Open access peer-reviewed chapter

Differences in Employee Motivation in Slovakia and Czech Republic

By Miloš Hitka and Žaneta Balážová

Submitted: October 19th 2016Reviewed: January 25th 2017Published: June 7th 2017

DOI: 10.5772/67609

Downloaded: 792

Abstract

The aim of the chapter is to compare the level of employee motivation in enterprises in Slovak and the Czech Republic. Sampling unit consists of 4444 respondents from Slovakia and 2312 from the Czech Republic. Following our outcomes, we can state that the most important motivation factors are mostly identical in both countries; however, there is a slight difference in the order of their importance. Motivation factors relating to financial reward are the most important for employees in the Czech Republic. Basic salary is a motivation factor important mainly for women in Slovakia. Demands of Czech respondents are higher in motivation factors relating to interpersonal relationships. In general, we can state that, in terms of gender, needs of women are more exacting than those of men. Dependence between two categorical variables was verified using Pearson’s chi-square statistics. We found out that despite big similarities in the order of importance of individual motivation factors, there are significant differences between selected motivational needs of employees in individual countries.

Keywords

  • motivation in the workplace
  • motivation factors
  • Slovakia
  • Szech Republic
  • motivation programme
  • chi-square statistics

1. Introduction

One of the key things as an employer is displaying a genuine concern and interest in the staff's progression and development within the company. High quality and carefully formulated personnel policy becomes a tool playing an essential role in enterprise competitiveness [1, 2]. Motivation system is another fundamental component of personnel policy. This system affects employees and their morale directly. Potkány and Stachová [3] stated that the motivation is connected to the issue of responsibility management with important field of business processes classification to the core business processes and supporting business processes. Employee motivation can be seen in commitment on the job, in dealing with customers or business partners, in relationship with colleagues and socio-environmental relations. Effective motivation techniques and strategies stimulate employees to work harder, to improve work performance or to implement company mission [4]. Forasmuch enterprises have to keep quality employees working for them; they must ensure their personal development and further education. Thus, the employees become one of the essential strategic factors affecting the enterprise performance. Defining the level of employee motivation in manufacturing enterprises in Slovak and the Czech Republic and defining the significant differences are the main aims of the chapter.

Motivation is a concept important in psychology. Motivation is motivation a complex phenomenon without even generally accepted definition [5]. It presents the fact that there are motives, momentum guiding and directing a human being. Moreover, these forces reflect in human behaviour, people are motivated and willing to do their best [6]. Motivation makes us think about acting people in certain situations. In addition, it means that there are some forces to drive, motivate us in order to achieve the better results. People are motivated; it means they will take steps in order to succeed. The goals of highly motivated people are clear with real ways of how to achieve them [7]. High persistence means that motivated persons, despite obstacles and intrigues, enjoy doing activities that really motivate them in initial direction and intention.

Moreover, the relation between motivation and performance is often oversimplified by managers. Managers commonly assume that the mentioned relation is directly proportional, that is, the higher the motivation is the higher the performance will be. Further incorrect assumption is that the performance of satisfied employee will be higher as well. Indeed, the relation is affected by various factors like abilities, skills, conditions, useful information as well as outer conditions [8]. Process of motivation is also connected with the issue of outsourcing from the point of view of reduction of company cost [9]. In general, it can be said that highly motivated employees without required abilities, skills, information or appropriate conditions are not able to achieve desired goal [10].

Motivational programmes are used to boost employee motivation. Motivational programme is a set of actions associated with managing human resources aimed at encouraging the employee behaviour in the workplace and at forming positive relation to the enterprise in active way [11]. It should be a part of personnel strategy in the enterprise [12, 13]. The main aim of the motivational programme is to strengthen the employee loyalty and to arouse the interest in self-development. It is a way of implementing incentives schemes in order to meet enterprise goals. Subsequently, success of the motivational programme relies on the familiarisation with employee needs in the enterprise [14]. Right and conducted motivational programme supports enterprise economy, motivation in the workplace, employee performance and affects job satisfaction, nevertheless.

2. Employee motivation in Slovak and the Czech Republic

Various motivation factors are introduced by Slovak enterprises in order to meet employee needs. We can mention various social programmes for employees or benefits [15]. Research into the issue of motivation showed that the most effective benefits appreciated by employees are those leaving them to be led by their own initiative and congratulate them for doing such a great job. Further motivation factor affecting the employee performance and their satisfaction is the work environment [10]. Motivation factors relating to career growth are of great importance as well. Employees prefer working for the enterprise encouraging their personal as well as career growth. Moreover, they must feel engaged with their job and the company [15]. On the other hand, enterprises which do not stimulate their employees so they feel underthanked and underappreciated are not prioritised by employees. Following the research, we can say that good work environment, working team or corporate culture is preferred to monetary incentives by many employees [16]. Real motivation is based on human beliefs and willingness to meet company goals.

Only 20% of Czech enterprises are able to motivate their employees effectively. In addition to salaries, the most common way of rewarding staff in the Czech Republic is to provide non-monetary incentives [17]. Motivation factors such as corporate culture and its values, success, prosperity or quality can be mentioned. Atmosphere in the workplace, human relationship based on team cooperation in the enterprises as well as further education are essential motivation factors used by Czech enterprises [18, 19].

At the present time, motivation factor—stress-reduction in the workplace occur in enterprises in Slovakia as well as the Czech Republic and other European countries very often. More than half of the Europeans consider stress in the workplace as a common phenomenon. A quarter of them cope with everyday stress. Especially employees in large businesses feel worse than standard population.

3. Aim and methodology

The dependence between two categorical variables was verified using Pearson’s chi-square statistics [20]. Chi-square goodness-of-fit test determine whether observed sample frequencies Oijdiffer significantly from expected frequencies Eijspecified in the null hypothesis. Expected frequencies Eijis a term presenting the number of observational units with the variable aiof the attribute A and at the same time the variable bjof the attribute B assuming that attributes A and B are independent. The formula P(AB)=P(A).P(B)can be used for independent phenomena A and B. Probabilities P(A=ai)and P(B=bj)will be estimated using relative frequencies:

The aim of the chapter is to define the level of importance of employee motivation factors in Slovak and the Czech Republic and subsequently, to define significant differences. Following the questionnaires carried out using random probability sampling, we analysed employee needs in both countries. Socio-demographic and qualification characteristics of employees were searched in the first part of the questionnaire [21]. Basic data about respondents related to their age, gender, seniority, education completed and job position were obtained in this part. The second part of the questionnaire was focused on the evaluation of state-of-the-art and desired state of selected motivation factors. The level of importance of motivation factors was defined using 5-point rating scale of Likert scale (5 very important, 4 important, 3 medium important, 2 slightly important, 1 unimportant). Questionnaires were submitted to manufacturing and non-manufacturing enterprises as well as to service sector businesses. Acquired data were analysed and processed using the programme STATISTICA 12 [22].

Chi-square goodness-of fit test is one of the most commonly used nonparametric tests concerned with nominal or ordinal levels of measurement. It deals with the frequencies with which the events occur. The purpose is to test the significance of the differences between observed frequencies and the frequencies we would expect in a theoretically ideal experiment.

The chi-square test can also be used for a research project involving two traits (variables). Data are cross classified into a contingency table. The contingency table or two-way table consists of r rows and s columns given by the number of categories of investigated traits.

We need to test the null hypothesis that the two variables in question are independent against the alternative hypothesis that they are dependent. The word contingency refers to the dependence.

H0: two variables A and B are independent (no contingency)

H1: two variables A and B are dependent (contingency)

The test statistic is given by χ2

χ2=i=1rj=1s(OijEij)2EijE1

with degrees of freedom, df = (number of rows − 1).(number of columns – 1) = (r – 1).(s – 1).

χ2 test statistics allows us to measure the degree of disagreement between the frequencies actually observed and those that we would theoretically expect when the two variables are independent. The distribution of the test statistic χ2 can be approximated by the chi-square distribution provided that at the most 20% expected frequencies are less than 5. For each cell in the frequency table, the expected frequency can be calculated by using the following formula:

Eij=(ithrowtotal).(jth columntotal)(grandtotal)E2

where grand total refers to the total number of observation in the contingency table.

The dependence between two categorical variables was verified using Pearson’s chi-square statistics [20]. Finally, following the table of standardised residuals (observed and expected), we state the most frequent occurrence of dependence [23].

4. Experimental section (materials and methods)

A total of 6756 employees in Slovak (4444) and in Czech (2312) enterprises participated in the research, hereof 3367 females and 3389 males. The respondents were of various ages and education, seniority or the job position. Simple random sampling technique was used to acquire data from the entire territory of the studied country. Detailed characteristic of respondents is shown in Table 1.

Following the research, we defined motivation factors in analysed countries (Table 2). Finally, we can state that the most important motivation factors in Slovak and the Czech Republic are mostly identical. A slight difference can be seen in the order of their importance. Mentioned motivation factors are as follows: basic salary (30), good work team (2), atmosphere in the workplace (1), supervisor’s approach (17) and job security (5).

We studied statistically significant dependence between nationality and the motivation factor as well as between gender and the motivation factor. Using the descriptive statistics, we found out the values of frequency distribution of six of the most important motivation factors. They are shown in graph describing the interactions. Dependence between categorical variables—motivation factor and nationality as well as motivation factor and gender of respondents in Slovakia and in the Czech Republic was tested using inferential statistics, mainly Pearson’s chi-square test.

4.1. Motivation factor: basic salary

Following the completed questionnaires, we found out that 63.25% of Slovak respondents consider the motivation factor basic salary (30) very important. Czech respondents consider mentioned motivation factor very important as well. For 69.46% of Czech respondents, it was at level 5 of the rating scale (Table 3).

SVKCZ
Number%Number%
Gender
Female223750.33113048.88
Male220749.67118251.12
Age
Up to 30105223.6794240.74
31–40139831.4659225.61
41–50121327.3046420.07
51+78117.5731413.58
Seniority
Less than 1 year4309.6839216.96
1–3 years89020.0360025.95
4–6 years92420.7947420.50
7–9 years73016.4332414.01
10 years and more147033.0852222.58
Education
Primary school1252.811084.67
Lower secondary education86519.4637016.00
Upper secondary education241454.3296441.70
Higher education104023.4087037.63
Job position
Manager4289. 6347820.67
Blue collar worker279162.80109647.40
White collar worker122527.5773831.92

Table 1.

The total number of respondents and their characteristics.

Source: own data processing.

Employees in enterprises in SlovakiaEmployees in enterprises in the Czech Republic
S.N.Motivation factor%S.N.Motivation factor%
1Basic salary4.441Basic salary4.59
2Good work team4.392Atmosphere in the workplace4.46
3Atmosphere in the workplace4.383Good work team4.44
4Supervisor’s approach4.384Supervisor’s approach4.40
5Job security4.375Fair appraisal system4.40
6Fair appraisal system4.376Job security4.39
7Fringe benefits4.317Communication in the workplace4.29
8Communication in the workplace4.248Occupational safety4.29
9Working time4.179Fringe benefits4.27
10Work environment4.1510Recognition4.15
11Recognition4.1211Workload and type of work4.13
12Job performance4.1112Opportunity to apply one’s own ability4.10
13Workload and type of work4.0913Working time4.10
14Social benefits4.0814Work environment4.09
15Free time4.0715Free time4.05
16Occupational safety4.0616Self-actualisation4.03
17Education and personal growth4.0317Job performance3.98
18Mental effort4.0118Education and personal growth3.98
19Opportunity to apply one’s own ability4.0019Self-actualisation3.96
20Individual decision-making3.9820Information about performance result3.94
21Career advancement3.9821Mental effort3.93
22Self-actualisation3.9422Social benefits3.92
23Information about performance result3.9123Career advancement3.90
24Relation to the environment3.9024Competences3.73
25Competences3.8625Mission of the company3.68
26Name of the company3.8526Relation to the environment3.68
27Mission of the company3.8527Physical effort at work3.66
28Region’s development3.8028Prestige3.66
29Physical effort at work3.7729Name of the company3.57
30Prestige3.6830Region’s development3.54

Table 2.

Order of motivation factors according to their importance in Slovakia and the Czech Republic.

Source: own data processing.

Motivation factor basic salary
12345Together
SVK73117382106228104444
%1.642.638.6023.9063.23100.00
CZ203411254016062312
%0.871.474.8423.3669.46100.00
Together931514941,6024,4166,756
%1.38%2.24%7.31%23.71%65.36%100.00%

Table 3.

Contingency table relating to motivation factor basic salary in SVK and CZ.

Source: own data processing.

Following the results of Pearson’s chi-square test, we state that there is statistically significant relationship between these two categorical variables. Evaluation of motivation factor basic salary is affected by nationality (Table 4). Null hypothesis H0 is, in the case of motivation factor basic salary (30), rejected (p = 0.000) in favour of the alternative hypothesis H1 at the level of significance α = 5%.

Motivation factorχ2svp
Basic salary30.89df = 4p = 0.000

Table 4.

Nationality versus motivation factor.

Source: own data processing.

Number of workplaces in Slovakia is lower than in the Czech Republic, therefore it is hard to get hired. That is also the reason why the motivation factor basic salary is not as important for Slovak employees as for the Czech ones. Salary requirements of Slovak employees are not so high and they are willing to accept lower basic salary as well. Following the table of standardised residuals and the largest absolute differences of expected and observed frequencies (Table 5), we can state that Slovak respondents give a rating at level 3 more often than employees in the Czech Republic and at level 5 less often in comparison to the Czech employees.

CountryMotivation factor basic salary
12345Together
SVK711345−570
CZ−7−11−34−5570
Together000000

Table 5.

Standardised residuals relating to motivation factors: basic salary in SVK and CZ.

Source: own data processing.

Subsequently, statistically significant relationship between the motivation factor basic salary and the gender in Slovakia and in the Czech Republic was tested. Following the responses, we found out that 61.92% of males and 64.55% of females in Slovakia consider the motivation factor basic salary (30) very important and it is at level 5 of the rating scale (Table 6, Figure 1).

Gender Slovak RepublicMotivation factor basic salary
12345Together
Males SVK326120953713662207
%1.452.779.4824.3561.95100.00
Females SVK405617352514452237
%1.792.507.7323.4564.54100.00
Together SVK72117382106228104444

Table 6.

Contingency table relating to motivation factor basic salary in SVK.

Source: own data processing.

Figure 1.

Graph of interactions relating to motivation factor basic salary in SVK (Source: own data processing).

There is no statistically significant relationship between the motivation factor basic salary and gender in Slovakia. The null hypothesis H0 (p = 0.138) is accepted at the level of significance α = 5% (Table 7).

Motivation factorχ2svp
Basic salary6.97df = 4p = 0.138

Table 7.

Gender in Slovakia versus motivation factor basic salary.

Source: own data processing.

On the other hand in the Czech Republic, 70.22% of males consider the motivation factor basic salary very important and 68.67% of females gave a rating at level 5, it means it is very important for them (Table 8, Figure 2).

GenderMotivation factor basic salary
12345Together
Males CZ1020602628301182
%0.851.695.0822.1770.22100.00
Females CZ1014522787761130
%0.881.244.6024.6068.67100.00
Together CZ203411254016062312
%0.861.474.8423.3669.46100.00

Table 8.

Contingency table relating to motivation factor basic salary in CZ.

Source: own data processing.

Figure 2.

Graph of interactions relating to motivation factor basic salary in CZ (Source: own data processing).

Null hypothesis H0 relating to the motivation factor basic salary is accepted and alternative hypothesis H1 is rejected following the result of p-value (p = 0.870). There is no statistically significant relationship between gender in the Czech Republic and the mentioned motivation factor as well (Table 9).

Motivation factorχ2svp
Basic salary1.25df = 4p = 0.870

Table 9.

Gender in CZ versus motivation factor basic salary.

Source: own data processing.

4.2. Motivation factor: good work team

Motivation factor good work team is considered by 55.31% of Slovak respondents very important, they give a rating at level 5 and 32.76% of Slovak respondents consider it important, it means they give a rating at level 4. In the Czech Republic, 57.35% of respondents consider it very important, rating at level 5, and 32.53% gave a rating at level 4 (Table 10).

CountryMotivation factor good work team
12345Together
SVK3996395145624584444
%0.882.168.8932.7655.31100
CZ124218075213262312
%0.521.827.7932.5357.35100
Together51138575220837846756
%0.752.048.5132.6856.01100

Table 10.

Contingency table relating to the motivation factor good work team in SVK and CZ.

Source: own data processing.

Following the results of p-value (p = 0.409), which is greater than the level of significance α = 5%, we can state that there is no statistically significant relationship between nationality and the motivation factor good work team (2). Null hypothesis H0 is accepted (Table 11).

Motivation factorχ2svp
Good work team3.98df = 4p = 0.409

Table 11.

Nationality versus motivation factor.

Source: own data processing.

Statistically significant relationship is studied also between mentioned motivation factor and gender in Slovakia and the Czech Republic. Following Table 12, we can state that the motivation factor good work team is considered very important by 53.78% of males in Slovakia and 32.90% of males consider it important. 56.82% of females consider it very important too; therefore, they gave the rating at level 5. 32.63% of females evaluate the motivation factor good working team at level 4—important (Figure 3).

Gender SVKMotivation factor good work team
12345Together
Males285321372611872207
%1.272.409.6532.9053.78100.00
Females114318273012712237
%0.491.928.1432.6356.82100.00
Together3996395145624584444

Table 12.

Contingency table relating to the motivation factor good work team in SVK.

Source: own data processing.

Figure 3.

Graph of interactions relating to motivation factor good work team in SVK (Source: own data processing).

As Table 13 shows, there is a statistically significant relationship between the motivation factor good work team and gender in Slovakia. Following the result of p-value (p = 0.008), that is less than the level of significance α = 5%, the null hypothesis H0 is rejected and alternative hypothesis H1 is accepted. The motivation factor good work team is affected by gender in Slovakia.

Motivation factorχ2svp
Good work team13.56df = 4p = 0.008

Table 13.

Gender in Slovakia versus motivation factor good work team in SVK.

Source: own data processing.

Working in an effective team can make a significant contribution to job performance improvement as well as to less stress in the workplace. Good relationships in the workplace are an essential factor especially for women. Women have to quit their job more often because of family problems. Mentioned motivation factor is not considered important by men and they are not affected by interpersonal relationships as much as women. That is why, as the table of standardised residuals and the largest absolute differences of expected and observed frequencies (Table 14) shows, women give a rating at level 5 and men only at level 3.

Gender in SVKMotivation factor good work team
12345Together
Males95173−340
Females−9−5−17−3340
Together000000

Table 14.

Standardised residuals relating to motivation factors good work team in SVK.

Source: own data processing.

In the Czech Republic as well as in Slovakia, 54.82% of males consider the motivation factor good work team very important, level 5 of the rating scale (Table 15). 60.00% of Czech females evaluate the mentioned motivation factor in similar way. They give a rating at level 5—very important (Figure 4).

Gender in CZMotivation factor good work team
12345Together
Males6141124026481182
%0.511.189.4834.0154.82100.00
Females628683506781130
%0.532.486.0230.9760.00100.00
Together124218075213261156

Table 15.

Contingency table relating to the motivation factor good work team in CZ.

Source: own data processing.

Figure 4.

Graph of interactions relating to the motivation factor good work team in CZ (Source: own data processing).

Following the results of Pearson’s chi-square test, we state that there is no statistically significant relationship between the motivation factor good work team and gender in the Czech Republic. P-value (p = 0.077) is greater than the level of significance α = 5%. The motivation factor good work team is not as affected by gender in the Czech Republic as in Slovakia (Table 16).

Motivation factorχ2svp
Good work team8.42df = 4p = 0.077

Table 16.

Gender in CZ versus motivation factor—results of Pearson’s chi-square test.

Source: own data processing.

4.3. Motivation factor: atmosphere in the workplace

Table 17 shows that 53.87% of Slovak employees consider the motivation factor atmosphere in the workplace very important and 33.19% think it is important. Similarly, Czech employees, 59.08% of them, consider it very important and 32.22% give a rating at level 4—important.

CountryMotivation factor atmosphere in the workplace
12345Together
SVK33654771,4752,3944,444
%0.741.4610.7333.1953.87100.00
CZ182819870213661156
%0.781.218.5630.3659.08100.00
Together4279575182630775600
%0.751.389.9932.2255.65100.00

Table 17.

Contingency table relating to the motivation factor atmoshere in the workplace in SVK and CZ.

Source: own data processing.

Statistically significant relationship between the motivation factor atmosphere in the workplace and nationality is confirmed by the p-value. Forasmuch as p = 0.023 is less than the level of significance α = 5%, the null hypothesis H0 is rejected in favour of the alternative hypothesis H1; it means there is a statistically significant relationship between countries and the motivation factor atmosphere in the workplace (Table 18).

Motivation factorχ2svp
Atmosphere in the workplace11.33df = 4p = 0.023

Table 18.

Nationality versus motivation factor—results of Pearson’s chi-square test in SVK and CZ.

Source: own data processing.

Employee performance is affected by the atmosphere in the workplace to a large extent. Friendly and positive atmosphere at work can increase job performance. On the other hand, the negative atmosphere can result in low-quality performance of employees. The range of jobs provided in Slovak job market is not as wide as in the Czech Republic; therefore, Slovak employees are willing to work also in hostile work environment and the mentioned motivation factor is not so important for them as well (Table 19). We state that the motivation factor atmosphere in the workplace is evaluated by Slovak employees at level 4 and 5—important and very important. Mentioned motivation factor is evaluated in the Czech Republic at level 5—very important, more frequently (Table 20, Figure 5).

Gender in SlovakiaMotivation factor atmosphere in the workplace
12345Together
Males184126779410872207
%0.821.8612.1035.9849.25100.00
Females152420968113082237
%0.671.079.3430.4458.47100.00
Together3365476147523944444

Table 19.

Standardised residuals relating to the motivation factor atmosphere in the workplace in SVK and CZ.

Source: own data processing.

CountryMotivation factor atmosphere in the workplace
12345Together
SVK021926−470
CZ0−2−19−26470
Together000000

Table 20.

Contingency table relating to motivation factor atmosphere in the workplace in SVK.

Source: own data processing.

Figure 5.

Graph of interactions relating to the motivation factor atmosphere in the workplace in SVK (Source: own data processing).

Subsequently, significantly important relationship between the motivation factor atmosphere in the workplace and gender in Slovakia and the Czech Republic was studied. Following the questionnaire responses, we found out that 49.25% of males and 58.47% of females consider this motivation factor very important—level 5 of the rating scale.

There is a statistically significant relationship between the motivation factor atmosphere in the workplace and gender in Slovakia. Following the p-value (p = 0.000) at the level of significance α = 5%, the null hypothesis H0 is rejected and the relative hypothesis H1 is accepted (Table 21).

Motivation factorχ2svp
Atmosphere in the workplace40.58df = 4p = 0.000

Table 21.

Gender in SVK versus motivation factor—results of Pearson’s chi-square test.

Source: own data processing.

This motivation factor is connected to the motivation factor good work team. Friendly and accommodating staff guarantees the friendly and welcoming atmosphere in the workplace. A hostile work environment is created by a boss or co-worker whose actions, communication or behaviour makes doing your job impossible. Therefore, this motivation factor is considered very important especially by women. In comparison to men, it is difficult to work for them in this kind of the environment. Women are more sensitive and are affected by negative workplace atmosphere more often than men. Men can handle problems in the workplace more effectively; that is why they give a rating at level 3 and they consider this motivation factor neutral (Table 22).

Gender in SVKMotivation factor atmosphere in the workplace
12345Together
Males95173−340
Females−9−5−17−3340
Together000000

Table 22.

Standardised residuals relating to the motivation factors atmosphere in the workplace in SVK.

Source: own data processing.

Following the questionnaire responses in the Czech Republic, we can state that 56.85% of males and 61.42% of females consider the motivation factor atmosphere in the workplace very important—level 5 of the rating scale (Table 23, Figure 6). Statistically significant relationship between the motivation factor and gender in the Czech Republic is rejected (p = 0.359). Null hypothesis H0 is accepted; it means atmosphere in the workplace is not affected by gender in the Czech Republic in contrast to gender in Slovakia (Table 24).

Gender in CZMotivation factor atmosphere in the workplace
1.2.3.45Together
Males68581823361182
%1.021.359.8830.8056.85100.00
Females36411693471,130
%0.531.067.0829.9161.42100.00
Together914993516832312

Table 23.

Contingency table relating to the motivation factor atmosphere in the workplace in CZ.

Source: own data processing.

Motivation factorχ2svp
Atmosphere in the workplace4.37df = 4p = 0.359

Table 24.

Gender in CZ versus motivation factor: results of Pearson’s chi-square test.

Source: own data processing.

Figure 6.

Graph of interactions relating to the motivation factor atmosphere in the workplace in CZ (Source: own data processing).

4.4. Motivation factor: supervisor’s approach

Table 25 shows that the motivation factor supervisor’s approach is considered very important by 55.87% of Slovak employees; they give a rating at level 5. 30.81% of Slovak employees consider the motivation factor important, level 4 of the rating scale. The opinion of Czech employees is almost the same, 54.67% of them consider the motivation factor supervisor’s approach very important and they give a rating at level 5. 33.65% of Czech employees think it is important, level 4 of the rating scale.

CountryMotivation factor supervisor’s approach
1.2.3.4.5.Together
SVK32137423136924834444
%0.723.089.5230.8155.87
CZ20382127781,2642,312
%0.871.649.1733.6554.67
Together52175635214737476756
%0.772.599.4031.7855.46100.00

Table 25.

Contingency table relating to the motivation factor supervisor’s approach in SVK a CZ.

Source: own data processing.

A statistically significant relationship was observed between the motivation factor supervisor’s approach and nationality. Forasmuch p-value (p = 0.044) is less than the level of significance α = 5%, null hypothesis H0 is rejected and the H1is accepted. There is statistically significant relationship between these categorical variables. Evaluation of motivation factor supervisor’s approach is affected by nationality (Table 26).

Motivation factorχ2svp
Supervisor’s approach9.80df = 4p = 0.044

Table 26.

Nationality versus motivation factor—results of Pearson’s chi-square test in SVK and CZ.

Source: own data processing.

The motivation factor supervisor’s approach is considered even slightly important by Slovak employees. The Slovaks have more difficulties with finding a job on the labour market than the Czechs; therefore, the mentioned motivation factor is not appreciated by them. They would prefer incompetence or bad management rather than be sacked from the job. In contrast to the Slovak employees, employees in the Czech Republic consider the motivation factor supervisor’s approach important. In case of bad management, they prefer to change their job.

Contingency table (Table 28) shows that Slovak employees evaluate the motivation factor at level 2; it means it is slightly important for them. On the other hand, employees in the Czech Republic consider it important; they evaluate it at level 4 of the rating scale.

Gender in SVKMotivation factor supervisor’s approach
12345Together
Males187024372811482207
%0.823.1711.0132.9952.02100.00
Females146718064113352237
%0.633.008.0528.6559.68100.00
Together32137423136924834444

Table 27.

Contingency table relating to the motivation factor supervisor’s approach in SVK.

Source: own data processing.

CountryMotivation factor supervisor’s approach
12345Together
SVK−1133−26110
CZ1−13−326−110
Together000000

Table 28.

Standardised residuals relating to the motivation factors supervisor’s approach in SVK a CZ.

Source: own data processing.

Statistically significant relationship was studied also between the motivation factor supervisor’s approach and gender in Slovakia and the Czech Republic. As Table 27 shows, 52.02% of males in Slovakia evaluated the motivation factor supervisor’s approach at level 5 and 32.99% of males gave a rating at level 4. 59.68% of females considered mentioned motivation factor very important, level 5 of the rating scale and 28.65% of females in Slovakia evaluated it at level 4 (Figure 7).

Figure 7.

Graph of interactions relating to the motivation factor supervisor’s approach in SVK (Source: own data processing).

There is a statistically significant relationship between the motivation factor supervisor’s approach and gender in Slovakia because p-value (p = 0.000) is less than the level of significance α = 5% (Table 29). Following the outcome, the null hypothesis H0 is rejected in favour of the relative hypothesis H1.

Motivation factorχ2svp
Supervisor’s approach29.41df = 4p = 0.000

Table 29.

Gender in SVK versus motivation factor: results of Pearson’s chi-square test.

Source: own data processing.

Supervisor’s approach plays an essential role in the enterprise. Supervisors must be able to harmonise the demands of management, the demands of the collective work force, and the demands of workers with the requirements for doing the tasks at hand. Happy and contented employees fulfilling their desires and needs at work can work harder and it results in increasing job performance in comparison to employees dealing with stress and pressure in the workplace. Following Table 30, we observe that females are affected by these factors more than males. Therefore, females gave a rating at level 5. Males evaluate the motivation factor supervisor’s approach at level 3 or 4, it means it is medium important or important for them.

Gender in SVKMotivation factors supervisor’s approach
1.2.3.4.5.Together
Males223348−850
Females−2−2−33−48850
Together000000

Table 30.

Standardised residuals relating to the motivation factors supervisor’s approach in SVK.

Source: own data processing.

Following the questionnaire responses, we state that 48.39% of males in the Czech Republic consider the motivation factor supervisor’s approach very important and 37.73% of them important. 61.24% of females in the Czech Republic consider the motivation factor very important and 29.38% of females evaluate it at level 4 of the rating scale (Table 31, Figure 8).

Gender in CZMotivation factor supervisor’s approach
12345Together
Males10301244465721180
%0.852.5410.4937.7348.39100.00
Females108883326921132
%0.880.717.7929.3861.24100.00
Together203821277812642312

Table 31.

Contingency table relating to the motivation factor: supervisor’s approach in CZ.

Source: own data processing.

Figure 8.

Graph of interactions relating to the motivation factor supervisor’s approach in CZ (Source: own data processing).

Gender in Slovakia as well as in the Czech Republic affects the motivation factor supervisor’s approach (17). Forasmuch p-value (p = 0.000) is less than the significance level α = 5%, null hypothesis H0 is rejected in favour of the relative hypothesis H1 (Table 32).

Motivation factorχ2svp
Supervisor’s approach22.34df = 4p = 0.000

Table 32.

Gender in CZ versus motivation factor: results of Pearson’s chi-square test.

Source: own -data processing.

Females in the Czech Republic insist on the supervisor’s approach. They expect professional behaviour of supervisors, efforts to meet their needs and to create positive work environment. Forasmuch as these factors are considered very important by females in the Czech Republic, they give a rating at level 5. Males do not consider mentioned motivation factor so important, they give a rating at level 3 as shown in Table 33.

Gender in CZMotivation factors supervisor’s approach
12345Together
Males05724−370
Females0−5−7−24370
Together000000

Table 33.

Standardised residuals relating to the motivation factors supervisor’s approach in CZ.

Source: own data processing.

4.5. Motivation factor: job security

Following the questionnaire responses, we found out that the motivation factor job security is evaluated by 56.66% of Slovak employees and 57.01% of Czech employees at level 5 of the rating scale—very important.

Following the p-value, statistically significant relationship between the motivation factor job security and nationality can be stated. Forasmuch as p = 0.679, it means it is greater than the level of significance α = 5%, null hypothesis is accepted H0. There is no significant relationship between the motivation factor job security and the country (Table 34).

Motivation factorχ2svp
Job security2.31df = 4p = 0.679

Table 34.

Contingency table relating to the motivation factor: job security in SVK and CZ.

Source: own data processing.

Statistically significant relationship was observed also between the motivation factor job security and gender in Slovakia and the Czech Republic. Table 35 shows that 55.64% of males and 57.67% of females in Slovakia consider the motivation factor job security very important, they give a rating at level 5.

Gender in SVKMotivation factor job security
12345Together
Males215328661912282207
%0.952.4012.9628.0555.64
Females216721564412902237
%0.943.009.6128.7957.67
Together42120501126325184444

Table 35.

Nationality versus motivation factor: results of Pearson’s chi-square test.

Source: own data processing.

Table 36 shows that the motivation factor supervisor’s approach is considered very important by 56.66% of Slovak employees, they give a rating at level 5. 28.42% of Slovak employees consider the motivation factor important, level 4 of the rating scale. The opinion of Czech employees is almost the same, 57.01% of them consider the motivation factor supervisor’s approach very important and they give a rating at level 5. 28.46% of Czech employees think it is important, level 4 of the rating scale (Figure 9).

GenderMotivation factor job security
12345Together
SVK42120501126325184444
%0.952.7011.2728.4256.66
CZ184627265813182312
%0.781.9911.7628.4657.01
Together60166773192138365600
%0.892.4611.4428.4356.78100.00

Table 36.

Contingency table relating to the motivation factor: job security.

Source: own data processing.

Figure 9.

Graph of interactions relating to the motivation factors job security in SVK (Source: own data processing).

Statistically significant relationship can be seen also between the motivation factor job security and gender in Slovakia. Null hypothesis H0 relating this motivation factor is rejected (p = 0.009) in favour of the relative hypothesis H1. Gender in Slovakia affects the motivation factor job security (Table 37).

Motivation factorχ2svp
Job security13.55df = 4p = 0.009

Table 37.

Gender in SVK versus motivation factor: results of Pearson’s chi-square test.

Source: own data processing.

Job security is a factor contributing to job satisfaction. Dealing with the lack of job security can be stressful and employees are willing to accept it only for a short term or when they can enjoy other advantages such as benefits. It is common that many managers are not aware of the aspect that in order to meet security needs, they have to provide employee engagement strategies and enable people to be the best they can at work. Especially working mothers, who are the main need to have more reliable and secure job. Following the table of standardised residuals (Table 38), we state that the motivation factor is evaluated at level 3—medium important. On the other hand, women evaluate this motivation factor at level 5 of the rating scale—very important.

Gender in SVKMotivation factors job security
12345Together
Males0−737−8−230
Females07−378230
Together000000

Table 38.

Standardised residuals relating to the motivation factors job security in SVK.

(Source: own data processing)

The motivation factor job security is evaluated by 57.19% of males and 56.81% of females in the Czech Republic at level 5 of the rating scale; it means they consider it very important (Table 39, Figure 10).

Gender in CZMotivation factor job security
1.2.3.45Together
Males12221483246761182
%1.021.8612.5227.4157.19
Females6241243346421130
%0.532.1210.9729.5656.81
Together18462726581,3182,312

Table 39.

Contingency table relating to the motivation factor: job security in CZ.

Source: own data processing.

Figure 10.

Graph of interactions relating to the motivation factor job security in CZ (Source: own data processing).

There is no statistically significant relationship between the motivation factor job security and gender in the Czech Republic. Following the result of p-value (p = 0.773), null hypothesis H0 is accepted (Table 40).

Motivation factorχ2svp
Job security1.80df = 4p = 0.773

Table 40.

Gender in CZ versus motivation factor: results of Pearson’s chi-square test.

Source: own data processing.

5. Discussion and conclusion

There are different ways to keep employees motivated. Feeling valued creates a deeper level of trust and security at work, which frees employees to spend less energy seeking and defending the value, and more energy creating it. Factors of employee motivation have to be understood as a complex mutually influenced aspect. Some of them are appreciated by staff more than others. Their importance is not permanent but it changes in dependence of meeting the needs. In general, making big money is often less important to employees than satisfying these needs—to feel proud, to be treated fairly, to respect the boss, to be heard out, to have personal life, to have less stress or to beat competition. Corporate culture, atmosphere in the workplace or remuneration and benefits provided by companies are usually more important for employees than monetary incentives [24, 25]. If we want skilled people to work for the enterprise, they have to offer them much more; they have to be motivated in a positive way.

The research of [26] is focused on employee motivation in Slovakia as well. The outcome that motivation factors such as atmosphere in the workplace, supervisor’s approach, good work team, basic salary, fringe benefits and job security are considered the most important by employees in the eastern and western part of Slovakia is the outcome of their research and at the same time the outcomes of our research are confirmed.

Herzberg [27] carried out the research focused on employee motivation in the UK. He discovered following order of motivation factors: job security, career advancement, company prestige and management quality, wage as an essential factor, type of work, direct supervisor and his/her relationship to people, communication and the information flow in the enterprise, working conditions, benefits like a holiday. The outcomes of the research of Herzberg and the outcomes of our research vary a bit. Similar research was conducted in the USA [28]. They study the order of 10 motivation factors using the sampling unit consisting of 1000 respondents. Females and males in the USA consider the following 10 motivation factors as the most important: employee recognition, interesting job, employee engagement, good salary, job security, career advancement, company development, good working conditions, loyalty, tactful approach, discipline, understanding of personal troubles and help.

Following the outcomes of our research, we state that motivation factors in Slovakia and the Czech Republic are almost the same; the only difference is in their order of importance. Higher demands on motivation factors relating to financial rewards can be seen in the Czech Republic (demands of males are higher than those of females). However, basic salary is more important for females in Slovakia. In the area of motivation factors relating to interpersonal relationships (good work team, atmosphere in the workplace, supervisor’s approach), demands of employees in the Czech Republic are higher than in Slovakia [24]. In terms of gender, demands in mentioned motivation factors are higher of women. In general, women evaluate motivation factor at higher level of the rating scale than men on average. We suppose that they prefer emotional side of job, in comparison to men.

Following the outcomes of the research into the level of employee motivation in Slovak and the Czech Republic, we can state that motivation factors good work team, atmosphere in the workplace and supervisor’s approach are significantly different. More exacting needs are those of employees in the Czech Republic. Different level of economic growth can be one of the reasons. Moreover, we found out that motivation factors relating to financial rewards are most important for employees in Slovakia as well in the Czech Republic. At the same time, we must state that preferences for the motivation factors can change throughout time. Each employee perceives the level of motivation in a different way because people have many needs that are continuously competing one with another. Each person has a different mixture and strength of needs, as some people are driven by achievement while others are focusing on security. If the managers are able to understand, predict and control employee behaviour, they should also know what the employees want from their jobs. Therefore, it is essential for a manager to understand what really motivates employees without making just an assumption [29, 30].

The outcomes of our research can help managers of enterprises in Slovakia as well as in the Czech Republic to differentiate motivational programmes in terms of gender. In this way, the effect of the motivational programme can be increased [31]. Moreover, employee satisfaction at work, effective meeting the company goals and company competitiveness on the market can be affected in positive way as well.

Acknowledgments

This research was supported by VEGA 1/0024/17 - Computational Model of Motivation.

© 2017 The Author(s). Licensee IntechOpen. This chapter is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Miloš Hitka and Žaneta Balážová (June 7th 2017). Differences in Employee Motivation in Slovakia and Czech Republic, Issues of Human Resource Management, Ladislav Mura, IntechOpen, DOI: 10.5772/67609. Available from:

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