Parameter values used to obtain Figure 4.
We investigate resonant interactions in a specific electrical lattice that supports left-handed (LH) waves. The impact of LH waves on the three-wave mixing process, which is the most fundamental resonant interaction, is illustrated. In contrast to the ordinary right-handed (RH) waves, the phase of the LH wave moves to the different direction from its power. This exotic property together with the lattice’s dispersive features results in the resonant phenomena that are effectively utilized for practical electrical engineering, including the significant harmonic wave generation via head-on collisions, harmonic resonance, and short pulse generation driven by soliton decay. These resonances are quantified by the asymptotic expansion and characterized by numerical and/or experimental methods, together with several design criteria for their practical utilization. To cope with dissipation, a field-effect transistor (FET) is introduced in each cell. In particular, we characterize the stationary pulse resulting from the balance between dissipation and FET gain.
- three-wave mixing
- soliton decay
- harmonic resonance
- electrical lattices
- composite right- and left-handed transmission lines
- traveling-wave field-effect transistors
- coherent structures
Resonances have been utilized as the powerful tool to achieve harmonic wave generation in electrical engineering. This chapter introduces left-handedness to the interacting waves and discusses its impact in that field. In ordinary, that is, right-handed (RH) media, the wave vector directs to the same direction as the Poynting vector, so that the phase and power move to a common direction. In left-handed (LH) media, the situation is reversed.
To achieve strong resonant interactions, frequencies and wave numbers must be preserved. For example, when a wave of frequency ω1 and wave number k1 interacts with one of ω3 and k3, a significant third wave of ω2 and k2 will be generated if the conditions ω1 + ω3 = ω2 and k1 + k3 = k2 are satisfied. The sum of the wavenumber decreases for the head-on collision, because the wave vector of the left-moving wave has the opposite sign as that of the right-moving one. In contrast, the sum frequency increases. The phase and power are transferred with the phase and group velocities, respectively. In addition, the group velocity is given by the slope of the dispersion curve, so that the frequency increases at least locally as the wavenumber decreases in LH media, so that they can satisfy the resonant conditions for head-on colliding waves.
To investigate resonances involving LH waves, we introduce nonlinearity to composite right- and left-handed (CRLH) transmission lines. CRLH transmission lines have been investigated in electrical engineering community as the practical and broadband platform to support LH waves [1–4]. The line has noteworthy dispersive property that the propagating wave exhibits LH (RH) properties when its carrier frequency is greater (less) than the line’s characteristic frequencies. Furthermore, several activities have clarified the wave dynamics in CRLH lines with nonlinearity introduced by voltage-controlled devices [5–13]. In our case, the shunt capacitor each cell of a CRLH line contains is replaced with the Schottky varactor [10, 14]. The three-wave resonant interaction (3WRI) equations have been derived from the transmission equations of that nonlinear CRLH line via the derivative expansion method and is used to characterize the head-on collision of LH waves.
Even when ω1 = ω3 and k1 = k3, the significant energy is transferred from the fundamental to the second harmonic when the conditions ω2 = 2ω1 and k2 = 2k1 are satisfied. This process, termed harmonic resonance, is a special case of the three-wave resonant interaction, resulting from resonance of two identical waves. The dispersion of a nonlinear CRLH line can cause harmonic resonance for the LH fundamental and RH second harmonic waves. The phase of the LH fundamental wave advances toward the input end. Accordingly, that of the second harmonic wave should also move to the input. Because the fundamental wave increases to that direction, the harmonic resonance generates the second harmonic wave more when it travels longer. The generation efficiency of the second harmonic waves becomes enhanced through this behavior via supplemental cavity resonance. It should be noted that the fundamental wave is spontaneously converted into its second harmonic one without the aid of pump waves.
Similar spontaneous resonant interaction is expected in nonlinear CRLH lines. The soliton decay is realized for three waves having different group velocities. It requires the situation where the wave having the middle group velocity is incident to the line. Then, a soliton contained in the incident wave decays into the fast and slow solitons spontaneously. Inevitably, the slow soliton(s) occupies the LH branch for the nonlinear CRLH line; therefore, it starts to travel to the opposite direction to the incident and fast solitons, leading to the shortening of the fast soliton. By solving the eigenvalue problem of the Zakharov-Shabat (ZS) equation relating with the 3WRI equation, it is found that the fast soliton can become shorter for longer incident wave. Through these observations, we can utilize the soliton decay in the nonlinear CRLH line for generating broadband envelope pulses.
The use of nonlinear CRLH lines is sometimes limited because of wave attenuation caused by finite electrode resistance and substrate current leakage. In order to achieve loss compensation, a traveling-wave field-effect transistor (TWFET) is considered . For the voltage waves traveling over FET electrodes, two CRLH lattices are required, which are, respectively, loaded with the gate and drain in each cell. The unit-cell FET can be biased via the LH inductors. In addition, the inter-cell direct current flow is cut off by the LH capacitors. The device introduces LC resonant pairs in each cell, which can operate as nonlinear oscillators with the aid of FET gain; therefore, the device can be considered as a kind of spatially extended oscillator systems. Hereafter, we call the device as the CRLH-TWFET. In the case of supercritical Andronov-Hopf bifurcation, the oscillation amplitude gradually increases when the bifurcation parameter passes a critical value. Then, the relaxation time needed to initiate autonomous oscillation becomes sufficiently large; therefore, it succeeds in effectively suppressing autonomous oscillation to guarantee the loss-compensated propagation of LH pulse waves. On the other hand, the amplitude grows to become discontinuously finite in subcritical cases, where the system affords the coexistence of an oscillatory region with a nonoscillatory region in addition to the homogeneous oscillatory state . The resulting coherent structures function as the building blocks of the spatiotemporal patterns appearing in the system. When both boundaries at the ends of the oscillatory region preserve their relative positions, the oscillatory region preserving this envelope is called a pulse. Possibly, the boundary velocity vanishes, so that the pulse becomes localized and stationary [17, 18]. From the scientific viewpoint, a convenient electronic system to support such solitary waves is valuable for clarifying their interacting dynamics using either numerical or experimental method.
After describing the structure and dispersive properties of the nonlinear CRLH line, the head-on collision of envelope pulses is characterized numerically on that line to illustrate significant generation of harmonic waves through resonances. Next, the process is quantified by the 3WRI equations derived by applying the derivative expansion method to the transmission equations of a nonlinear CRLH line. Subsequently, two spontaneous resonant interactions: harmonic resonance and soliton decay are characterized, where the same 3WRI equations are used to model the wave dynamics. Finally, the development of a stationary pulse in a CRLH-TWFET is discussed.
2. Fundamental properties of nonlinear CRLH TLs
Because the nonlinear electrical lattice we investigate is based on CRLH lines, we first describe their fundamental properties. The unit-cell structure is shown at the top of Figure 1(a), where CR, LR, CL, and LL represent the shunt capacitor, series inductor, series capacitor, and shunt inductor, respectively. It is shown that two different frequencies are allowed to be supported on the line for a wavenumber k. As shown below, the high frequency mode exhibits a RH property and the low frequency one becomes left-handed; therefore, we denote the dispersion relationships of the two as ω = ωRH,LH(k) (ωRH is for the RH and ωLH for LH). Under the sixth order long wavelength approximation, these two are explicitly given by
where ωx(k) is defined as
Furthermore, Vg(k) represents the group velocity of the line explicitly given by
where ω = ωLH(k) for the LH branch and ω = ωRH(k) for the RH branch. Typical behavior of ω(k) is shown in Figure 1(b). There are two essential frequencies that characterize the lines’ dispersive nature ωse and ωsh defined by and, respectively. It is found that the line exhibits a LH property at frequencies lower than ωl ≡ min(ωse, ωsh) and an ordinary RH property at frequencies higher than ωu ≡ max(ωse, ωsh). When ωse = ωsh, the LH branch is continuously connected with the RH one, and the line is called balanced. On the other hand, when ωse is not coincident with ωsh, a stop band, where all supporting modes become evanescent, appears between ωl and ωu, and the line is called unbalanced. One of the noteworthy properties of LH waves is that the wavelength becomes longer as the frequency increases at least locally. In addition, the envelop wave (accordingly, the power) moves to the different direction from its carrier wave, because Vg(k) has the opposite sign to the phase velocity.
To introduce nonlinearity, we employ the Schottky varactor in place of CR as shown at the bottom of Figure 1(a). The Schottky varactor is a special type of a diode, whose capacitance is varied by the terminal voltage that biases reversely. In general, its capacitance voltage relationship is modeled as
where C0, VJ, and m are the zero-bias junction capacitance, junction potential, and grading coefficient, respectively. In addition, the cathode of the Schottky varactor is biased at V0. Using this representation, the transmission equations are given by
where In and Vn are the current and voltage at the nth cell, respectively.
3. Head-on collision of LH waves
It is well known that the efficiency of resonant interactions between two waves is maximized, when the phase-matching condition: k2 = m1 k1 + m3 k3, ω2 = m1ω1 + m3ω3, where k1,3 and ω1,3 represent the wavenumbers and angular frequencies of interacting waves, and k2 and ω2 represents those of the wave generated by the interaction. Moreover, m1,3 are integers that are specified by the order of the generated harmonics. When the incident pulses have a common carrier frequency and are traveling in opposite directions, it results in the condition k1 = −k3. Hence, the maximal second harmonic generation can be observed when k2 = 0. Similarly, for the third harmonic generation, k2 has to be close to k1. For RH waves, the higher the frequency, the shorter the wavelength; therefore, it is impossible to satisfy this condition. On the other hand, when the carrier frequencies of the interacting waves are both set to ω l/2, any CRLH lines can generate second harmonic waves effectively via head-on collisions because the second harmonic frequency ω l corresponds to zero wavenumber. Figure 2 shows the head-on collision of envelop pulses whose carrier frequencies correspond to ω l/2 (=1.6 GHz). To obtain Figure 2, we set C0, CL, LR, and LL to 1.0 pF, 1.0 pF, 2.5 nH, and 2.5 nH, respectively, so that the line becomes balanced with ω u = ω l = 3.2 GHz. In Figure 2(a), the dispersion curve is shown, where P1, P2, P3, and P4 represent the positions on the dispersive curve the fundamental, second, third, and fourth harmonic waves occupy, respectively. Note that the wavenumber at P2 is equal to zero, and either P3 or P4 exhibits coincident wavenumber with that of P1. Figure 2(b) shows the calculated waveforms, where six spatial waveforms are recorded in 60-ns increments. Long wavelength envelope pulses result from the head-on collision as indicated by red circles. Another example is shown in Figure 3. The carrier frequency of the colliding pulses is set to 1.9 GHz, such that the wavenumber of the second harmonic becomes nonzero, and the wavenumber of the third harmonic becomes close to that of the fundamental wave; therefore, the resonance conditions can be satisfied for (m1, m3) = (1, 2) and/or (2, 1). As expected, we can see that the wavelengths of the collision-induced pulses are comparable to that of the incident ones in Figure 3(b). Actually, the spectral peak of the collision-induced pulses is located at 5.6 GHz, being close to the third harmonic. Note that P3 occupies the RH branch, so that the LH waves are converted into the RH ones through resonances.
The resonance is briefly discussed for the two colliding pulses having different carrier frequencies . Let the carrier frequency of the left (right)-moving pulse denote as ω1(2). Then, we set ω1 slightly higher than ωl/2, while ω2 is fixed at ωl/2. The resulting amplitude of the wavenumber of the right-moving pulse surpasses that of the left-moving one. Both of incident pulses exhibit left-handedness; therefore, the wave vector directs to the left for the second harmonic wave. Because the second harmonic wave is carried by the RH mode, the collision-induced envelope pulse moves to the left. Similarly, only the right-moving envelope pulse develops, if ω2 is set slightly higher than ωl/2, while ω1 is fixed at ωl/2. These expectations were validated experimentally using bread-boarded test circuit .
In the next section, the evolution equations of the envelope functions of the incident and collision-induced pulses are obtained by the application of the derivative expansion method to the transmission equation of a nonlinear CRLH line . In particular, the generation efficiency of the second-harmonic wave is formulated for the case when the left- and right-moving pulses have a common frequency and wavelength.
4. Three-wave mixing of LH waves
In the present study, we consider the case where the pulse spreads over many cells, and the lattice is regarded as being homogeneous, such that the discrete spatial coordinate n can be replaced by a continuous one x. Then, by series-expanding Eqs. (6) and (7), the evolution equation of the continuous counterpart of the line voltage ψ = ψ(x, t) is given by
where CR = C(ψ − V0). To quantify the resonant nonlinear processes in a nonlinear CRLH line, we apply the derivative expansion method  to that evolution equation. It leads to the evolution equations of envelop functions of the involved waves. We first expand the spatial and temporal derivatives as
for ε << 1. For describing the three-wave mixing process of two waves having a wave number of k1 and k3, then the wave number of the resulting wave k2 satisfies the condition k2 = k1 + k3. As mentioned above, for efficient three-wave mixing, the frequencies must satisfy the resonant condition, that is, ω(k2) = ω(k1) + ω(k3). The voltage variable is then assumed to have a form of
where ωj ≡ ω(kj) and Ai denotes the envelope function of variables x1, x2,… and t1, t2,… Substituting Eq. (11) into Eq. (8), the terms proportional to ei(kjx0 − ωjt0) (j = 1, 2, 3) of each order of ε are collected to be vanished. From O(ε2) terms, the evolution equations of envelope functions are governed by the 3WRI equations given by
where j = 1, 2, 3, mod 3, and the coupling coefficients are given by
whose denominator becomes zero only at so that G2 does not exhibit any diverging behavior for frequencies in either the RH or LH branches. In particular, the head-on collision of two envelope pulses having common wavenumber, there are two cases ω2 = ωLH(0),
For ω2 = ωRH(0)
In summary, the value of G2 becomes finite only when the second harmonic frequency is matched to ωsh. In contrast, for a balanced CRLH line,
Based on this G2 property, a scheme can be proposed for converting the carrier frequency of the incident pulsed wave into its second-harmonic wave without deteriorating pulse duration. Figure 4(a) shows the circuit configuration of the generator creating the pulsed second harmonic waves. The nonlinear CRLH line is divided into two segments. The first and second segments are represented by black and grey elements, respectively. The line parameter values used in the present demonstration are listed in Table 1. The biasing voltage to shunt varactors is the unique difference between the segments, which are labeled as V0 and V1 for the first and second segments, respectively. Increasing V0 decreases the capacitance of the Schottky varactors and then increases ωsh. The first segment is then arranged for V0 to be sufficiently large to satisfy the condition ωsh > ωse. An envelope pulse, whose carrier frequency fin is half as high as ωsh/2Π, is then inputted to the first segment. In contrast, V1 is set to be small in order to lower ωsh such that the stop band includes fin. The typical dispersion that the segments must have is shown in Figure 4(b). Here, V0 and V1 are set to 2.7 and 0.2 V, respectively. The left- and right-side dispersion curves are for the first and second segments, respectively. The incident pulse cannot be transmitted into the second segment because f1 is designed to be in the stop band. It is then reflected at the interface. The reflected pulse interacts with the incident pulse in the same manner as the oppositely traveling pulse. The condition ωsh > ωse guarantees that G1 becomes finite. Consequently, the second-harmonic wave develops in the first segment at the vicinity of the segments interface. Because the group velocity at ωRH(0) is zero in the first segment, the second-harmonic wave remains around the interface. This stationary oscillation is partially transmitted into the second segment, resulting in the pulsed second harmonic wave moving to the right on the second segment. The second harmonic pulse is uniquely obtained at the end of the second segment. Figure 4(c) shows the numerically obtained evolution of a single soliton having a carrier frequency of fin. Five spatial waveforms recorded at 45 ns intervals are plotted. We can observe that the right-moving incident pulsed wave is reflected at interface P, and a small envelope pulse is transmitted into the second segment. The transmitted pulse has only one-fifth the amplitude of the incident pulse; however, it preserves pulse shape and successfully doubles its carrier frequency.
|LR (nH)||2.8||CL (pF)||1.0||LL (nH)||2.5|
|C0 (pF)||1.0||VJ (V)||2.0||m||2.0|
5. Harmonic resonance
In this section, we investigate harmonic resonance in a nonlinear CRLH line . As discussed in Section 1, the harmonic resonance becomes significant when the phase velocities of the fundamental and second harmonic waves are coincident. Figure 5(a) shows the typical dispersion of a CRLH line, where LR, LL, CL, and C0 are set to 2.5 nH, 2.5 nH, 1.0 pF, and 0.6 pF, respectively. For convenience, we also define α ≡ CLLR/C0LL. Notice that the line is balanced when α = 1.0. Two points P1 and P2 in Figure 5(a) correspond to the fundamental and second harmonic waves, respectively, for significant harmonic resonance. Both points are placed on a common line passing through the origin, so that the second harmonic wave has the same phase velocity as the fundamental. With kf and ωf as the wave number and angular frequency of the fundamental wave, harmonic resonance becomes eminent when the second harmonic wave satisfies the two conditions ks = 2kf and ωs = 2ωf, where ks and ωs represent the wave number and angular frequency of the second harmonic wave, respectively. The second harmonic wave must occupy the RH branch. Thus, the latter condition is more precisely written as ωRH(2kf) =2 ωLH(kf). Note that both P1 and P2 exhibit relatively small wave numbers; the second-order long-wavelength approximation suffices to describe the processes involved; therefore, the equation ωRH(2kf) = 2 ωLH(kf) is explicitly solved for kf to give
Note that α must be in (1/4, 4) for the real kf. The fundamental and second harmonic waves are then shown to have the characteristic impedance and , respectively. Note that Zf = Zs at α = 1.0. According to the derivative expansion method mentioned above, the 3WRI equations that describe the fundamental and second harmonic envelope functions are described as
where vgf and vgs are the group velocities of the fundamental and second harmonic waves, respectively, explicitly given by
Note that vgf becomes negative because the fundamental wave is left-handed. The strength of harmonic resonance is determined by the coupling coefficients ρf , s. Because of the term , the fundamental wave is spontaneously converted into the second harmonic. Ordinarily, the product ρf ρs is negative, so that the increase of As results in the reduction of Af. This negative feedback stabilizes both waves. On the other hand, the coupling coefficients are presently given by
Both ρf and ρs are then shown to be positive for α ∈ (1/4, 4), such that the developing As enhances Af. The second harmonic envelope wave travels backward because the phase of the fundamental wave travels in the opposite direction to its envelope. This means that the amplitude of both the fundamental and second harmonic waves increases as the phase advances. Figure 5(b) demonstrates the principle of operation, where the numerically obtained steady-state profile of the voltage envelopes of the fundamental and second harmonic waves. The cell number is set to 2000. In addition, the input and output impedances are set to the characteristic impedances of the second harmonic and fundamental waves, respectively. The second harmonic wave generated by the harmonic resonance should travel to the input end. The reflection of the second harmonic wave at the input end was suppressed via the matched impedance, so the effect of the fundamental’s left-handedness on the profile of the second harmonic could be seen. Small line resistors were used to suppress multiple reflections. In addition, α and λf were set to 1.5 and 20 cells, respectively. We applied a 0.5-V sinusoidal voltage at the left end (ff = 1.0 GHz). Through Fourier transformation, filtering, and inverse transformation the calculated spatial voltages are separated into each wave component. The second harmonic wave was superposed in-phase and gained amplitude in the direction to the input end, as clearly shown in Figure 5(b).
By setting f0 and Zin to ff and Zf, respectively, we achieve effective second harmonic generation. By the matched impedances, the fundamental waves can travel along the line without reflections at the ends. On the other hand, the second harmonic wave begins to travel to the input (left) end and is reflected significantly in a line that satisfies the condition Zs >> Zf. The load impedance also differs from Zs, such that the second harmonic wave exhibits multiple reflections. Hence, the second harmonic wave becomes resonant in cavity when the cell size of the line is an integer multiple of λf/2, as illustrated in Figure 6. This cavity resonance makes the nonlinear CRLH line become an effective platform for second harmonic wave generation together with the above-mentioned positive feedback.
6. Soliton decay
To describe the soliton decay in a nonlinear CRLH line, we again consider the 3WRI equations of a nonlinear CRLH line. By introducing , Eq. (12) is transformed into the standard 3WRI equation, that is,
where γ1,3 = 1 and γ2 = −1. In what follows, an envelope having a carrier frequency of ωj is called ωj-envelope for brevity. When a ω2-envelope is uniquely applied to the line and the group velocities satisfy Vg(k1) < Vg(k2) < Vg(k3), its evolution is predicted by solving the eigenvalue problem of the following ZS equation in the framework of the inverse scattering transform:
for the spatial waveform of the incident ω2-envelope. The stability of the ω1- or ω3-envelope solitons is shown to be secured, that is, the original envelopes never lose the solitons, while the ω2-envelope solitons are always unstable, which decay into both the slow and fast envelope ones. The latter phenomenon is called soliton decay. When evolves into N solitons, the ZS equation must have N pure imaginary eigenvalues in the upper half plane, whose norms are inversely proportional to the spatial width of the corresponding soliton. Let be such eigenvalues of Eqs. (26) and (27). Then, it is shown that
where defines the eigenvalue corresponding to the soliton in the ωj-envelope resulting from the decay of the soliton in the ω2-envelope corresponding to . For example, the line can be designed to exhibit dispersive property shown in Figure 7, where the incident envelope occupies the region in the neighborhood of P2. Then, due to the resonant conditions, ω1,3-envelope is shown to be around P1,3 uniquely. Notice that group velocities satisfy Vg(k1) < Vg(k2) < Vg(k3) and P1 is on the LH branch. Due to the negative Vg(k1), takes a small value, while becomes rather large. As a result, the solitons in ω1-envelope start to travel backward with a relatively wide width. Conversely, the ω3-solitons become short.
We validate the analysis with the numerical integration of Eqs. (6) and (7). The line is designed to be balanced by setting CL, LL, C0, and LR to 1.0 pF, 2.5 nH, 1.69 CL, and 1.69 LL, respectively. In addition, m, VJ, V0, and ω2 are set to 2.0, 2.0 V, 1.0 V, 4.54 GHz, respectively. Figure 8(a) shows calculated waveforms on the line, where five spatial waveforms recorded at 250-ns increments are plotted. A 0.25 V hyperbolic secant envelope with 3.5-ns duration is applied at the left end. The incident ω2-envelope decays into a unique pair of the fast and slow solitons, which are labeled at the fourth waveform as A and A′, respectively. The duration of the incident ω2-envelope is varied to be 10.5 ns in Figure 8(b). Three times wider pulse is inputted for Figure 8(b) than one for Figure 8(a). The incident ω2-envelope decays into three pairs of the fast and slow solitons, which are labeled as (A, A′), (B, B′), and (C, C′). As expected, the widths of the emitted solitons become narrower in Figure 8(b) than those in Figure 8(a).
As a broadband pulse generator, it suffices for a nonlinear CRLH line to succeed in the emission of the first pair of solitons. To output the short envelope pulse uniquely, we only set up a band-pass filter extracting frequencies around ω3 in the subsequent stage .
Figure 9(a) shows the structure of a CRLH-TWFET. Two coupled transmission lines are periodically loaded with FETs in such a way that one of the lines is connected to the gate and the other to the drain . The gate line consists of the series inductor, series capacitor, shunt inductor, and shunt varactor, whose values are respectively denoted as LRg, CLg, LLg, and the Schottky varactor modeled by Eq. (5) is assigned to Cgs, which is introduced to control bifurcation property of the line via VSD. The biasing voltage VGG is applied to each transistor through the shunt inductance. On the other hand, LRd, CLd, LLd, and Cds configure the unit cell of the drain line. The biasing voltage VDD is applied to the drain of each transistor through LLd. Each inductor has finite parasitic resistances, which are denoted as RRg, RRd, RLg, and RLd for LRg, LRd, LLg, and LLd, respectively. The gate and drain lines are coupled via the gate-drain capacitor denoted as Cgd. Because of the couplings, there are at most two different modes for each frequency. Moreover, the lowest and second lowest frequency modes exhibit a LH property, whereas the other two modes exhibit right-handedness.
As in the case of nonlinear CRLH lines, the device can generate long wavelength harmonic wave via head-on collision of LH waves. Interestingly, such collision-induced wave evolves to a stationary pulse. Figure 9(b) demonstrates that, for the varactor, m and VJ are set to 1.5 and 5.0 V, respectively. We then set C0 to the value, for which Cgs becomes 140 pF at V = V0 = VGG. The other reactance values are listed in Table 2. In general, the resistances tend to be proportional to the corresponding inductances. VSD is set to 18.0 V to guarantee subcritical bifurcation. The cell size is 500. Both ends are excited by a sech-shaped envelope pulse whose carrier frequency is 7.7 MHz. The inset of Figure 9(b) shows the steady-state profile of the stationary solitary wave, which has a flattop waveform with a width of 30 cells.
|CLg (pF)||22.0||CLd (pF)||22.0||LLg (μH)||10.0||LLd (μH)||4.7||LRg (μH)||4.7|
|LRd (μH)||10.0||RLg (Ω)||9.7||RLd (Ω)||4.5||RRg (Ω)||4.5||RRd (Ω)||9.7|
|Cds (pF)||47.0||Cgd (pF)||13.0||Cgs0 (pF)||137.0||VJ (V)||4.96||m||1.5|
In practice, the line parameter values fluctuate, such that finite disorder is introduced to the lattice dynamics, which effectively serves the Pieres-Nabarro potential to the wave dynamics. When the pulse cannot overcome the potential, it is partially reflected to become a stationary pulse via resonance. Thus, the stationary pulse is expected to develop more frequently on the line when the fluctuation increases. To examine the property of the practical line, we fabricated a test line on print circuit board. Actually, the parameter values used to obtain Figure 9(b) simulate those of the test line. Figure 10(a) shows the measured spatiotemporal voltage profile. A sech-shaped envelope pulse was inputted only at the near end. The pulse moving to the far end was significantly reflected near the 300th cell and two different stationary pulses developed after reflection. Figure 10(b) shows the calculated voltage profile to simulate the measured result, where the fluctuation has 7% standard deviation. The device fluctuation cannot be modeled exactly. However, it successfully demonstrates both the reflection and the development of a stationary pulse. With the balance between the dissipation and FET gain in a disordered lattice, resonant interactions lead to this interesting wave dynamics.
We first describe the three-wave mixing process in nonlinear CRLH lines. The head-on collision of LH waves results in a significant amount of harmonic waves, whose efficiency is accurately predicted by the asymptotic method.
The CRLH dispersion allows us two spontaneous resonant processes to generate harmonic waves: the harmonic resonance and soliton decay. The harmonic resonance in a nonlinear CRLH line succeeds in generating second-harmonic waves even under the presence of finite line resistance, when the line is designed for the second-harmonic waves to cause cavity resonance. The left-handedness of the fundamental wave guarantees that both the fundamental and second harmonic waves can gain amplitude as phase advances. The soliton decay in a nonlinear CRLH line gives the effective way for generating broadband envelope pulses. The incident envelope spontaneously emits several pairs of the fast and slow solitons. In general, slow solitons exhibit left-handedness to travel backward and their fast counterparts become shorter than the incident pulse. In addition, the wider the incident pulse, the narrower the fast solitons.
A CRLH-TWFET is shown to support stationary nonlinear oscillatory pulse waves, which is generated by the collision of two counter-moving waves through resonance. The presence of disorder helps the development of stationary pulses. The bias voltage of varactor in each cell can be set independently and control the position and number of such stationary pulses.