Open access peer-reviewed chapter

Folding on the Chaotic Graph Operations and Their Fundamental Group

By Mohammed Abu Saleem

Submitted: July 24th 2018Reviewed: July 11th 2019Published: October 25th 2019

DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.88553

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Our aim in the present chapter is to introduce a new type of operations on the chaotic graph, namely, chaotic connected edge graphs under the identification topology. The concept of chaotic foldings on the chaotic edge graph will be discussed from the viewpoint of algebra and geometry. The relation between the chaotic homeomorphisms and chaotic foldings on the chaotic connected edge graphs and their fundamental group is deduced. The fundamental group of the limit chaotic chain of foldings on chaotic. Many types of chaotic foldings are achieved. Theorems governing these relations are achieved. We also discuss some applications in chemistry and biology.


  • chaotic graph
  • edge graph
  • chaotic folding
  • limit folding fundamental group
  • 2010 Mathematics Subject Classification: 51H20
  • 57N10
  • 57M05
  • 14F35
  • 20F34

1. Introduction and definitions

During the past few decades, examinations of social, biological, and communication networks have taken on enhanced attention throughout these examinations; graphical representations of those networks and systems have been evident to be terribly helpful. Such representations are accustomed to confirm or demonstrate the interconnections or relationships between parts of those networks [1, 2].

A graph is an ordered G = (V(G), E(G)) where V(G) ≠ φ, E(G) is a set disjoint from V(G), elements of V(G) are called the vertices of G, and elements of E(G) are called the edges. The foundation stone of graph theory was laid by Euler in 1736 by solving a puzzle called Königsberg seven-bridge problem as in Figure 1 [1, 3].

Figure 1.

Königsberg seven-bridge problem.

There are many graphs with which one can construct a new graph from a given graph or set of graphs, such as the Cartesian product and the line graph. A graph G is a finite non-empty set V of objects called vertices (the singular is vertex) together with a set E of two-element subsets of V called edges. The number of vertices in a graph G is the order of G, and the number of edges is the size of G. To indicate that a graph G has vertex set V and edge set E, we sometimes write G = (V, E). To emphasize that V is the vertex set of a graph G, we often write V as V(G). For the same reason, we also write E as E(G). A graph H is said to be a subgraph of a graph G if V(H) ⊆ V(G) and E(H) ⊆ E(G). The complete graph with n-vertices will be denoted by Kn.A null graph is a graph containing no edges; the null graph with n-vertices is denoted by Nn.A cycle graph is a graph consisting of a single cycle, the cycle graph with n-vertices is denoted by Cn.The path graph is a graph consisting of a single path; the path graph with n-vertices is denoted by Pn [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11]. Let G and H be two graphs. A function φ:VGVHis a homomorphism from G to H if it preserves edges, that is, if for every edge eEG,feEH[12, 13]. A core is a graph which does not retract to a proper subgraph. Any graph is homomorphically equivalent to a unique core [7].

The folding is a continuous function f:GHsuch that for each vVG,fvVH,and for each eEG,feEH[14]. Let X be a space, and let I be the unit interval [0,1] in R, a homotopy of paths in X is a family gt:IX,0t1such that (i) the endpoints gt0=x0and gt1=x1are independent of t and (ii) the associated map G:I×IXdefined by G(s,t) = gt(s) is continuous [15]. Given spaces X and Y with chosen points x0X,and y0Y,the wedge sum X∨Y is the quotient of the disjoint union X∪Y obtained identifying x0 and y0 to a single point [15]. Two spaces X and Y are of the “same homotopy type” if there exist continuous maps f:XYand g:YXsuch that gfIX:XXand fgIY:YY[16]. The fundamental group briefly consists of equivalence classes of homotopic closed paths with the law of composition following one path to another. However, the set of homotopy classes of loops based at the point x0with the product operation fg=f·gis called the fundamental group and denoted by π1Xx0[4, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24]. Over many years, chaos has been shown to be an interesting and even common phenomenon in nature. Chaos has been shown to exist in a wide variety of settings: in fluid dynamics such as Raleigh-Bernard convection, in chemistry such as the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction, in nonlinear optics in certain lasers, in celestial mechanics, in electronics in the flutter of an overdriven airplane wing, some models of population dynamics, and likely in meteorology, physiological oscillations such as certain heart rhythms, as well as brain patterns [17, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30]. AI algorithms related to adjacency matrices on the operations of the graph are discussed in [31, 32].

2. The main results

First, we will introduce the following:

Definition 1. The chaotic edgee¯is a geometric edgee1that carries many other edgese2e3, each one of them homotopic to the original one as in Figure 2. Also the chaotic vertices ofe¯arev¯=v1v2andu¯=u1u2. For chaotic edgee¯, we have two cases:

Figure 2.

Chaotic edge.

Case 1 (1) e1,e2,e3,are of the same physical properties.

Case 2 (2) e1,e2,e3,represent different physical properties; for example,e1represents density,e2represents hardness,e3represents magnetic fields, and so on.

Definition 2. A chaotic graphG¯is a collection of finite non-empty setV¯of objects called chaotic vertices together with a setE¯of two-element subsets ofV¯called chaotic edges. The number of chaotic edges is the size ofG¯.

Definition 3. Given chaotic connected graphsG¯1andG¯2with given edgese¯1G¯1ande¯2G¯2, then the chaotic connected edge graphG¯1G¯2is the quotient of disjoint unionG¯1G¯2acquired by identifying two chaotic edgese¯1ande¯2to a single chaotic edge (up to chaotic isomorphism) as in Figure 3.

Figure 3.

Chaotic connected edge.

Definition 4. A chaotic graphH¯is called a chaotic subgraph of a chaotic graphG¯ifV¯H¯V¯G¯andE¯H¯E¯G¯.

Definition 5. LetG¯andH¯be two chaotic graphs. A functionφ¯:V¯G¯V¯H¯is chaotic homomorphism fromG¯toH¯if it preserves chaotic edges, that is, if for any chaotic edgeu¯v¯ofG¯,φ¯u¯φ¯v¯is a chaotic edge ofH¯.

Definition 6. A chaotic folding of a graphG¯is a chaotic subgraphH¯ofG¯such that there exists a chaotic homomorphismf¯:G¯H¯,called chaotic folding withf¯x¯=x¯for every chaotic vertexx¯ofH¯.

Definition 7. A chaotic core is a chaotic graph which does not chaotic retract to chaotic proper subgraph.

Theorem 1. LetG¯1andG¯2be two chaotic connected graphs. Thenπ¯1G¯1G¯2=π¯1G¯1π¯1G¯2.

Proof. Let G¯1and G¯2be two chaotic connected graphs. Since G¯1G¯2and G¯1G¯2are of same chaotic homotopy type, it follows that π¯1G¯1G¯2π¯1G¯1π¯1G¯2.Hence, π¯1G¯1G¯2=π¯1G¯1π¯1G¯2.

Theorem 2. The chaotic graphsG¯1andG¯2are chaotic subgraphs ofG¯1G¯2. Also, for any chaotic treeG¯1andG¯2,G¯1G¯2is also chaotic tree andπ¯1G¯1G¯2=0¯.

Proof. The proof of this theorem is clear.

Theorem 3. IfG¯1,G¯2,,G¯nare connected graphs, andf¯1f¯2f¯nis a sequence of chaotic topological foldings ofi=1nG¯iinto itself, then there is an induced sequencef¯¯1f¯¯2f¯¯nof non-trivial chaotic topological foldingf¯¯j:i=1nπ¯1G¯iii=1nπ¯1G¯ii,j=1,2,,nsuch thatf¯¯ji=1nπ¯1G¯iireduces the rank ofi=1nπ¯1G¯ii.

Proof. Consider the following sequence of topological foldings f¯1f¯2f¯n, where f¯1:i=1nG¯ii=1nG¯i,is a topological folding from i=1nG¯iinto itself such that f¯1i=1nG¯i=G¯1G¯2f¯1G¯sG¯nfors=1,2,n.

Since sizef¯1G¯ssizeG¯sand f¯¯1π¯1G¯i=π¯1f¯1G¯i, it follows that rankf¯¯1π¯1G¯s=rankπ¯1f¯1G¯srankπ¯1G¯s, and so f¯¯1reduces the rank of i=1nπ¯1G¯ii.Also, if f¯2i=1nG¯i=G¯1G¯2f¯2G¯sf¯2G¯kG¯nfork=1,2,nands<kand sizef¯2G¯ssizeG¯sand sizef¯2G¯ksizeG¯k, we haverankf¯¯2π¯1G¯s=rankπ¯1f¯2G¯srankπ¯1G¯s, rankf¯¯2π¯1G¯k=rankπ¯1f¯2G¯krankπ¯1G¯k; thus f¯¯2reduces the rank of i=1nπ¯1G¯ii.Moreover, by continuing with this procedure if f¯ni=1nG¯i=i=1nf¯nG¯i, then f¯¯ni=1nπ¯1G¯ii=π¯1f¯ni=1nG¯i=π¯1i=1nf¯nG¯ii=1nπ¯1f¯nG¯ii. Hence, f¯¯nreduces the rank of i=1nπ¯1G¯ii.

Theorem 4. LetG¯1andG¯2be two chaotic graphs; then there is a chaotic homomorphismf¯:G¯1G¯2which inducesf¯¯:π¯1G¯1π¯1G¯2ifπ¯1G¯2is a chaotic folding ofπ¯1G¯1G¯2.

Proof. Let f¯:G¯1G¯2be a chaotic homomorphism. Since G¯2is chaotic subgraph of G¯1G¯2, then there exists a chaotic homomorphism f¯:G¯1G¯2G¯2with f¯v¯=v¯for any chaotic vertex v¯of G¯2which induces f¯¯:π¯1G¯1π¯1G¯2.What follows from G¯2is a chaotic folding of G¯1G¯2in that π¯1G¯2is a chaotic folding of π¯1G¯1G¯2.Conversely, assume that G¯2is a chaotic folding of G¯1G¯2; thus f¯:G¯1G¯2G¯2is a chaotic homomorphism with f¯v¯=v¯for any chaotic vertex v¯of G¯2, and so there is a chaotic homomorphism f¯:G¯1G¯2which induce f¯¯:π¯1G¯1π¯1G¯2.

Theorem 5. For any chaotic path graphsP¯n,P¯m,n,m2,there is a sequence of topological foldings with variation curvaturef¯i:i=12konP¯nP¯mwhich induce a sequence of topological foldingsf¯¯i:i=12ksuch thatf¯¯kf¯¯k1f¯¯1π1P¯nP¯m=Z¯andlimkf¯¯kf¯¯k1f¯¯1π1P¯nP¯m=0¯.

Proof. Consider the following sequence of chaotic topological foldings with variation curvature, f¯1:P¯nP¯mP¯nP¯m1, where P¯nP¯m1is a chaotic subgraph with decreasing inner curvature between every two adjacent chaotic edges in P¯nP¯mand f¯2:f¯1P¯nP¯mf¯1P¯nP¯m1where f¯2f¯1P¯nP¯m1is a chaotic subgraph with decreasing inner curvature between every two adjacent chaotic edges in f¯1P¯nP¯m1, and so on, such that f¯kf¯k1f¯k2f¯1P¯nP¯m=C¯n+m2and limkf¯kf¯k1f¯k2f¯1P¯nP¯m=N¯1,thus f¯¯kf¯¯k1f¯¯k2f¯¯1π1P¯nP¯m=π¯11C¯n+m2=Z¯.Also, limkf¯¯kf¯¯k1f¯¯k2f¯¯1π¯1P¯nP¯m=π¯1N¯1=0¯.

Theorem 6. For every two chaotic connected graphsG¯1andG¯2, the fundamental group of the limit of chaotic topological folding ofG¯1G¯2=0¯.

Proof. Let G¯1and G¯2be two chaotic connected graphs; then we have two cases:

Case (1): If f¯1:G¯1G¯2G¯1G¯2is a chaotic topological folding such that f¯1G¯1G¯2consists of chaotic cycles, so we can define a sequence of chaotic topological folding f¯2:f¯1G¯1G¯2f¯1G¯1G¯2where f¯2f¯1G¯1G¯2is a chaotic tree with n¯chaotic edges, f¯3:f¯2f¯1G¯1G¯2f¯2f¯1G¯1G¯2, such that f¯3f¯2f¯1G¯1G¯2is a chaotic tree with k¯<n¯chaotic edges, chaotic edges by continuing this process we get f¯k:f¯k1f¯k2f¯1G¯1G¯2f¯k1f¯k2f¯1G¯1G¯2such that limkf¯kf¯k1f¯k2f¯1G¯1G¯2is a chaotic edge, and so π¯1limkf¯kf¯k1f¯k2f¯1G¯1G¯2=0¯.

Case (2): If g¯1:G¯1G¯2G¯1G¯2is a chaotic topological folding such that.

g¯1G¯1G¯2has no chaotic cycles, then clearly limkg¯kg¯k1g¯k2g¯1G¯1G¯2is a chaotic edge and π¯1limkg¯kg¯k1g¯k2g¯1G¯1G¯2=0¯.

Theorem 7. IfG¯1andG¯2are chaotic connected and not chaotic cores graphs, thenπ¯1limnf¯nG¯1G¯2=π¯1limnf¯nG¯1π¯1limnf¯nG¯2.

Proof. If G¯1and G¯2are chaotic connected and not chaotic cores graphs, then we get the following chaotic induced graphs limnf¯nG¯1G¯2,limnf¯nG¯1,limnf¯nG¯2, and each of them are isomorphic to k¯2. Since k¯2k¯2k¯2it follows that limnf¯nG¯1G¯2=limnf¯nG¯1limnf¯nG¯2and π¯1limnf¯nG¯1G¯2= π¯1limnf¯nG¯1π¯1limnf¯nG¯2.

3. Some applications

  1. A polymer is composed of many repeating units called monomers. Starch, cellulose, and proteins are natural polymers. Nylon and polyethylene are synthetic polymers. Polymerization is the process of joining monomers. Polymers may be formed by addition polymerization; furthermore, one essential advance likewise polymerization is mix as in Figure 4, which happens when the polymer’s development is halted by free electrons from two developing chains that join and frame a solitary chain. The accompanying chart portrays mix, with the image (R) speaking to whatever remains of the chain.

  2. Chemical nature of enzymes, all known catalysts are proteins. They are high atomic weight mixes made up primarily of chains of amino acids connected together by peptide bonds as in Figure 5.

  3. There are two types of the subunit structure of ribosomes as in Figure 6 which is represented by the different connected types of protein subunit and rRNA to form a new type of ribosomes.

Figure 4.


Figure 5.

Typical amino acids.

Figure 6.

Prokaryotic ribosome components.

4. Conclusion

In this chapter, the fundamental group of the limit chaotic foldings on chaotic connected edge graphs is deduced. Also, we can deduce some algorithms from a new operation of a graph by using the adjacency matrices.

© 2019 The Author(s). Licensee IntechOpen. This chapter is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Mohammed Abu Saleem (October 25th 2019). Folding on the Chaotic Graph Operations and Their Fundamental Group, Functional Calculus, Kamal Shah and Baver Okutmuştur, IntechOpen, DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.88553. Available from:

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