Open access peer-reviewed chapter

Fundamental Analysis for Visible Light Communication with Input‐Dependent Noise

By Jin‐Yuan Wang, Jun‐Bo Wang and Yongjin Wang

Submitted: November 7th 2016Reviewed: February 21st 2017Published: June 21st 2017

DOI: 10.5772/68019

Downloaded: 669

Abstract

Recently, visible light communication (VLC) has drawn much attention. In literature, the noise in VLC is often assumed to be independent of the input signal. This assumption neglects a fundamental issue of VLC: due to the random nature of photon emission in the lighting source, the strength of the noise depends on the signal itself. Therefore, the input‐dependent noise in VLC should be considered. Given this, the fundamental analysis for the VLC with input‐dependent noise is presented in this chapter. Based on the information theory, the theoretical expression of the mutual information is derived. However, the expression of the mutual information is not in a closed form. Furthermore, the lower bound of the mutual information is derived in a closed form. Moreover, the theoretical expression of the bit error rate is also derived. Numerical results verify the accuracy of the derived theoretical expressions in this chapter.

Keywords

  • visible light communication
  • input-dependent noise
  • mutual information
  • bit error rate

1. Introduction

As one of the emerging optical wireless communication techniques, the visible light communication (VLC) has drawn considerable attention recently from both the academy and industry [13]. Compared to the traditional radio frequency (RF) wireless communication, VLC has many advantages, such as freedom from hazardous electromagnetic radiation, no licensing requirements, low‐cost frontends, large spectrum bandwidth (as shown in Figure 1), large channel capacity, and so on. In VLC, both illumination and communication are simultaneously implemented. Moreover, the transmitted optical signal is non‐negative. Therefore, the developed theory and analysis results in traditional RF wireless communication are not directly applicable to VLC.

Figure 1.

The electromagnetic spectrum.

Up to now, the research on VLC can be divided into two categories: the demo system design and theoretical analysis. As research continues, a variety of demo platforms arise. Table 1 shows the development of the VLC demo systems. As can be seen in Table 1, the transmit rate of the VLC system increases from several Mbps to several Gbps in the last decade, which indicates that the VLC has attractive prospects of development. Specifically, the transmit rates of the early demo systems are low, but the transmit distances are long and the data are processed in real time. With the development of communication techniques, more and more VLC testbeds with high transmit rates are developed successfully, but the real‐time processing becomes very hard. Therefore, more advanced processing techniques are needed for VLC.

Time (year)Research & Development GroupTransmit rate (bit/s)Transmit distance (m)Data processing mode
OfflineOnline
2000Keio University, Japan10 M5
2002Keio University, Japan87 M1.65
2008Taiyo Yuden Co., Ltd, Japan100 M0.2
Jinan University, China4 M2.5
2009University of Oxford, UK, et al.100 M0.1
Heinrich Hertz Institute, Germany125 M5
2011Heinrich Hertz Institute, Germany803 M0.12
2012Kinki University, Japan614 M
National Chiao Tung University, Taiwan1.1 G0.23
Santa Ana school for Advanced Studies, Italy3.4 G0.3
2013University of Strathclyde, UK1.5 G
National Chiao Tung University, Taiwan3.22 G0.25
The University of Edinburgh, UK10 G
Southeast University, China480 M3
2014Fudan University, China3.25 G
2015Pknuyong National University, Korea3 G2.15
The PLA Information Engineering University, China50 G

Table 1.

The development of the VLC demo systems.

In the aspect of theoretical analysis, much work has been done on VLC. In Ref. [4], the channel capacity for VLC using inverse source coding is investigated. However, the theoretical expression of the capacity is not presented. Under the non‐negative and average optical intensity constraints, the closed expression of capacity bounds is derived in Ref. [5]. Based on Ref. [5], a tight upper bound on the capacity is derived in Ref. [6]. By adding a peak optical intensity constraint, tight capacity bounds are further derived in Ref. [7]. In Ref. [8], the capacity bounds for multiple‐input‐multiple‐output VLC are derived. In Ref. [9], the capacity and outage probability for the parallel optical wireless channels are analysed. Furthermore, low signal‐to‐noise ratio (SNR) capacity for the parallel optical wireless channels is obtained in Ref. [10]. It should be noted that the noises in Refs. [410] are all assumed to be independent with the input signal. This assumption is reasonable if the ambient light is strong or if the receiver suffers from intensive thermal noise. However, in practical VLC systems, typical illumination scenarios offer very high SNR [11, 12]. For high power, this assumption neglects a fundamental issue of VLC: due to the random nature of photon emission in the light emitting diode (LED), the strength of noise depends on the signal itself [13]. Up to now, the performance of the VLC with input‐dependent noise has not been discussed completely.

In this chapter, we consider a VLC system with input‐dependent Gaussian noise and investigate the fundamental performance of the VLC system. The main contributions of this chapter are given as follows:

  1. A channel model with input‐dependent Gaussian noise for the VLC is considered. In existing literature, the noise is generally assumed to be independent of the signal. However, this assumption is not applicable to the VLC system in some cases. In this chapter, a more general channel model is established which is corrupted by an additive Gaussian noise, however, with noise variance depending on the signal itself.

  2. The mutual information of the VLC system is analysed. Based on the channel model, the exact expression of the mutual information is derived. However, the exact expression of the mutual information is not in a closed form. After that, a closed‐form expression of the lower bound on the mutual information is derived.

  3. The bit error rate (BER) of the VLC system is obtained. By employing the on‐off keying (OOK), the theoretical expression of the BER for the VLC system is derived. Moreover, some asymptotic behaviour for the BER is also presented.

  4. To show the accuracy of the derived theoretical expressions, the theoretical results are thoroughly confirmed by Monte‐Carlo simulations.

The remainder of this chapter is organized as follows. The system model is described in Section 2. Section 3 presents the exact expression and the lower bound of the mutual information. In Section 4, the theoretical expression of the BER is derived. Numerical results are given in Section 5 before conclusions are drawn in Section 6.

2. System model

Consider a point‐to‐point VLC system, as shown in Figure 2. At the transmitter, an LED is employed as the lighting source, which performs the electrical‐to‐optical conversion. Then, the optical signal is propagated through the VLC channel. At the receiver, a PIN photodiode (PD) is used to perform the optical‐to‐electrical conversion. To amplify the derived electrical signal, a high impedance amplifier is employed. In this chapter, the main noise sources include thermal noise, shot noise and amplifier noise. The thermal noise and the amplifier noise are independent of the signal, and each of the two noise sources can be well modelled by Gaussian distribution [14]. Although its distribution can also be assumed to be Gaussian, the strength of the shot noise depends on the signal itself. Mathematically, the received electrical signal Yat the receiver can be written as [13]

Figure 2.

The point-to-point VLC system.

Y=rGX+rGXZ1+Z0E1

where rdenotes the optoelectronic conversion factor of the PD. Z0N(0,σ2)denotes the input‐independent Gaussian noise. Z1N(0,ς2σ2)denotes the input‐dependent Gaussian noise, where ς20denotes the ratio of the input‐dependent noise variance to the input‐independent noise variance. Z0and Z1are independent with each other.

In Eq. (1), Gdenotes the channel gain between the LED and the PD, which can be expressed as [15]

G=(m+1)A2πd2cosm(φ)T(ψ)g(ψ)cos(ψ)E2

where mdenotes the order of the Lambertian emission, Ais the physical area of the PD and d,φand ψare the distance, the angle of irradiance and the angle of incidence from the LED to the PD, respectively. T(ψ)is the gain of an optical filter and g(ψ)is the gain of an optical concentrator.

Note that the channel gain in Eq. (2) is a constant, where the positions of the LED and the PD are given. Moreover, rin Eq. (1) is a constant for a fixed PD. Without loss of generality, the values of both Gand rare set to be one. Therefore, Eq. (1) can be simplified as [16]

Y=X+XZ1+Z0Z.E3

In VLC, information is transmitted by modulating the instantaneous optical intensity [17], and thus, Xshould be non‐negative, that is,

X0.E4

Due to the eye and skin safety regulations, the peak optical intensity of the LED is limited [17], that is,

XAE5

where Ais the peak optical intensity of the LED.

Considering the illumination requirement in VLC, the average optical intensity cannot be changed but can be adjusted according to the users’ requirement (dimming target) [18]. Therefore, the average optical intensity constraint is given by

E(X)=ξPE6

where E()denotes the expectation operator and ξ(0,1]denotes the dimming target. PAis the normal optical intensity of the LED.

3. Mutual information analysis

Mutual information is an important performance indicator for wireless communication systems. In this section, the exact expression of the mutual information and the closed‐form expression of the lower bound on the mutual information for the VLC will be derived, respectively.

3.1. Exact expression of mutual information

Assume that N‐ary intensity modulation is employed. Let X{x1,x2,,xN}be the optical intensity symbol drawn from the equiprobable modulation constellation, that is,

Pr(X=xi)=1N.E7

According to Eq. (3), the conditional probability density function (PDF) of Ywhen given X=xican be written as [19]

fY|X(y|xi)=12π(1+xiς2)σexp((yxi)22(1+xiς2)σ2).E8

Furthermore, the PDF of Ycan be expressed as

fY(y)=i=1NPr(X=xi)fY|X(y|xi)=1Ni=1N12π(1+xiς2)σexp((yxi)22(1+xiς2)σ2).E9

The mutual information between Xand Yis given by

I(X;Y)=H(X)H(X|Y)=i=1N1Nlog2Ni=1N1NfY|X(y|xi)log2(fY(y)Pr(X=xi)fY|X(y|xi))dy=log2N1Ni=1Nexp((yxi)22(1+xiς2)σ2)2π(1+xiς2)σlog2(t=1Nexp((yxt)22(1+xtς2)σ2)2π(1+xtς2)σexp((yxi)22(1+xiς2)σ2)2π(1+xiς2)σ)dyI1E10

where H()denotes the entropy.

From Eq. (3), we have Z=YX. Therefore, let z=yxi, and thus, I1in Eq. (10) can be further written as

I1=exp(z22(1+xiς2)σ2)2π(1+xiς2)σlog2[t=1Nexp((z+xixt)22(1+xtς2)σ2)2π(1+xtς2)σexp(z22(1+xiς2)σ2)2π(1+xiς2)σ]dy=EZ{log2[t=1Nexp((z+xixt)22(1+xtς2)σ2)2π(1+xtς2)σexp(z22(1+xiς2)σ2)2π(1+xiς2)σ]}=EZ{log2[t=1N1+xiς21+xtς2exp(z22(1+xiς2)σ2(z+xixt)22(1+xtς2)σ2)]}E11

Therefore, Eq. (10) can be further written as

I(X;Y)=log2N1Ni=1NEZ{log2[1+t=1tiN1+xiς21+xtς2exp(z22(1+xiς2)σ2(z+xixt)22(1+xtς2)σ2)]}E12

Remark 1: Let the average SNR be γ=ξP/[(1+ξPς2)σ2]. Because ξ,Pand ςare non‐negative and finite numbers, γ(or 0) is equivalent to σ20(or ). Apparently, I(X;Y)in Eq. (12) is a monotonic increasing function with respect to γ. Therefore, we have

limγI(X;Y)=log2NE13

which indicates that the maximum value of I(X;Y)is log2N.

Moreover, we have

limγ0I(X;Y)=log2N1Ni=1Nlog2(1+t=1tiN1+xiς21+xtς2)E14

Remark 2: When ς=0, Eq. (3) reduces to Y=X+Z0. Therefore, the mutual information can be simplified as

I(X;Y)|ς=0=log2N1Ni=1NEZ{log2[1+t=1tiNexp(z2(z+xixt)22σ2)]}E15

3.2. Lower bound on mutual information

It should be noted that it is very hard to derive a closed‐form expression of Eq. (12). In this subsection, a lower bound on the mutual information will be derived.

To facilitate the description, Eq. (12) can be further expressed as

I(X;Y)=log2N1Ni=1NEZ{log2[exp(z22(1+xiς2)σ2)]}I21Ni=1NEZ{log2[t=1N1+xiς21+xtς2exp((z+xixt)22(1+xtς2)σ2)]}I3E16

For I2in Eq. (16), we have

I2=log2(e)2(1+xiς2)σ2+z2exp(z22(1+xiς2)σ2)2π(1+xiς2)σ2dz=log2(e)2(1+xiς2)σ2(1+xiς2)σ2=12log2(e).E17

Using the Jensen’s inequality for concave function, an upper bound of I3in Eq. (16) can be written as

I3=EZ{log2[t=1N1+xiς21+xtς2exp((z+xixt)22(1+xtς2)σ2)]}log2{t=1N1+xiς21+xtς2EZ[exp((z+xixt)22(1+xtς2)σ2)]}=log2{t=1N1+xiς21+xtς2+exp((z+xixt)2+z22(1+xtς2)σ2)2π(1+xtς2)σ2dz}=log2(t=1N1+xiς22(1+xtς2)exp((xixt)24(1+xtς2)σ2)).E18

Substituting Eqs. (17) and (18) into Eq. (16), a lower bound of I(X;Y)can be derived as

ILow(X;Y)=log2N12log2(e)+121Ni=1Nlog2(1+t=1tiN1+xiς21+xtς2exp((xixt)24(1+xtς2)σ2)).E19

Remark 3: Obviously, ILow(X;Y)in Eq. (19) is a monotonic increasing function with respect to γ. Therefore, we have

limγILow(X;Y)=log2N12log2(e)+12E20

which indicates that the maximum value of ILow(X;Y)is log2Nlog2(e)/21/2.

Moreover, we have

limγ0ILow(X;Y)=log2N12log2(e)+121Ni=1Nlog2(1+t=1tiN1+xiς21+xtς2)E21

Remark 4: According to Eqs. (13) and (20), we have

limγI(X;Y)limγILow(X;Y)=12[log2(e)1].E22

Similarly, from Eqs. (14) and (21), we have

limγ0I(X;Y)limγ0ILow(X;Y)=12[log2(e)1].E23

From Eqs. (22) and (23), it can be concluded that a constant performance gap [log2(e)1]/2exists between I(X;Y)and ILow(X;Y)at low and high SNR regions.

Remark 5: When ς=0, ILow(X;Y)can be simplified as

ILow(X;Y)|ς=0=log2N12log2(e)+121Ni=1Nlog2(1+t=1tiNexp((xixt)24σ2)).E24

4. BER analysis

In this section, the BER of the VLC with input‐dependent noise is analysed. To facilitate the analysis, OOK is employed as the modulation scheme. Suppose that the transmitted optical signal is drawn equiprobably from the OOK constellation and 2ξPAalways holds, we have

X{0,2ξP}.E25

Therefore, the BER for the VLC with OOK can be written as

BER=Pr(off)Pr(on|off)+Pr(on)Pr(off|on)E26

where Pr(on)and Pr(off)are the probabilities of sending “on” and “off” bits, respectively. Because the transmitted signal is taken as symbols drawn equiprobably, thus Pr(on)=Pr(off)=0.5. Pr(on|off)and Pr(off|on)are the conditional bit error probabilities when the transmitted bit is “off” and “on,” respectively.

According to Eq. (8), Pr(off|on)can be written as

Pr(off|on)=Pr(yξP|on)=ξP12π(1+2ξPς2)σe(y2ξP)22(1+2ξPς2)σ2dy=Q(ξP1+2ξPς2σ)E27

where Q(x)is the Gaussian Q‐function.

Moreover, Pr(off|on)can be similarly written as

Pr(off|on)=Pr(y>ξP|off)=ξP12πσey22σ2dy=Q(ξPσ).E28

Therefore, the BER can be finally written as

BER=12[Q(ξP1+2ξPς2σ)+Q(ξPσ)].E29

Remark 6: Let the average SNR be γ=ξP/[(1+ξPς2)σ2]. Because ξ,Pand ςare non‐negative and finite numbers, γ(or 0) is equivalent to σ20(or ). Apparently, BERin Eq. (29) is a monotonic decreasing function with respect to γ. Therefore, we have

limγBER=0E30
limγ0BER=12E31

This indicates that the minimum BER and the maximum BER are 0 and 0.5, respectively.

Remark 7: When ς=0, BERcan be simplified as

BER|ς=0=Q(ξPσ).E32

5. Numerical results

In this section, some classical numerical results will be presented. The derived theoretical expressions of the mutual information, the lower bound of mutual information and the BER will be verified.

5.1. Results of mutual information

Figure 3 shows the mutual information (i.e., I(X;Y)in Eq. (12)) and its lower bound (i.e., ILow(X;Y)in Eq. (19)) versus SNR with different modulation orders N. In the simulation, without loss of generality, ξ, Pand ςare set to be one. In Figure 3, it can be seen that I(X;Y)and ILow(X;Y)are monotonic increasing functions with respect to SNR. Moreover, with the increase of N, I(X;Y)and ILow(X;Y)also increase. It can also be found that the maximum value of I(X;Y)is log2N, and the maximum value of ILow(X;Y)is log2Nlog2(e)/21/2, which coincides with Remark 1. Furthermore, the gap between I(X;Y)and ILow(X;Y)is (log2e1)/2bits at low and high SNR regions, which coincides with Remark 4.

Figure 3.

Mutual information and its lower bound versus SNR with different N.

Figure 4 shows the mutual information (i.e., I(X;Y)in Eq. (12)) and its lower bound (i.e., ILow(X;Y)in Eq. (19)) versus dimming targets ξwith different ς. In the simulation, Pis set to be one, γ=20dBand N=4.As can be seen, when ς=1and ς=10, I(X;Y)and ILow(X;Y)increase with the increase of ξ, while I(X;Y)and ILow(X;Y)do not change with the increase of ξwhen ς=0. Moreover, it can be seen that I(X;Y)and ILow(X;Y)are both the monotonic increasing functions with respect to ς.

Figure 4.

Mutual information and its lower bound versus dimming target ξ with different ς.

5.2. Results of BER

Figure 5 shows BER versus ςwith different dimming targets ξ. In the simulation, both Pand σare set to be one. It can be seen that the best BER performance is achieved when ς=0, which indicates that the performance for the system with only input‐independent noise outperforms that with input‐dependent noise. Moreover, with the increase of ς, the BER performance degrades. Furthermore, it can be observed that with the increase of ξ, the value of the BER reduces, which indicates that the system performance improves. In addition, it can be found that the theoretical results show close agreement with the Monte‐Carlo simulation results, which verifies the correctness of the derived theoretical expression of the BER.

Figure 5.

BER versus ς with different ξ.

Figure 6 shows the BER versus the SNR with different ς. It can be observed that the value of the BER decreases with the increase of the SNR. This is because large SNR will generate a small BER, and thus it will result in good performance. Moreover, at low SNR region, the curve with ς=10achieves the best BER performance. At high SNR region, the curve with ς=0achieves the best BER performance. Once again, the gap between the theoretical results and the simulation results is so small enough to be ignored, which verifies the accuracy of the derived theoretical expression of the BER.

Figure 6.

BER versus SNR with different ς.

6. Conclusions

This chapter investigates the performance of the VLC with input‐dependent noise. The theoretical expression of the mutual information is derived, which is not in a closed form. Moreover, the closed‐form expression of the lower bound on the mutual information is obtained. Furthermore, by employing the OOK, the theoretical expression of the BER for the VLC is derived. Numerical results show that the derived theoretical expressions in this chapter are quite accurate to evaluate the system performance without time‐intensive simulations.

Acknowledgments

This work is supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (61571115, 61372106, 61223001, 61322112, 61401399, and 61531166004), Research Project (2014CB360507), the open research fund of National Mobile Communications Research Laboratory, Southeast University (2017D06), and NUPTSF (NY216009).

© 2017 The Author(s). Licensee IntechOpen. This chapter is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Jin‐Yuan Wang, Jun‐Bo Wang and Yongjin Wang (June 21st 2017). Fundamental Analysis for Visible Light Communication with Input‐Dependent Noise, Optical Fiber and Wireless Communications, Rastislav Roka, IntechOpen, DOI: 10.5772/68019. Available from:

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