many psychotropic bacteria can also produce heat-stable enzymes that will survive pasteurization degrading and reducing milk and milk products during shelf-life (Hayes & Boor, 2001). The laboratory pasteurization count (LPC), another selective count, estimates the number of thermoduric bacteria, mainly from the surfaces of poorly cleaned farm equipment that will survive a laboratory-scale batch pasteurization process. Thermoduric bacteria have been associated with spoilage of pasteurized milk. The Coliform count (CC) measures the number of coliform bacteria in milk, organisms primarily coming from the cow’s environment, therefore high CC will give an estimation of the production sanitary status and practices. Coliforms can also incubate on residual films of improperly cleaned milking equipment (Reinemann et al., 2003).
The results from a case–control study indicated that TAC and PIC were mostly related to cow and stall hygiene, whereas LPC and CC were related to equipment hygiene (Elmoslemany et al., 2009; Jayarao et al., 2004), and included among the bacteria groups associated with bovine IMI are
5. Prevalence of mastitis pathogens and somatic cell counts
In Mexico, the prevalence of mastitis pathogens in BTM SCC from 224 milk samples of 112 herds was as follows;
In Latin America, few data had been carried out regarding microorganism’s prevalence and SCC in cases of clinical and subclinical mastitis. Nonetheless, regarding bovine mastitis, Calvinho et al, (2005) assessed the primary pathogens prevalence, and its relation with the general udder health status in Argentina from 1983 to 2001. The subclinical mastitis showed a prevalence of 25.3% of
In Mexico, Infante,
Overall, prevalence of mastitis is over 10%, in samples of direct milk
|Seattle, USA||93||533 000 cells/ml||Fox L.K. |
|Argentina||7358||384 000 cells/ml||SAGPyA, 2005|
|Peru||15||500 000 cells/ml||Ortiz Z.C. |
|Argentina||51||250 000 cells/ml||Vissio, C., |
|Mexico||112||465 000 cells/ml||Miranda-Morales R.E., |
|Reference||No. of Dairy herds||No. of|
|Zurita., ||1 137||48,81%|
|Moragay., ||30||2 321||41,10%|
|Sampimon., ||49||1 960||10,8%|
|Castillo., ||2 116||72,61%|
|Reference||Dairy herds studied|
|Riekerink., ||258||74 %||1.6 %||1.9%|
|Richard & Riekerink., ||226||74%||4%||-|
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